y:Üen:v:es:üXiz: Aaôf ev:ej:üen:y:a OðøR em:eS:g:n:

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B:ag:t:ð-B:ag:t:ð eg:r p:_a H Compound verbs made with  p:_

        One of the more elusive kinds of compound verbs in Hindi-Urdu are those formed with vector  p:_ :
  1. s:hs:a D:en:y:a n:ð . . . J:p:Xkr hira kað Et:n:ð z:aðr s:ð D:Vka edy:a ek v:h D:m: s:ð eg:r p:_a.
        'All of a sudden Dhaniya lunged . . . and knocked into Hira with such force that he fell like a sack of potatoes.'

        (from Chapter Four of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

Perhaps because of their relative antiquity compound verbs in  p:_  display a disconcerting variety of functions and associations.  Developing an account of which function developed into which is not easy.  The attempt here will be limited to setting out those functions and arranging them into groups.

        One of the oldest uses of vector  p:_  is as a marker of the passive of verbs of perception:

  2. s:hs:a D:en:y:a ka kkýS: sv:r kan: m:ðø Aay:a.  hira ki g:rj: B:i s:Øn: p:_i.
        'All of a sudden Dhaniya's shrill voice reached (Hori's) ears.  Hira's shouting could also be heard.'

        (from Chapter Four of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 This use of vector  p:_  is now mostly limited to the very common set phrase  j:an: p:_  'seem' (from 'be known'?):

  3. haðri kað y:ð S:bd z:-rt: s:ð zy:ada kYaðr j:an: p:_ð.
        'To Hori these words seemed unnecessarily harsh.'

        (from Chapter Four of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

  In older and / or more rural forms of Hindi vector  p:_  figures as part of a phrasal passive:
  4.  s:b:--s:b: dðK:t:ð rh g:O.    eks:i kñ eky:ð kÙC n: b:n: p:_a.
        'Everyone looked on helplessly.  No-one could do anything.'

        (from Section Three of Chapter Two of  c:ndÓkant:a  by  dðv:kin:nd K:t*:i .)
        ( See notes for more on the  b:n:aO n: b:n:-construction. )
        More typically vector  p:_  is used with the following four groups of intransitive verbs: A. verbs of motion, B. verbs of appearance, C. verbs of expression of emotion, and D. verbs of struggle and attack.

        A. Verbs of motion include  c:l:  'walk',  l:aòX  'return',  kÝd  'jump',  G:Øs:  'enter',  ut:r  'get down',  b:rs:  'rain (down)',  PÝX  'break out; divulge',  ZØl:k  'roll; slip; drop',  en:kl:  'exit', and (perhaps most commonly)  eg:r  'fall' [example (1)]:
  5. y:h g:D:i us:kñ s:aT: c:l: p:_i.
        'This little fool went with him.'

        (from Chapter Ten of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

  6. kar ,k g:y:i.  m:al:t:i ut:r p:_i Aaòr eb:n:a haT: em:l:ay:ð c:l:i g:I.
        'The car stopped.  Malati got out and walked away without a by-your-leave.'

        (from Chapter Fifteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 Notice that in these uses with verbs of motion there is very often a downward direction:

  7. Es: ev:j:y: ka us:ð Et:n:a Aan:nd hØAa ek b:ap: ki g:aðd m:ðø rh n: s:ki.  z:m:in: p:r kÝd p:_i ...
        'She was so happy with this victory that she couldn't remain in her father's lap.  She jumped to the ground ...'

        (from Chapter Three of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 but the downwards component is not always present:

  8.   #Ýres:ùh m:arð Q:ØS:i kñ uCl: p:_a.
        'Krursingh leapt with joy.'

        (from Section Sixteen of Chapter One of  c:ndÓkant:a  by  dðv:kin:nd K:t*:i.)

  9.  m:ðht:a l:aòX p:_ð Aaòr m:al:t:i kað Ok haT: s:ð p:k_ el:y:a.
        'Mehta turned back and with one hand caught hold of Malati (before she was carried away by the current).'

        (from Chapter Seven  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 In (9) the use of  p:_  rather than  j:a  as vector allows the action of turning to be understood as towards Malati rather than as a movement away from her.

(NB: As vector  p:_  never occurs with main verb  p:_ .)

B. Verbs of appearance may occur with vector  p:_ :
 10.  g:aðb:r kñ m:ØK: p:r AaSaa ki rðK:a J:l:k p:_i.
        'A line of hope showed on Gobar's face.'

        (from Chapter Twenty-seven of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

Verbs of more salient appearance seem to prefer vector  uY- :
 11.  K:nn:a kñ c:ðhrð p:r edl: ki Q:ØSai c:m:k uYi.
        'Heartfelt joy shone on Khanna's face.'

        (from Chapter Fifteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

  C. Verbs of emotional expression occurring with vector  p:_  include  rað  'weep',  hús:  'laugh',  m:Øskra  'smile',  c:aòøk  'start' (= 'be startled)', etc.  With  p:_  as vector there is an implication of sudden onset:

 12.  v:h eg:r p:_i Aaòr uYkr raðn:ð l:g:i.  s:aðn:a B:i daút:aðø kñ en:Saan: dðK:kr rað p:_i.
        'She fell down and began to wail.  Sona, too, seeing the marks of teeth, burst into tears.'

        (from Chapter Twenty-one of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 13.  s:hs:a eks:i ki AahX p:akr v:h c:aòøk p:_i.
        'Sensing someone's approach she suddenly started.'

        (from Chapter Thirty-four of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 Here, too, there is competition with vector  uY  used for more violent reactions and outbursts.  (See remarks in R.S. McGregor's Hindi-English Dictionary, p. 331, under  c:aòøkn:a .)

  D. verbs of struggle and attack commonly occurring with vector  p:_  include  l:_  'fight',  XÜX  'attack; light into',  ul:J:  'tangle with':
 14.  Aaj: s:b:ðrð-s:b:ðrð dada s:ð Vy:aðø ul:J: p:_ð ?
        'Why did you have to tangle with Dada first thing in the morning?'

        (from Chapter Twenty-one of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 15.  t:Øm: t:að B:ÜK:ð es:y:ar ki t:rh XÜX p:_ð.
        'You fell upon (her) like a hungry jackal.'

        (from Chapter Twenty-nine of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

Like  j:an:  in the sense of 'seem'  XÝX  in the sense of 'attack, fall upon' is rarely if ever seen without its vector  p:_ .
        Competition.  Depending on which set of main verbs is in play other vectors compete with  p:_.  With verbs of motion the main competitor is  j:a :

 16. " t:Øm: B:i b:_ð m:Ørhð hað,  m:ØJ:s:ð kha B:i n:hiø ek l:aòX j:aAað. "
      y:h khkr v:h l:aòX p:_i.

        ' "You are also a sneaky guy.  You didn't even tell me to go back."
        ' Saying this she turned back.'

        (from Chapter Five of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 In (17a) the  Av:s:r  'time, occasion' referred to is neutral, while in (17b)  Av:s:r  is understood to refer to bad times or to misfortune:

 17a. kB:i-kB:i Eet:has: m:ðø Oðs:ð Av:s:r Aa j:at:ð hòø,  j:b: D:n: kað Aaødaðl:n: kñ s:am:n:ð n:ic:ð dðK:n:a p:_t:a hò ...
        ' Occasionally there are times in history when money has to give way to (the power of) a social movement...'

        (from Chapter Thirteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 17b. t:Øm: m:ØJ:s:ð )ðm: krt:ð hað  ...  Aaòr m:ØJ:ð B:raðs:a hò ek Aaj: Av:s:r Aa p:_ð t:að t:Øm: m:ðri rx:a )aN:aðø s:ð kraðg:ð.
        'You love me ... and I'm confident that today if (bad) times were to befall me you would defend and protect me to the last.'

        (from Chapter Thirty-three of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

  While use of vector  p:_  is dissonant with main verb  Aa  to express the coming of good things, the use of vector  j:a  with  Aa  to express the coming of bad things is by no means excluded:

 17c. J:g:_a Et:n:a b:`a ek Al:g:aòJ:ð ki n:aòb:t: Aa g:y:i.
        'The fight got so bad that in the end separation (of the joint family) could not be avoided.'

        (from Chapter Twenty-five of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

       With verbs of expression of emotion vector  p:_'s main competitor is  uY :

 18a. us:ka s:Ün:a K:Xaðl:a dðK:kr v:h rað uYt:i.
        'Seeing his empty crib she would burst into tears.'

        (from Chapter Twenty-four of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 18b. m:at:adin:  ...  b:aðl:a, " kb: t:k raðy:ð j:aOg:i,  es:el:y:a !  raðn:ð s:ð v:h ePr t:að n: Aa j:ay:g:a.  y:h kht:ð-kht:ð v:h Q:Ød rað p:_a.
        'Matadin ... said, "How long will you go on crying, Siliya! Crying won't bring him back (to life). While saying this he began crying himself.'

        (from Chapter Thirty-four of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 For a subset of verbs of expression of emotion  p:_  competes with    :

 19a. Ab: us:ki g:ael:y:aðø p:r l:aðg: hús: dðt:ð T:ð ...
        'Now people just laughed at her curses ...'

        (from Chapter Twenty-three of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 19b. m:at:adin: kað dðK:kr v:h hús: p:_a.
        'He laughed when he saw Matadin.'

        (from Chapter Thirty-four of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 Is the laughter louder in (19a) or in (19b)?

       Occasionally what appears to be competition among vectors actually serves to distinguish competing meanings of the main verb.  For instance, the verb  B:Ül:  has two senses: the familiar one of 'forget (something)' and the less common one of 'err; become lost, lose ones way'.  Vector  j:a  occurs with  B:Ül:  in the first meaning; vector  p:_  with  B:Ül:  in the second:

 20. Aha !  AaEy:ð,  AaEy:ð.  Aaj: rast:a kós:ð B:Ül: g:y:iø ?
        'Aha!  Come in, come in!  How come you forgot where you were going today?"'

        (from Dialog  dað s:hðel:y:aðø ki b:at:ðø  by  kÙs:Øm: j:òn:.  See context.)

 21. D:en:y:a n:ð us:ð es:r s:ð p:aúv: t:k Aal:aðc:n:a ki AaúK:aðø s:ð dðK:kr kha,  " Aaj: ED:r kós:ð B:Ül: p:_iø ? "
        'Dhaniya gave her a critical look from head to foot and asked, "How did you lose your way (and wind up) over here today?"'

        (from Chapter Twenty-six of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

                *                                 *                                 *                                 *

       For further reflexion:  How do we get from easily explained instances of the use of vector  p:_- like that in (22) [where falling is a salient feature of the event] to uses like that in (23) where there is no element in the situation which can be thought of, even metaphorically, as falling?

 22. ...  v:ð m:al:t:i kñ c:rN:aðø ki t:rf J:Økñ Aaòr m:Øúh kñ b:l: fS:ü p:r eg:r p:_ð.
        'He leaned towards Malati's feet and fell on his face on the floor.'

        (from Chapter Six of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 23. ...  j:y:dðv:  ...  kaúp:t:i t:T:a x:m:aT:i ý Aav:az: m:ðø b:aðl: p:_a, " s:r,  m:ðri kaðI ^:l:t:i n:hiø T:i. "
        '... in a trembling, pleading voice ... Jayadev blurted out, "Sir, it wasn't my fault."'

        (from Narendra K. Sinha's story  ev:Rmb:n:a.  See context.)

        Bridges and branches.   (coming...)

        Effect of point of view?  


Other sections of  m:lhar  dealing with compound verbs:

        1.   General functions of compound verbs .

        2.   Marked compound verbskhð dðt:a hÜú ! )
        3.   Vector  Ral: .
        4.   Vector  b:òY .
        5.   Compound-compound verbsg:m:i ý m:arkr rK: dðt:i hò. )

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Keyed in 9 Jul 2004. Augmented 10 Jul. Augmented again and linked 13-19 & 21-22 Jul 2004. Corrected 23 & 25 Jul 2004. Augmented ("further reflection") 19 Aug 2004.