y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf ev:ej:üen:y:a

hús:at:ð-hús:at:ð l:aðXa edy:a :  Reduplicated participles in the expression of limits and results

            In Hindi-Urdu the doubling or partial doubling of adverbial participles denotes extension in time of some action or state against which or in terms of which some other action is measured.  From this general sense emerge a number of specific meanings.  Here we shall look at four or five of them.

I. The duplicated participle may indicate an interval of time within which some other event occurs.  In (1) the action of speaking frames the act of smiling:

 1.  y:h kht:ð-kht:ð v:h m:Øskra p:_i.
      'While saying this she began smiling.'

       (from Chapter Seventeen of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
In (2) the stroll includes a conversation:

 2.  n:aej:m: Aaòr AÉd b:^:ic:ð kñ b:ahr Aay:ð Aaòr c:l:t:ð-c:l:t:ð Aap:Øs: m:ðø b:at:c:it: krn:ð l:g:ð.
      'Najim and Ahmad came out of the garden and began conversing with each other as they walked.'

       (Sentence 3 from Section 5 of Part One of  c:ndÓkant:a.)
In (3) the reduplication is partial, suggesting randomness or unintentionality:

 3.  Ok edn: v:ð s:ðm:ri p:hØúc: g:y:ð Aaòr G:Üm:t:ð-G:am:t:ð b:ðl:ari j:a en:kl:ð.
      'One day they arrived in Semri and while wandering here and there came out in Belari.'

       (from Chapter Thirty of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
      The subject of the reduplicated participle is almost always identical to the subject of the finite verb.  Exceptions include:  a. Instances where the identity of subjects is notional rather than strict.  Instances of this are exx (4) and (12):

 4.  y:h kht:ð-kht:ð us:ki Aav:az: Aaús:ØAaðø m:ðø RÜb: g:y:i.
      'His voice became choked with tears as he was saying this.'

       (from Chapter Ten of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
b. Identity of the participle's subject with the main verb's direct object (5) is rare:

 5.  daðn:aðø Aal:Ü en:kal:en:kal:kr j:l:t:ð - j:l:t:ð K:an:ð l:g:ð.
       'They both started pulling potatoes out (of the fire) and eating them while they were still burning hot.'

       (from Premchand's  kfn:. See context.)

c. Instances in which the V-t:ð V-t:ð participle denotes a point in time.  See ex (14) in section III below.  d. Listable exceptions (such as haðt:ð-haðt:ð  'eventually, in due time',  dðK:t:ð-dðK:t:ð  'right in front of X's eyes', etc.) which should be regarded as isolated idioms:

 6.  v:h t:ðødØAa p:an:i p:ikr t:Ørøt: Up:r c:` g:y:a Aaòr dðK:t:ð- dðK:t:ð ^:ay:b: hað g:y:a . . .
      'Drinking some melon water he climbed up and disappeared right in front of their eyes...'

       (Sentence 9 from Section 12 of Part Two of  c:ndÓkant:a.)
       While the participle usually assumes the masculine oblique default form in -t:ð, occasionally there is agreement in gender and number with the subject.  Compare (1) with (7):

 7.  K:aðj:t:i-K:aðj:t:i us:kñ p:as: g:y:i Aaòr t:ðra s:ùdðs:a kha.
      'Searching here and there I (found him and) went up to him and gave him your message.'

       (from Chapter Twenty-four of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
This agreement may occur only when the finite verb itself agrees in gender and number with the subject (not when it agrees with the object or is in the default masculine singular):

 8.  us:n:ð hm:ðø hús:at:ð- hús:at:ð l:aðXa edy:a.
      'He had us laughing so hard we were rolling on the floor.'

       In these constructions the reduplicated past participles of verbs of posture ( b:òYð-b:òYð 'sitting; waiting',  K:_ð-K:_ð 'standing',  l:ðXð-l:ðXð 'lying about',  etc.) may be used in the same way as the present participles of other verbs:

 9.  b:òYð-b:òYð es:r m:ðø c:Vkr Aa j:at:a.
      '(You) would have gone crazy from sitting around (waiting).'

       (from Chapter Twenty-two of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
Of these  b:òYð-b:òYð ('sitting idly; for no reason; suddenly') and  K:_ð-K:_ð ('standing around; without reacting') have assumed idiomatic attitudinal meanings:

10.  khiø v:h v:hiø b:òYð-b:òYð m:r j:ay:,  t:að Vy:a hað ?
      'What if she suddenly were to die right there?  What then?'

       (from Chapter Eighteen of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
II. It is not uncommon for the reduplicated participle to express the process leading to the end result expressed by the finite verb:

11.  m:art:ð-m:art:ð t:ðri K:al: uD:ð_ l:ðg:a.       'He'll beat the hide off you.'
       (from Chapter Twenty-one of  g:aðdan:. See
12.  t:Ømhari rah dðK:t:ð-dðK:t:ð AaúK:ðø PÝX g:y:iø.       'I wore my eyes out watching for you.'
       (from Chapter Twenty of  g:aðdan:. See
13.  b:al:k raðt:ð-raðt:ð b:ðdm: hað j:at:a.       'The child would cry itself breathless.'
       (from Chapter Twenty-seven of  g:aðdan:. See
      Use of reduplicated participles together with specific verbs of fatigue and exhaustion ( t:øg: Aa-,  ukt:a j:a-, etc.) has itself become a type of fixed construction:

14.  haðri Es: t:rh ki . . .  S:ØB:-kam:n:aOû s:Øn:t:ð-s:Øn:t:ð t:øg: Aa g:y:a T:a.
      'Hori had become sick and tired of hearing these kinds of ... good wishes.'

       (from Chapter Eleven of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
For further discussion and examples of these see notes on V-t:ð  V-t:ð with verbs of disgust.
III. A duplicated participle may be used to dentify an action or event before which another action is complete:

15.  j:y:nt:i kñ Vv:aXür t:k Aat:ð-Aat:ð j:y:dðv: kñ m:aT:ð p:r p:s:in:ð ki b:hØt: s:ari b:Üúd ñù J:l:kn:ð l:g:i T:iø.
      '...by the time they arrived at Jayanti's quarters, numerous beads of sweat had begun to glisten on Jayadev's forehead.'

       (from  ev:Rmb:n:a, a story by  n:rðndÓ kÙm:ar es:nha. See context.)
In (16) the striking of eight provides a reference point, a location in time before which other actions have gone to completion:

16.  s:aúJ: hØI.  daðn:aðø l:_eky:aú AaY b:j:t:ð-b:j:t:ð K:a-p:ikr s:að g:o.
      'Evening came.  By the time it struck eight the two girls had their meal and went to bed.'

       (from Chapter Eight of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
An alternative to the reduplicated participle when used in this meaning is a  j:b: t:k-clause:
16'.  j:b: t:k AaY b:j:ð  ( t:b: t:k )  l:_eky:aú K:a-p:ikr s:að g:I T:iø.
This option is discussed in the notes on  j:b: t:k-constructions.
IV. Identifying an action or event before which another action is not only not complete, but not even begun.  Consider example (17) where the soldiers stop before they speak:

17.  un:kað dðK: py:adaðø kñ haðS: u_ g:O Aaòr Az:ü krt:ð-krt:ð ,k g:O.
      'Seeing them the soldiers became confused and did not speak.'  (literally: '...stopped (speaking) before they spoke.')

       (Sentence 43 from Section 15 of Part One of  c:ndÓkant:a.)
To give up doing something before one does it is not the same as simply not doing it.  It is to come close to doing it.  Use of the reduplicated participle together with a verb that denotes non-action ( b:c: 'be left over',  rh j:a 'be left behind', etc.) becomes a way of expressing 'almost'.  Thus in (18) the speaker is not just saying there was not a fight but also that there was close to being one:

18.  kaðdI n:ð m:Øskrakr kha -- " hm: daðn:aðø m:ðø l:_aI haðt:ð-haðt:ð b:c:i. "
      'Kodai smiled and said, "The two of us nearly came to blows."'

       (from Chapter Twelve of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
V.  Even more idiomatic is the use of a verb with the reduplicated participle of itself serving as its own reference point.  The overall meaning is one of protraction or delay:

19.  jy:aðøhi em:sXr t:øK:a . . . km:rð m:ðø Aay:ð Aaòr haT: b:`ay:a ek ray: s:ahb: n:ð b:m:g:aðl:a Cað_ edy:a --
      " m:òø G:ùXð-B:r s:ð y:haú b:òYa hØAa hÜû Aaòr Aap: en:kl:t:ð-en:kl:t:ð Ab: en:kl:ð hòø. "
      'No sooner had Mr. Tankha ... entered the room and extended his hand than Ray Sahab exploded:
      "I've been waiting here for a whole hour and you have been all this time coming out (to receive me)!"

       (from Chapter Twenty-two of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
20.  m:ael:k,  t:Ømhðø Oðs:i b:at: n: khn:i c:aehO,  j:að Aadm:i kað l:g: j:ay:.  p:an:i m:rt:ð hi m:rt:ð
    t:að m:rðg:a.

      'Sahib, there's no need to say things to a man to hurt him. Little by little he'll lose his pride anyway.'

       (from Chapter Twenty of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
This idiom is featured in one of the most famous statements made (by the poet Dagh) about the difficulty of mastering Hindi and Urdu:

21. Aat:i hò udüÜ z:Øb:an: Aat:ð-Aat:ð
      'One learns Urdu (and Hindi) only after a great long while of study.'       (See context.)

      The world of film songs, with its love of expressive iteration, provides an instance of V-t:ð in triplicate!

22.  y:h l:_ka,  hay: All:ah,  kós:a hò div:an:a !        This boy, Lord! what a crazy guy he is!
       ekt:n:a m:ØeSkl: hò Es:kað s:m:J:an:a             How hard it is to make him understand
       ek D:irð-D:irð edl: b:ðqrar haðt:a hò             That it takes a while to unhinge a heart.
       ek haðt:ð haðt:ð haðt:ð,  py:ar haðt:a hò.                         Love takes its time,  its own sweet time.
       (from  hm: eks:i s:ð km: n:hiø.  Lyrics by Majrooh Sultanpuri. See rest of song.)

      These notes are a more detailed exploration of material published in Hindi Structures (§ 15B) and posted to Malhar. For discussion of reduplication as a general phenomenon in South Asia see Abbi 1992.

To exercise.

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Drafted 12 Aug 2002. Posted 13 Aug 2002.  Augmented and linked to  g:aðdan:  14 Aug 2002. Further additions 18, 21-22, 24-25 Aug 2002, 17 Mar 2003 and 12 Jul 2004.