- Suleiman and his
entourage leave Istanbul on February 6,
1521 and head west northwest through the Gate of Adrianope to Edirne.
(Linked article by M. Tayyib Gökbilgin.)
They proceed up the low-lying river valley toward Sofia.
Generally, reinforcements in troops, camels, ammunition, and supplies
of various sorts are provided throughout the journey by local
supporters, especially over long distances and in difficult
terrain. The purple spider lines at locales along the way
represent the infusion of resources, be they soldiers, camels, horses,
barley, or other. Different sources estimate vastly different
numbers for the Ottoman Army and for provisioning point
locations: the locations above are therefore deliberately
abstract but do show spatial pattern and temporal spacing---possibly
suggestive of added research directions. The purple spiders fade
as the army moves away from the added resource point: floods
along the way might cause camels to break legs; delays might use up
food supplies more quickly than anticipated. Independent,
however, of such incidents, mere distance from a supply point means a
reduction in that initial infusion. Hence the need for another
provisioning point. The pattern of the Ottoman Army in keeping a
source of fresh supplies is quite clear: conquer near, then a bit
farther. Use previously conquered locales as provisioning points
to extend Ottoman control into farther reaches. The animated map
above was made from reading material in
Andre Clot, Suleiman the Magnificent,
Saqi Books, London, 2005. To learn more about this Conquest and
the events that
took place around it, follow the many links below. The link
provided here offers
a starting point to this complex topic.
- The topography from
Istanbul to just southeast of Sofia is relatively flat. Take a
closer look at the
topography surrounding Sofia:
- Sofia, a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)
- Sofia, a plausible journey path, in red dots,
following topography through the TIN.
- Sofia, a screen capture of a 3D image
- Sofia, virtual reality
(install Cosmo Player or Cortona in your browser...free downloads from
the web). The sun was set in the southwest at a height of 50
degrees above the horizon. The vertical exaggeration was
calculated by the software (ArcView 3.2, ESRI) and seems a bit on the
steep side, but that is satisfactory for purposes of understanding
navigational difficulties in rugged terrain. The contour
interval is 1000 feet. Take the journey yourself! (If the
model does not fully load, the memory or the connection speed on the
machine you are using is not sufficient to the task; try on a different
- It is easy to see
where to go when in a floodplain. Navigate yourself using the
- Try navigating
through the mountains, right along the surface. The logic of
following the streams will be evident as a good course of action.
Nonetheless, it is very easy to get lost when navigating through rugged
terrain, at the level of the terrain (much easier with an overhead
view...which Suleiman did not have).
- Try using the
"viewpoints" to navigate through rough areas...they are the substitute
here for an experience guide. See how important that experience
- Where next?
Maps can offer guidance that the research should take. The
Virtual Reality model makes it easy to speculate on rational routes, in
terms of topography. But, were these the routes actually
used? Research in primary sources becomes critical and the maps
suggest where to look in them.
- This link shows the
topography in two dimensions from Sofia to Mohacs, including Belgrade.
- Links to sites describing
the action, references, and bibliographic material:
look at all the links of this interesting site: http://www.theottomans.org/english/chronology/index.asp
- Perjes, Geza.
Translated by Maria D. Fenyo with a Foreword by Janos M. Bak. The
Fall of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary: Mohacs 1526 - Buda 1541
Social Science Monographs, Boulder, Colorado, Atlantic Research and
Publications, Highland Lakes, New Jersey, distributed by Columbia
University Press 1989.
- The Ataturk Institute
for Modern Turkish History
- References on Suleiman:
- Environmental Programme
for the Danube River Basin and United Nations Development Programme, http://www.rec.org/DanubePCU/index.html
- Sibiweb: maps and other
- Goings on elsewhere
this year of 1521...links to sites with timelines:
- Related links:
- Goffman, Daniel. The Ottoman
Empire and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.
Link to Frontmatter.
- The Ottoman Empire and
Modern Turkey, 1453-1950, Thomas Kuhn course syllabus and notes,
Simon Fraser University http://www.lib.sfu.ca/researchhelp/subjectguides/hist/classes/hist043350.htm
- GLOBALHISTORIE: NOEN
(FORHOLDSVIS NYE) TITLER, MED SÆRLIG VEKT PÅ PERIODEN
- Agoston, Gabor. Guns
for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the
Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. http://assets.cambridge.org/052184/3138/excerpt/0521843138_excerpt.pdf
- Ghazzal, Zouhair, Modern
Middle East, History 313, Loyola University Chicago, http://www.luc.edu/depts/history/ghazzal/hist313.htm
- History On-Line,