y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

ull:Ü b:n:akr Cað_ edy:a :  Compound compound verbs

        One of the distinctive features of Hindi-Urdu and other South Asian languages is the use of conjunctive participles to express sequenced or linked actions:

 1.  l:k_harð n:ð ehrn: kað Ok YÜúY p:r ut:arkr rK: edy:a . . .
        'The woodcutter lowered the deer and put it on a stump...'

        (from Chapter Seven of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
Each action in such a sequence may have its own direct object:

  2.  t:b: m:òø t:Ømhara s:aT: dað b:Üúd Aaús:Ü eg:rakr Cað_ dÜúg:i . . .
        'Then I'll shed a few tears and leave you...'

        (from Chapter Thirty-three of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
In principle, verb sequences like those in (1) and (2) can be rephrased as conjunctions of independent clauses:

 1'. l:k_harð n:ð ehrn: kað ut:ara Aaòr  ( ePr )  Ok YÜúY p:r rK: edy:a . . .
  2'. t:b: m:òø dað b:Üúd Aaús:Ü eg:raUúg:i Aaòr  ( ePr )  t:Ømhara s:aT: Cað_ dÜúg:i . . .

        However, there also exist verb sequences in  rK: dð,  Cað_ dð, and  D:r dð  which resemble those in (1) and (2) but which refer to only one action.  For instance in (3) the verb  rK: dð-  does not refer to some sort of putting, placing, or keeping that is conceptually distinct from the action expressed by  t:að_  'break'.  Rather, the presence of  rK: dð-  expresses the fullness and completeness of the imagined act of breaking bones:

 3.  t:ðra m:rd t:ØJ:ð p:iXðg:a,  t:ðri hRÎRi t:að_kr rK: dðg:a.
        'Your man will beat you.  He will break your bones to bits.'

        (from Chapter Twenty-one of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
Sequences like those in (3) cannot be rephrased as conjunctions of two clauses:

 3'.  t:ðra m:rd . . . t:ðri hRÎRi t:að_ðg:a Aaòr rK: dðg:a  (!!!)

        Use of the compound vector  Cað_ dð-  has much the same effect as use of rK: dð-:
 4.  s:òk_aðø kað ull:Ü b:n:akr Cað_ edy:a.
        '(X) made complete and utter fools of hundreds.'

        (from Chapter Eighteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
 5.  B:aðl:a Vy:a us:ð eB:K:ari b:n:akr Cað_ dðn:a c:aht:ð hòø?
        'Does Bhola want to make him into an absolute beggar?'

        (from Chapter Fourteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
The somewhat rustic verb  D:r  'put; keep' also provides a compound vector  D:r dð  whose use is parallel to that of  rK: dð  and  Cað_ dð :
 6.  m:ðri b:ðXi Es: t:rh krð t:að us:ki Xaúg:ðø t:að_kr n: D:r dÜú&&&
        'If my daughter behaves like this and I don't break her legs...'

        (from  s:Ø\:m: b:ðdi's story  ec:e_y:a Aaòr c:il:.  See context.)
        The use of doubly compound verbs like those in (3), (4), (5), and (6) is one way of rendering speech more categorical, vivid, and impressive:

 7. " n:hiø s:hb:j:i,  p:Øel:s: kñ p:as: n:hiø !   eks:i-n:-eks:i b:han:ð v:ð m:ØJ:ð hi b:ðEzz:t: krkñ rK: dðøg:ð. "
        'No, Sahab, not the police!  They will find some pretext or other to thoroughly dishonor me instead.'

        ( from  n:rðndÓ kñ0 es:nha's story  p:røp:ra )
Compound-compounds are well suited to elaborate or exaggerated modes of expression:

 8.  y:h b:rs:at: ki g:m:i ý t:að m:arkñ rK: dðt:i hò Aadm:i kað.
        'This heat that comes during the rains is a real killer!'

        ( from Chapter 7 of  m:nn:Ü B:NRari's novel  Aap:ka b:øXi )
So is reduplication.  In (9) both occur:

 9.  dm:--dm: m:ðø s:ara g:aúv: j:m:a hað j:at:a Aaòr Es:kñ p:Ürð j:tT:ð kað p:iX-p:aXkr rK: dðt:a.
        'In an instant the whole village would have come together and beaten the hell out of everyone in this man's gang.'

        (from Chapter Six of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
         Using the compound vectors  rK: dð-,  D:r dð-,  or  Cað_ dð-  to form "compound-compound" verbs is limited to transitive main verbs.

 Where the meaning of the main verb is one of hasty, violent, or undesired action, the compound vectors  ( kr )  rK: dð,  ( kr )  D:r dð  and  ( kr )  Cað_ dð  can be replaced by  Ral:.  ( See notes on vector  Ral: ) :
 3'.  . . .  t:ðri hRÎRi t:að_ Ral:ðg:a.
 4'.  . . . s:òk_aðø kað ull:Ü b:n:a Ral:a.
 6'.  . . . Xaúg:ðø t:að_ n: Ral:Üú&&&
 8'.  . . . m:ar Ral:t:i hò Aadm:i kað.
Vector    provides a more general (but correspondingly less vivid) replacement of  rK: dð,  Cað_ dð,  and  D:r dð:

 3".  . . . t:ðri hRÎRi t:að_ dðg:a.
 4".  . . . s:òk_aðø kað ull:Ü b:n:a edy:a.
 6".  . . . Xaúg:ðø t:að_ n: dÜú&&&
 8".  . . . m:ar dðt:i hò Aadm:i kað.
       Unlike double compound verbs in  rK: dð-  and  D:r dð  those in  Cað_ dð-  have a close relation to idiomatic serial verbs in  Cað_- :
10.  t:Øm: s:b: j:n:ð Ok Aaðr hað g:y:ð,  n:hiø ,ep:y:a kað ,l:akr Cað_t:i.  ( =  ,l:akr Cað_ dðt:i )
      'You all sided (against me).  If not, I would have had Rupiya in tears.'

        (from Chapter Three of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
These in turn are closely parallel in meaning to expressions using V-O eb:n:a.  (See notes):
10'. t:Øm: s:b: j:n:ð Ok Aaðr hað g:y:ð,  n:hiø ,ep:y:a kað ,l:aO eb:n:a n: Cað_t:i.
      'You all ganged up (on me).  If you hadn't, I would have made Rupiya cry for sure!'

The construction in (10") provides an alternative to both (10) and 10'):  (See notes  on  j:b: t:k . . .  t:b: t:k . . . )
10". ...  j:b: t:k ,ep:y:a kað ,l:a n: dðt:i,  ( t:b: t:k )  ( m:òø )  n: Cað_t:i.
      '. . . I wouldn't have left Rupiya until I had her in tears!'

        Are there yet other kinds of "compound-compound" verbs?

11. ...  m:òø Ok J:Xka K:a kr uY K:_a hØAa.
      (from  SaiSaa G:aX  by  n:yy:r m:as:Üd;  thanks to Griff Chaussée)
In its context (11) seems to mean something like 'I was taken completely aback...' rather than 'I was shocked and quickly stood up...'

For more on compound-compound verbs see Hook 1974:104-8. (Not all of what is written there is correct...)

To exercise on double compound verbs.

Other sections dealing with compound verbs:

          General functions.

          Marked compound verbskhð dðt:a hÜú ! )
          Vector  Ral: .
          Vector  b:òY .
          Vector  p:_ .

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Drafted and posted 17-20 Nov 2002.  Augmented 26 Nov and 2 and 9 Dec 2002 and 9 March 2003.  Checked by  Aan:nd e¾v:ðdi  4 Dec 2002 and by  t:hs:in: es:¸iqi  9 Mar 2003. Augmented 2 & 7 July 2004.