y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

s:m:y: j:at:ð dðr n:hiø l:g:t:i:   Participles and time expressions

        In Hindi past participles may be used together with expressions of elapsed time and  kað of subject to locate events usually in the past:

 1.  un:ki p:tn:i kað m:rð Aaj: ds: s:al: hað c:Økñ T:ð;  m:g:r dÜs:ri S:adi n: ki T:i.
      'It had already been ten years since his wife died (= She died ten years ago), but he hadn't remarried.'

        (from Chapter Two of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
As an alternative the present participle (V-t:ð ) may be used:
 2.  s:hØAaEn: kað j:at:ð dðr n:hiø hØI ek m:úg:- s:ah p:hØúc:ð.
      'It wasn't much time since Sahuain left when Mangroo Shah arrived on the scene.'

        (from Chapter Seventeen of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
But the special function of the present participles in constructions of elapsed time is to indicate a continuous interval of action:

 3.  m:òø s:b:kað p:hc:an:t:i hÜú.  Es: g:aúv: m:ðø rht:ð b:is: s:al: hað g:y:ð.
      'I know everyone.  I have been living in this town for the past twenty years.'

        (from Chapter Four of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
 4.  Aaj: ki rat: En: c:araðø kað j:ag:t:ð hi b:it:i.
      'All four of them spent the night awake.'

        (from Chapter Two of  c:ndÒkant:a )
A past participle can also be used to indicate an interval if it expresses a posture:

 5.  g:aðb:r kað b:òYð ds: em:n:X B:i n: hØO haðøg:ð ek v:h l:aòX Aay:i Aaòr b:aðl:i . . .
      'Gobar hadn't been sitting there even for ten minutes when she came back and said...'

        (from Chapter Twenty-seven of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
If, however, the located action is one which is irreversible, use of the past participle indicates the interval of its non-occurrence.  Contrast (6a) with (6b):

 6a.  m:ØJ:ð edll:i AaO hØO b:is: s:al: hað g:O haðøg:ð.
      'It must be twenty years since I came to Delhi.' (= 'I've been living in Delhi for twenty years.'

 6b.  m:ØJ:ð edll:i dðK:ð hØO b:is: s:al: hað g:O haðøg:ð.
      'It must be twenty years since I saw Delhi.' (= 'I've not seen Delhi in twenty years.'

In (6a) the subject may "uncome" to Delhi - by leaving it.  In(6b), however, Delhi, once seen, cannot be "unseen".  What about example (1)?

      Reduplicated participles are sometimes found in expressions that measure time:

 7.  c:al:is: s:at: s:òøt:al:is: s:al: Es:i t:rh raðt:ð-D:aðt:ð kX g:y:ð.
      'Seven and forty, 47 years she passed, just like this moaning and groaning, weeping and wailing...'

       (from Chapter Twenty-one of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
 8.  j:l:t:ð hi j:l:t:ð s:Øb:h t:k g:Øz:ri us:ð t:m:am: S:b:
    edl: hò ek S:aðl:a hò kaðI
,  S:m:a hò y:a ec:ra^: hò   ?
      'Till morning came the whole night was spent, burning, burning,
       Is this a heart or a flame?  A candle or a lamp?'

       (from  ^:z:l:  in  - Aa^:  by  Qv:aj:a m:ir ddü.  See  context.)
But reduplicated participles are more typically used in the expression of a limit or end-point:

 9.  kaðs: dað kaðs: j:at:ð-j:at:ð s:aúJ: hað j:ay:g:i.
      'By the time we cover a kos or two it will be evening.'

        (from Chapter Twelve of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
Why should this be so?  For discussion see notes on V-t:ð  V-t:ð.
        The postposition  kað is optional if the subject of the located event is inanimate.  If the participle is of a verb that expresses an activity (rather than a change of state)  kað  with the subject becomes more likely.  Compare (10) with (8) and (11):
 10.   s:c: hò,  CaðXi n:di kað um:_t:ð dðr n:hiø l:g:t:i . . .
      'It doesn't take long for a small river to boil over...'

        (from Chapter Twenty of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
11.   j:n:m:t: b:dl:t:ð dðr n:hiø l:g:t:i.  us:s:ð b:c:ð rhn:a hi AcCa hò.
      'It doesn't take long for poular opinion to change.  It's best to steer clear of it.'

        (from Chapter Twenty-three of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
However, if the participle has been deleted, then the  kað  is obligatory:
12a.  Ab: hm:ari S:adi hØO kÙl: p:cc:is: s:al: hað g:O hòø.
12b.  Ab: hm:ari S:adi kað kÙl: p:cc:is: s:al: hað g:O hòø.
11c. * Ab: hm:ari S:adi kÙl: p:cc:is: s:al: hað g:O hòø.
      'We have been married altogether 25 years now.'

        A full clause may be used as an alternative to the participle:

13a. m:úg:- s:ah s:ð Aaj: p:aúc: s:al: hØO b:òl: kñ el:O s:aY ,p:O el:y:ð T:ð . . .
      'Five years had passed since he had borrowed 60 rupees from Mangroo Shah to buy a bullock...'

        (from Chapter Four of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
13b. m:úg:- s:ah s:ð hØO b:òl: kñ el:O s:aY ,p:O el:y:ð Aaj: p:aúc: s:al: hað g:O T:ð . . .
If the clause containing the located action is itself fairly complex this option may be preferable:

14a. t:in:-c:ar s:al: hØO,  us:ka Aadm:i us:ð Cað_kr kl:k¶:ð c:l:a g:y:a.
      'Three or four years ago her husband had left her and gone off to Calcutta.'

        (from Chapter Onee of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
14b.  ?  us:kñ Aadm:i kað us:ð Cað_kr kl:k¶:ð ( c:l:ð )  g:O t:in:-c:ar s:al: hað g:O T:ð.
        Occasionally, in colloquial speech, the two constructions may be conflated:

15.  m:ðrð v:ael:d s:ahb: g:Øz:r c:Økñ hòø ej:n:kað s:at:-AaY s:al: hað g:O hòø.
      'It's been seven or eight years since my Father passed away.'

        (from  s:l:im:'s Monologue. See context.)
Why  ej:n:kað ?

To exercise on use of participles in expressions of elapsed time.

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Data developed June 2002. Drafted and posted 17 July 2002. Linked 18 July and 20-21 July 2002. Augmented 19 July 2002. Augmented again 20-21 July, 24 July 2002, and 17 Mar 2003. Checked by  kÙs:Øm: j:òn: 22 July 2002.