8.1 High Confidence Articles

The model is fairly confident about where some of the articles belong. Other articles it is more confused by. Let’s start by looking at those extremes. First, here are the articles where the model is most sure of a classification. That is, they are the articles where the probability of being in one particular category is highest.

Table 8.1: Articles the Model is Most Certain About
Article Subject
Anthony Brueckner (2005) “Contextualism, Hawthorne’s Invariantism And Third-Person Cases” The Philosophical Quarterly 55:315-318. Knowledge
Paul Teller (1977) “On The Problem Of Hidden Variables For Quantum Mechanical Observables With Continuous Spectra” Philosophy of Science 44:475-477. Quantum Physics
Kok‐Chor Tan (1998) "Liberal Toleration In Rawls’s Law Of Peoples*" Ethics 108:276-295. Liberal Democracy
George Stolakis (1986) “Against Conventionalism In Physics: Absolute Synchronisation In A Single Frame Of Reference” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37:229-232. Space and Time
Christopher Hughes (1997) “An Incredible Coincidence?” Mind 106:769-772. Origins and Purposes
Hillel Steiner (1981) “Nozick On Hart On The Right To Enforce” Analysis 41:50-50. Duties
Grant Allen (1879) “Mr. G. S. Hall On The Perception Of Colour” Mind 4:267-268. Color
Arthur I. Fine (1964) “Note On Goodstein’s ‘The Significance Of Incompleteness Theorems’” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 15:140-141. Mathematics
Robert Rynasiewicz† (2003) “Field Unification In The Maxwell‐Lorentz Theory With Absolute Space” Philosophy of Science 70:1063-1072. Space and Time
Lucius Garvin (1948) “The Problem Of Ugliness In Art” Philosophical Review 57:404-409. Beauty

There is a reasonable spread of topics here; 9 of the 90 are represented in just these ten articles. But note that these tend to be very short articles. This might be why the model is so confident in them. What if we filter out all articles 10 pages or shorter?

Table 8.2: Articles the Model is Most Certain About (Minimum length 10 pages)
Article Subject
Kok‐Chor Tan (1998) "Liberal Toleration In Rawls’s Law Of Peoples*" Ethics 108:276-295. Liberal Democracy
Robert Rynasiewicz† (2003) “Field Unification In The Maxwell‐Lorentz Theory With Absolute Space” Philosophy of Science 70:1063-1072. Space and Time
Josef Joffe (1985) “Nuclear Weapons, No First Use, And European Order” Ethics 95:606-618. War
Steven Galt Crowell (1990) “Husserl, Heidegger, And Transcendental Philosophy: Another Look At The Encyclopaedia Britannica Article” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:501-518. Heidegger and Husserl
Brian Skyrms (2002) "Signals, Evolution And The Explanatory Power Of Transient Information*" Philosophy of Science 69:407-428. Game Theory
Terry Horgan (2007) “Synchronic Bayesian Updating And The Generalized Sleeping Beauty Problem” Analysis 67:50-59. Formal Epistemology
Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson (1994) “A Critical Review Of Philosophical Work On The Units Of Selection Problem” Philosophy of Science 61:534-555. Evolutionary Biology
Lyle V. Anderson (1985) “Moral Dilemmas, Deliberation, And Choice” Journal of Philosophy 82:139-162. Moral Conscience
Eugene Earnshaw-Whyte*,† (2012) “Increasingly Radical Claims About Heredity And Fitness” Philosophy of Science 79:396-412. Evolutionary Biology
Arthur Pap (1943) “On The Meaning Of Universality” Journal of Philosophy 40:505-514. Universals and Particulars

It isn’t surprising that evolutionary biology starts to turn up a little here. It’s a very specialised topic. (I’ll come back to this question of specialisation, and what it means to be a specialised topic, in section 8.10.)

We mostly get new articles if we extend the minimum length to 20 pages.

Table 8.3: Articles the Model is Most Certain About (Minimum length 20 pages)
Article Subject
Kok‐Chor Tan (1998) "Liberal Toleration In Rawls’s Law Of Peoples*" Ethics 108:276-295. Liberal Democracy
Brian Skyrms (2002) "Signals, Evolution And The Explanatory Power Of Transient Information*" Philosophy of Science 69:407-428. Game Theory
Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson (1994) “A Critical Review Of Philosophical Work On The Units Of Selection Problem” Philosophy of Science 61:534-555. Evolutionary Biology
Lyle V. Anderson (1985) “Moral Dilemmas, Deliberation, And Choice” Journal of Philosophy 82:139-162. Moral Conscience
Robert Van Der Veen (2002) "Equality Of Talent Resources: Procedures Or Outcomes?*" Ethics 113:55-81. Egalitarianism
George H. Quester (1985) “Substituting Conventional For Nuclear Weapons: Some Problems And Some Possibilities” Ethics 95:619-640. War
James Sully (1890) “Mental Elaboration” Mind 15:469-488. Psychology
Samir Okasha (2001) “Why Won’t The Group Selection Controversy Go Away?” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52:25-50. Evolutionary Biology
Robert J. Art (1985) “Between Assured Destruction And Nuclear Victory: The Case For The”Mad-Plus" Posture" Ethics 95:497-516. War
Richard H. Ullman (1985) “Denuclearizing International Politics” Ethics 95:567-588. War

And note that all of these are just over 20 pages. (Or exactly 20 in a few cases.) The model really loses confidence the longer a piece gets.

Table 8.4: Articles the Model is Most Certain About (Minimum length 30 pages)
Article Subject
Elizabeth Ashford (2003) "The Demandingness Of Scanlon’s Contractualism*" Ethics 113:273-302. Population Ethics
Matteo Mameli (2004) “Nongenetic Selection And Nongenetic Inheritance” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55:35-71. Evolutionary Biology
Lucas A. Swaine (2001) "How Ought Liberal Democracies To Treat Theocratic Communities?*" Ethics 111:302-343. Liberal Democracy
Simon Căbulea May (2009) “Religious Democracy And The Liberal Principle Of Legitimacy” Philosophy and Public Affairs 37:136-170. Liberal Democracy
Yitzhak Y. Melamed (2013) “Spinoza’s Metaphysics Of Thought: Parallelisms And The Multifaceted Structure Of Ideas” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86:636-683. Early Modern
Carlo Giannoni (1978) “Relativistic Mechanics And Electrodynamics Without One-Way Velocity Assumptions” Philosophy of Science 45:17-46. Space and Time
L. A. Paul (2006) “Coincidence As Overlap” Noûs 40:623-659. Composition and Constitution
Kristi A. Olson (2010) “The Endowment Tax Puzzle” Philosophy and Public Affairs 38:240-271. Egalitarianism
Michael Redhead and Harvey Brown (1991) “Nonlocality In Quantum Mechanics” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (Supplementary Volume) 65:119-159. Quantum Physics
Philippe Van Parijs (1991) “Why Surfers Should Be Fed: The Liberal Case For An Unconditional Basic Income” Philosophy and Public Affairs 20:101-131. Egalitarianism

Now we’re mostly looking at papers in political philosophy. But still it is mostly papers that just fall over the 30 page limit. So for the last one, let’s look at the articles it is most confident about that are 40 pages or longer.

Table 8.5: Articles the Model is Most Certain About (Minimum length 40 pages)
Article Subject
Lucas A. Swaine (2001) "How Ought Liberal Democracies To Treat Theocratic Communities?*" Ethics 111:302-343. Liberal Democracy
Yitzhak Y. Melamed (2013) “Spinoza’s Metaphysics Of Thought: Parallelisms And The Multifaceted Structure Of Ideas” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86:636-683. Early Modern
Michael Redhead and Harvey Brown (1991) “Nonlocality In Quantum Mechanics” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (Supplementary Volume) 65:119-159. Quantum Physics
Samuel Freeman (2000) “Deliberative Democracy: A Sympathetic Comment” Philosophy and Public Affairs 29:371-418. Liberal Democracy
Tad M. Schmaltz (1992) “Descartes And Malebranche On Mind And Mind-Body Union” Philosophical Review 101:281-325. Early Modern
Samuel Freeman (1992) “Original Meaning, Democratic Interpretation, And The Constitution” Philosophy and Public Affairs 21:3-42. Liberal Democracy
Rob Clifton and Hans Halvorson (2001) “Are Rindler Quanta Real? Inequivalent Particle Concepts In Quantum Field Theory” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52:417-470. Quantum Physics
Douglas P. Lackey (1982) “Missiles And Morals: A Utilitarian Look At Nuclear Deterrence” Philosophy and Public Affairs 11:189-231. War
Andrew F. March (2006) “Liberal Citizenship And The Search For An Overlapping Consensus: The Case Of Muslim Minorities” Philosophy and Public Affairs 34:373-421. Liberal Democracy
Derek Parfit (1982) “Future Generations: Further Problems” Philosophy and Public Affairs 11:113-172. Population Ethics

Again, normative an political philosophy cover the very top.

The articles here are also mostly fairly recent, but that doesn’t tell us much about the model. Rather, it is a sign that long articles are a relatively recent phenomenon.

Number of articles each decade that are at least 40 pages long

Figure 8.1: Number of articles each decade that are at least 40 pages long

I’ll come back to this point in section 8.7