y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

Notes on V + Ral:- in the expression of hasty or violent action

      Composed of the non-finite form of the main (or polar) verb followed by the inflected form of a vector, compound verbs are a frequently occurring feature of Hindi-Urdu. In (1)  kh is the polar and  dað is the imperative form of the vector   :
  1.  kh dað,  kh dað,  j:að khn:a c:aht:ð hað.
      'Say it! Whatever you want to say. Say it!'

      (from  AaD:ð AD:Ürð by  m:aðhn: rakðS: , p. 28 )
Of the four vectors most commonly used to form compound verbs ( j:a,  ,  l:ð, and  Ral: ), vector  Ral: occurs the least frequently. Along with the sense of completeness that is common to all compound verbs, it is almost always the case that vector  Ral: reveals the speaker's attitude toward an action or expresses his or her overall evaluation of it. To some extent the central meanings of its polar (or non-auxiliary) counterpart  Ral: (viz. 'throw; pour') are recognizable in the ways in which vector  Ral: is used in compound verbs. While speakers may or may not be making such mental connections when using compound verbs in  Ral:, they can still be useful to students of Hindi in getting a handle on what kinds of combinations come easily to native speakers. Let us see how often compound verbs in  Ral: can be thought of as expressing 'thrown' or 'poured' actions.
      A. Pouring (out) or throwing (away) as getting rid of something, becoming free of it, willingly or not:

  2.  Aaòr Vy:a-Vy:a b:at: rh g:y:i hò khn:ð kað b:aqi ?  v:h B:i kh Ral:að j:ldi s:ð.
      'What other things do you have left to say?  Hurry up and say them, too!'

      (from  AaD:ð AD:Ürð by  m:aðhn: rakðS: , p. 20 )

  3.  us:n:ð t:að K:ðt:-b:ari s:b: b:ðc:-b:ac: Ral:i Aòr Ab: B:g:v:an: hi j:an:ð us:ka en:b:ah kós:ð haðg:a ?
      'He had sold off all his fields and farm and only God knew how he would manage.'

      (from Chapter Thirty-six of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

  4. " haú,  m:t:I kñ by:ah ka Vy:a hØAa ?  hm:ari s:l:ah t:að hò ek us:ka by:ah kr Ral:að.  Ab: t:að b:_i b:dn:am:i hað rhi hò. "
      '..."Where are things with Mataï's marriage? My advice would be for you to marry her off. People are beginning to talk."

      (from Chapter Twenty-three of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

      B. Pouring out or throwing away as tossing off. Use of  Ral: to suggest casual, inattentive, or careless action, action done for the sake of getting something done, or "over and done with":

  5.  n:aXk kaðI AcCa n: em:l:a.  kaðI t:að Et:n:a l:øb:a ek S:ay:d p:aúc: G:NXaðø m:ðø B:i Q:t:m: n: hað Aaòr kaðI Et:n:a eVl:\X ek S:ay:d y:haú Ok vy:eVt: B:i us:ka AT:ü n: s:m:J:ð.  AaeQ:r m:òøn:ð sv:y:m: Ok )hs:n: el:K: Ral:a,  j:að dað G:NXaðø m:ðø p:Üra hað j:ay:g:a.
      'I couldn't find any good play. One would be so long it would take five hours to perform; another was written in such stilted language that no-one in the audience here would understand it. Finally I myself dashed off a satirical review that will take only two hours to perform.'

      (from Chapter Six of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

In (6) the use of vector  Ral: suggests that the speaker does not intend a very elaborate remembrance of his titular master, the  n:v:ab: of Lucknow:
  6.  m:ir n:ð kha -- AaEO n:v:ab: s:ahb: kñ m:at:m: m:ðø Ok m:res:y:a kh Ral:ðø.
      'Said Mîr, "Come, let us recite a marsiyâ in memory of the Navâb."'

   (from Section N of  )ðm:c:nd 's story  S:*:ùj: kñ eK:l:a_i.  See context.)

      C. Pouring or throwing as inducing rapid acceleration: Vector  Ral: is often used to express hurried, even hasty completion of action.

  7.  t:Øm:n:ð j:ldi m:ðø s:aðc:a ek Es:ð K:a Ral:a j:ay: !
      'In your haste you thought, "Let's eat this up!"'

      (from  ANRð kñ eCl:kð by  m:aðhn: rakðS:, p. 34 )
      D. Throwing as forceful propelling. Vector  Ral: may be used to express violent performance of an action:
  8.  t:Ü dðK: rha hò b:ðXa,  t:ðri m:aú kað j:Üt:ð m:arð j:a rhð hòø !  y:aðø ev:l:ap: krkñ us:n:ð Ap:n:ð #aðD: kñ s:aT: haðri kñ #aðD: kað B:i e#y:aS:il: b:n:a Ral:a.  Aag: kað PÝûk-PÝûk kr us:m:ðø jv:al:a p:òda kr di.
      '"As you can see, Son, your Mom is being beaten with shoes!"
       Calling out this way, she turned her own rage and Hori's rage into violent action. Blowing on the fire she turned it into a conflagration.'

      (from Chapter Four of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

Vector  Ral: occurs frequently in the expression of inherently violent acts such as those denoted by  t:að_ 'break',  Pað_ 'smash',  j:l:a 'burn up',  B:sm: kr 'incinerate', X  ka s:v:ün:aS: kr 'destroy X utterly', X  ki b:aðXi-b:aðXi kr 'cut X to pieces',  kÙc:l: 'trample on; crush',  p:is: 'grind up, crush', etc.

  9.  v:h wan: j:að m:an:v:t:a kað p:is: Ral:ð,  wan: n:hiø hò,  kaðlhÜ hò.
      'The knowledge that crushes humanity is not knowledge. It is a grinding machine.'

      (from Chapter Eighteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 10.  ePr t:að us:m:ðø Et:n:i S:eVt: Aa g:y:i ek us:n:ð Ok J:Xkñ m:ðø p:et: ki hT:k_i t:að_ Ral:i . . .
      'Then so much power flowed into her that with a single jerk she broke the handcuffs that had been put on her husband's hands . . .'

      (from Chapter Ten of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

The compatibility of  Ral: with polar verbs of violence and destruction carries over into the corresponding causatives:

 11.  b:s: t:Ü y:haú s:ð c:l:i j:a ! . . .  Ag:r Ab: j:an:ð m:ðø dðr krðg:i t:að kÙ¶:aðø s:ð n:Øc:v:a Ral:Üúg:a.
      'That's it! You get out here. . . . And if you don't leave right now, I'll have the dogs tear you apart.'

      (from  b:y:an: 7 of Part Three of  K:*:i 's  c:ndÓkant:a )

The power of  Ral: to suggest violent action and destructive force commonly lends itself to figurative use:

 12.  Aaòr y:ð ,p:O t:Øm:s:ð Aaòr t:Ømharð B:aEy:aðø s:ð v:s:Ül: eky:ð j:at:ð hòø,  B:al:ð ki n:aðk p:r.  m:ØJ:ð t:að y:hi AaSc:y:ü haðt:a hò ek Vy:aðø t:Ømhari Aahaðø ka dav:an:l: hm:ðø B:sm: n:hiø kr Ral:t:a.
      'And we extract this money from you and your fellows at sword-point. I for one am astonished that the fire of your tortured cries does not simply turn us to ash!'

      (from Chapter Two of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

      E. Throwing as a hostile act. In many instances the use of  Ral: rather than some other vector indicates that the speaker views an act as hostile, hence undesirable:

 13.  m:òø n:hiø kht:a,  dðev:y:aðø kað S:eVt: ki z:-rt: n:hiø.  hò Aaòr p:Ø,\:aðø s:ð AeD:k;  l:ðekn: v:h ev:½a Aaòr v:h S:eVt: n:hiø,  ej:s:s:ð p:Ø,\: n:ð s:øs:ar kað ehøs:ax:ð*: b:n:a Ral:a hò.  Ag:r v:hi ev:½a Aaòr v:hi S:eVt: Aap: B:i l:ð l:ðøg:i,  t:að s:øs:ar m:,sT:l: hað j:ay:g:a.
      'I'm not saying that women do not need power. They do and even more than men do. But not the knowledge and power with which men have turned the world into a killing-field. If you women also go after that same knowledge and power, then the world will become a desert.'

   (from Chapter Fifteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
From the notion of undesirable action emerges the consequent idea of misguided action:

 14.  p:hl:i s*:i p:aúc: l:_kñ-l:_eky:aú Cað_kr m:ri T:i.  us: s:m:y: En:ki Av:sT:a p:òøt:ael:s: kñ l:g:B:g: T:i;   p:r Aap:n:ð dÜs:ra by:ah eky:a Aaòr j:b: us:s:ð kaðI s:nt:an: n: hØI, t:að t:is:ra by:ah kr Ral:a.  Ab: En:ki p:c:as: ki Av:sT:a T:i Aaòr dað j:v:an: p:etn:y:aú G:r m:ðö b:òYi hØI T:iø.
      'His first wife had died leaving him with five children. At the time his age was about forty-five, but he went ahead and married again and when this resulted in no child he went and married a third time. Now he was fifty years old with two young wives sitting at home.'

      (from Chapter Eleven of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
      The possibility of using vector  Ral: in compound verbs expressing misguided action puts  Ral: in direct competition with vector  b:òY. In both (14) and (15), for instance, the subject, enraged, calls someone names. In (14) with main verb  kh we find vector  Ral:; in (15),  b:òY :

 15.  AB:i z:ra dðr p:hl:ð D:en:y:a n:ð #aðD: kñ Aav:ðS: m:ðø J:Øen:y:a kað kÙl:Xa Aaòr køl:ekn:i Aaòr kl:m:Øúhi n: j:an:ð Vy:a-Vy:a kh Ral:a T:a.
      'Just a little while before in a fit of rage Dhaniya had called Jhuniya a slut and a disgrace and a black sheep and God knows what else.'

      (from Chapter Eleven of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 16.  AVs:r #aðD: m:ðø g:aðev:ndi kað Ap:S:bd kh b:òYt:a . . .
      'In a rage he would often call Govindi bad things.'

      (from Chapter Eighteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
Indeed, either vector can be used to express regrettable actions in a  khiø-clause:
 17.  us:kñ )aN: s:ÜK:ð j:at:ð T:ð ek khiø es:ll:að s:b: kÙC kh n: Ral:ð.
      'He was terrified that Sillo might divulge everything.'

      (from Chapter Thirty of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
 18.  hrdm: T:r-T:r kaúp: rhi hò ek khiø D:en:y:a kÙC kh n: b:òYð.
      'She was constantly trembling in fear that Dhaniya might say something to her.'

      (from Chapter Eleven of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
How can vectors  b:òY and  Ral: be distinguished from one another?
      Vector  Ral: is wider in scope than  b:òY. While almost all the instances of vector  b:òY occur in compound verbs expressing some human act that is misguided or mistaken,  Ral: can be used in compound verbs with non-human subjects [see exx (8), (9), (12)] as well as human ones. And unlike  b:òY, vector  Ral: can be used in several distinct meanings. Only one of those "competes" with vector  b:òY. Thus, the sequence  by:ah kr Ral:a in (14) could be replaced by its counterpart in  b:òY with very little change in meaning, whereas the sequence  by:ah kr Ral:að in (4) cannot be. The only way to make sense of this difference is to recognize that there is more than one distinct attitudinal meaning or connotation adhering to vector  Ral:.
      Other differences: Compound verbs in  Ral: can occur in the passive voice while those in  b:òY cannot:
 19.  j:b: t:k s:m:aj: ki vy:v:sT:a Up:r s:ð n:ic:ð t:k b:dl: n: Ral:i j:ay:,  Es: t:rh ki m:NRl:i s:ð kaðI fay:da n: haðg:a.
      'Unless and until the structure of society is completely changed from top to bottom, there will be nothing to show for associations of this kind.'

      (from Chapter Thirty-two of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)
Vector  Ral: can occur with the - O of insistence. (See notes.) Vector  b:òY cannot:
 20.  m:ØJ:s:ð Ab: t:k ej:t:n:i t:p:sy:a hað s:ki,  m:òøn:ð ki;  l:ðekn: Ab: n:hiø s:ha j:at:a.
    m:al:t:i m:ðra s:v:ün:aS: eky:ð Ral:t:i hò.  m:òø Ap:n:ð eks:i S:s*: s:ð us: p:r ev:j:y: n:hiø p:a s:kt:i.

      'I have stood as much torture as I can stand and I cannot stand any more.  Mâlatî is gradually destroying me.  I have no weapon to defeat her.'

      (from Chapter Eighteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

Other sections dealing with compound verbs:

          General functions.

          Marked compound verbskhð dðt:a hÜú ! )
          Vector  b:òY .
          Vector  p:_ .
          Compound-compound verbsg:m:i ý m:arkð rK: dðt:i hò. )

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Drafted and posted 29-30 Apr 2001. Continued 1-2 May 2001.