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Classical period of the Ottoman Empire c. 1300-1600
Circumscribing the life and times of Suleyman the Magnificent 1481-1598
Life Span of Suleyman the Magnificent 1494-1566
Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent 1520-1566

Military Campaigns of Suleyman: 
Timeline of Selected Events

1521--Conquest of Belgrade
1522--Fall of Rhodes
1526--Battle of Mohacs
1529--Siege of Vienna
1532--Siege of Guns
1533--Two Iraqs Campaign
1534--Conquest of Baghdad; Battles of Tunis
1535--Battles of Tunis
1537--War with Venice; Siege of Corfu
1538--Naval Battle of Preveza
1540--Peace with Venice
1543--Siege of Nice
1548--Conquest of Van
1554--Campaign in Iran
1556--Hungarian Campaign
1557--Hungarian Campaign
1558--Hungarian Campaign
1559--Hungarian Campaign
1565--Siege of Malta
1566--Siege of Szeged

Outside the Ottoman Empire



Birth of Henry VIII of England---1491---
Columbus discovers America.  The Jews expelled from Spain.  Fall of Granada, and end of the Islalmic era in Spain.---1492---
Birth of Francis I of France---1494---
Vasco da Gama discovers the sea route to the East IndiesAlvares Cabral discovers Brazil. ---1497---

Birth of Charles V of Spain ---1500---

Vasco da Gama completes the Red Sea route---1502---
Accession of Francis I as King of France.  Victory at Marignano.---1509---




Charles V becomes King of Spain.  The Portuguese reach Canton.---1516---


Charles V elected Emperor; Magellan circumnavigates the Earth.  Cortes conquers the Aztec Empire, Pizarro the Inca Empire---1519---
Magellan circumnavigates the Earth.  Cortes conquers the Aztec Empire, Pizarro the Inca Empire---1520---
Magellan circumnavigates the Earth.  Cortes conquers the Aztec Empire, Pizarro the Inca Empire.  Luther excommunicated.---1521---

Death of Shah Ismail of Iran; accession of Shah Tahmasp---1524---
 Battle of Pavia; Francis I taken prisoner ---1525---
Battle of Panipat.  Babur founds the Moghul dynasty in India.---1526---

Sack of Rome by Charles V's troops.---1527---
Treaty of Cambrai (The Ladies' Peace)..---1529---

Charles V crowned Emperor---1530---
Henry VIII breaks with Rome.  Protestant Schmalkaldic League.---1531---
Peace of Nuremberg.---1532---

Accession of Ivan the Terrible.---1533---





Truce of Nice; Charles and Francis meet at Aigues-Mortes---1538---



 Assassination of Rincon  ---1541---


  Peace of Crespy---1544---

  Opening of the Council of Trent---1545---
Death of Luther (18 February)---1546---
   Battle of Muhlberg.  Death of Francis I (27 January).  Death of Henry VIII (31 March).  Henry II becomes King of France. ---1547---

   Assassination of Martinuzzi ---1551---


  Death of Edward VI of England; Mary Tudor becomes queen.---1553---

  The Russians take Astrakhan.---1554---

Peace of Augsburg.---1555---
  Abdication of Charles V; Ferdinand becomes Emperor, Philip II King of Spain.  Accession of the Moghul emperor Akbar.---1556---

Death of Charles V (21 September).  Death of Mary Tudor; Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England.---1558---
Peace of Cateau-CambresisFrancis II succeeds Henry II as King of France.---1559---

 Charles IX becomes King of France, Catherine de' Medici regent. ---1560---

  Start of the Wars of Religion in France.---1562---

Death of Ferdinand I; his son Maximilian succeeds him.---1564---




. ---1571---



Death of Charles IX; Henry III becomes King of France.---1574---

Death of Shah Tahmasp.---1576---

End of Portuguese independence.---1580---
Death of Ivan the Terrible; 'the Time of Troubles.'---1584---
Accession of Shah Abbas II.---1587---
Defeat of the Spanish Armada.---1588---
Assassination of Henry III of France.---1589---



Death of Philip II.---1598---

Within the Ottoman Empire
---1481---Death of Mehmed II (3 May).  Accession of Bayezid II (20 May).  Battle of Yenisehir between Bayezid and Cem (20 June).  Surrender of the Ottoman forces in Otranto (11 September).
---1482---Cem and Kasim the Karamanid in Anatolia.  Cem's flight to Rhodes (26 July).  Agreement on Cem between the Knights of St. John and Bayezid 11 (September).  Execution of Gedik Ahmed Pasha (November).
---1484---Bayezid II's campaign against Moldavia.  Annexation of Kilia and Akkerman.  War with the Mamluks of Egypt (denoted [9] hereafter).

---1494--- Birth of Suleyman the Magnificent
---1495---Death of Cem (25 February).
---1496---The Ottomans in Montenegro.  Albert of Poland's invasions of Moldavia.  Polish-Hungarian alliance. 
---1497---War with Poland.
---1498---War with Poland.
---1499---War with Poland.  War with Venice.  Ottoman naval victory at Navarino (12 August).  Conquest of Lepanto.
---1500---War with Venice.  Hungary declares war on the Ottomans.  Shah Ismail in power in Iran.  Revolt of the Karamanid tribes in the Taurus Mountains.
---1501---War with Venice.
---1502---War with Venice.
---1503---War with Venice.  Peace treaty with Venice (10 August).
---1504---Shah Ismail in Baghdad.
---1507---Ismail's march through Ottoman territory against Dulkadir.
---1511---Insurrection in north-east Anatolia.  Death of Bayezid II (26 May).
---1512---Accession of Selim I (May 26).  Selim I defeats and executes his brothers and suppresses the partisans of Shah Ismail in Anatolia.
---1513---Selim I defeats and executes his brothers and suppresses the partisans of Shah Ismail in Anatolia.
---1514---Selim defeats Shah Ismail at Caldiran (23 August).   Victory of the Ottoman forces over the Safavid Dynasty.
---1515---Mutiny of the Janissaries (February).  Capture of Kemah (19 May).  Conquest of the principality of Dulkadir (June).
---1516---Conquest of Diyarbekir (April).  Submission of eastern Anatolia to the Ottomans.  Selim defeats the Mamluks at Marj Dabik (24 August).  Selim in Aleppo. Victory of the Ottomans over the Egyptian Mamluk Dynasty.
---1517---Battle of Reydaniyya (22 January).  Tuman Bay's resistance in Cairo.  Submission of the Sherif of Mecca (17 July). Selim I enters Cairo.  Syria and Egypt incorporated into the Ottoman Empire


---1520--- Death of Selim I (21 September).  Accession of Suleyman (30 September)

---1521---Suleyman takes Belgrade. (29 August).  Defeat and execution of Janbardi Ghazali in Syria (February).   Canberdi al-Ghazali's revolt in Egypt is crushed.
---1522---End of the Dulkadir dynasty.  Suleyman conquers Rhodes (January 21).
---1523---Ibrahim becomes Grand Vizier.
---1524--- Ahmed Pasha's revolt in Egypt (January).
---1525---Ibrahim in Egypt (24 March-14 June).
---1526---Battle of Mohacs (29 August), Louis II killed.  Suleyman I in Buda (10 September).  John Zapolya becomes King of Hungary (10 November).
---1527---Ferdinand of Austria in Buda.
---1529---Barbarossa takes control of Algiers.  Suleyman I captures Buda (8 September).  Zapolya crowned in Buda (14 September).  Suleyman I besieges Vienna (26 September - 16 October).
---1531---The Austrians besiege Buda (Decmeber).
---1532---Suleyman I's campaign against Austria.  Capture of Guns (28 August).  Andrea Doria captures Coron (8 August).
---1533---Two Iraqs Campaign.  Conquest of Baghdad. Peace with Ferdinand (22 June).  Hayreddin Barbarossa becomes grand admiral.  Barbarossa's conquest of Tunis (August).  Reconquest of Coron (12 September).  War with Iran (August).
---1534---Barbarossa takes Tunis. Conquest of Tabriz (13 July).  Allegiance of the Sultan of Gilan.  Suleyman I in Baghdad.
---1535---Suleyman I returns to Tabriz (spring).  Charles V in Tunis (21 July). Charles V recaptures Tunis.  J. de la Forest's mission to Suleyman.
---1536---Execution of Ibrahim (5 March).  Ayas Pasha becomes Grand Vizier.  The Franco-Ottoman alliance; capitulations. Suleyman I returns to Istanbul (8 January). 
---1537---War with Venice.   Suleyman I in Albania.  Ottoman raid into Apulia (July).  Siege of Corfu (25 August).  Suleyman I returns to Istanful (1 October).
---1538---  Suleyman I in Moldavia (summer).  Annexation of Southern Moldavia (4 October).  Suleyman Pasha of Egypt before Diu (4 September).  Naval Battle of Preveza (29 September).
---1539---Death of Ayas Pasha; Lutfi Pasha becomes Grand Vizier. Conquest of Castelnuovo (10 August)
---1540---Peace with Venice (2 October).  Surrender of Monemvasia and Napoli di Romagna.  Death of Zapolya.  The Austrians besiege Buda.
---1541---Suleyman at Buda; annexation of Hungary.    Lutfi Pasha deposed; Suleyman Pasha becomes Grand Vizier.  Suleyman I's campaign against Ferdinand.  Suleyman I in Buda (2 September).  Annexation of Hungary.  Charles V  disastrous expedition to Algiers (20 October).
---1543---Barbarossa's expedition along the French coast; siege of Nice.  Suleyman in Hungary. The Franco-Ottoman fleet takes Nice (20 August).  Suleyman I in Hungary.  Conquest of Valpovo, Pecs, Siklos, and Gran.
---1544---Suleyman Pasha deposed; Rustem Pasha becomes Grand Vizier.  Conquest of Vishegrad.
---1545---Armistice between Suleyman I and Ferdinand.

Peace of Constantinople.  Occupation of San'a and Ta'izz. Peace treaty between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs, including the Pope, Venice and the King of France (1 August).
---1548---Suleyman I's campaign in Iran.  Conquest of Van (25 August).
---1549---Conquests in Georgia.  Suleyman I returns to Istanbul (12 December).
---1550--- Construction of the Suleyman mosque.
---1551---Construction of the Suleyman mosque.  Piri Reis's expedition. The Ottomans in Transylvania.  Conquest of Becskerek, Varad, Csanad, and Lippa.  Turgud reis (Dragut) captures Tripoli (14 August).
---1552---Conquest of Temesvar (July) and other cities in Ranat.  Ottoman failure agains the Portuguese at Hormuz.  Russian occupation of Kazan.  Ottoman failure are Erlau (October). Construction of the Suleyman mosque.
---1553---War with Iran.  Suleyman I in Eregli (Karaman).  Execution of his son, Mustafa (16 October). Construction of the Suleyman mosque.  Sidi Ali Reis's expedition. 
---1554---Suleyman I's campaign in Iran.  Conquet of Nakhchevan and Erivan (summer).  Russian occupation of Astrakhan. Construction of the Suleyman mosque. 
---1555---Peace with Iran at Amasya (29 May). Construction of the Suleyman mosque.  Execution of Ahmed Pasha; Rustem Pasha again becomes Grand Vizier. 
---1556---Inauguration of the Suleymaniye mosque (16 August).  Continued warfare against the Austrians in Hungary. Construction of the Suleyman mosque 
---1557---Continued warfare against the Austrians in Hungary.

---1558---Continued warfare against the Austrians in Hungary.

---1559---Continued warfare against the Austrians in Hungary.  Civil war between Suleyman I's sons, Selim and Bayezid (May).  Bayezid takes refuge in Iran (November).  
---1560---The Spaniards on Djerba.  The grand admiral, Piyale Pasha, captures Djerba (31 July).
---1561---Execution of Prince Bayezid (25 September).  The Cossacks attack Axov.
---1562---Peace with the Emperor Ferdinand (1 July).   Death of Rustem Pasha; Ali Pasha becomes Grand Vizier
---1565---Siege of Malta (20 May-11 September). Death of Ali Pasha; Sokullu Pasha becomes Grand Vizier.
---1566---Siege of Szigetvar (5 August - 7 September).  Suleyman I's death before Szigetvar (6 September). Ottoman campaign in Hungary.  Accession of Selim II (24 September).  Occupation of Chios.
---1567---Revolt of the Zaidite, Mutahhar, in Yemen.
---1568---Peace with the emperor (17 February).
---1569---Ottoman expedition against the Russians. Siege of  Astrakhan.  Failure of the Don-Volga canal project. (September).
---1570---Peace negotiations with the tsar.  Uluc Ali captures Tunis (January).  Expedition to Cyprus.  Conquest of Nicosia.
---1571---Formation of Holy League against the Ottomans (20 May).  Ottoman conquest of Famagusta (1 August).  Battle of Lepanto (7 Ocotber). Chesterton poem.
---1572---Devlet Giray invades Muscovy.  The Ottomans support Henry of Valois' accession to the Polish throne.  Don John of Austria captures Tunis (October).
---1573---Peace treaty with Venice (7 March).  Renewal of Peace with the emperor (3 October).
---1574---Sinan Pasha reconquers Tunis (24 August). Death of Selim II (12 Decmeber).  Accession of Murad III.
---1577---Renewal of peace with the emperor (1 January). 
---1578---Assassination of the grand vizier, Sokollu Mehmed.  War with Iran (spring).  Lala Mustafa's victory at Cildir (10 August).  Annexation of Georgia.  Shirvan and Darband (Derbent).  Battle of Alcazar in Morocco (4 August).
---1579---Persian counterattack.
---1580--- Capitulations granted to the English.
---1582---Ottoman defeat on the Kur river.
---1583---Osman Pasha's victory at Besh-Tepe (6 June).
---1585---Osman Pasha captures Tabriz (September).  Financial crisis; devaluation.
---1587---Abbas the Great declared Shah of Iran.
---1588---Ottoman conquest of Karabagh.
---1589---Revolt of the janissaries in Istanbul (3 April).
---1590---Peace with Iran (21 March). Renewal of peace with the emperor (29 November).
---1591---Further Janissary uprisings and changes in the government.
---1592---Further Janissary uprisings and changes in the government.
---1593---Rebellion of the sipahis in Istanbul (27 January).  Sinan Pasha becomes grand vizier.  Ottoman defeat at Sisak (20 June).  War with Austria (autumn).  Sinan in Hungary.  Capture of Veszprem (13 October).
---1594---Sinan captures Raab.  REbellion of Michael, voivoda of Wallachia.
---1595---Anti-Ottoman alliance between the Habsburgs, Wallachia, Moldavia and the Prince of Transylvania (January).  Death of Murad III (16 January).  Accession of Mehmed III (27 January).  Sinan in Wallachia (August).  Sinan retreats (October).  Austrians in Stuhlweissenburg and Vishegrad (8 September).  Michael of Wallachia in the Dobrudja.
---1596---Mehmed III's campaign in Hungary.  Capture of Erlau (23 September).  Battle of Mezokeresztes (26 October).  Celali disorders in Anatolia.
---1598---Austrians recapture Raab (29 March) and Veszprem and besiege Buda.  Michael attacks Nicopolis.                                                             

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