y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

Review of uses of  -v:al:a.

(adapted from Chapter Two of  Hindi Structures, pp 15-7.)

      Five uses of  -v:al:a:
 1.  -v:al:a works as a multipurpose "linker", joining two nouns in such a way that the first modifies or delimits the scope of the second, as if in a noun-noun compound:

 1a.   Ok AaúK: v:al:ð Aadm:i kað kan:a kht:ð hòø.  'They call a one-eyed man  kan:a .' 
 1b.    us:ð j:ðb:aðø v:al:i qm:iz: c:aehO.  'She wants a shirt with pockets.' 
 1c.   Aaj:v:al:a K:an:a p:s:nd Aay:a  'Did you like today's food?' 

      Notice that as a linker -v:al:a is both a postposition, requiring the oblique form of the noun it follows, and an adjective, agreeing in gender, number, and case with the noun it precedes:

 1d.   c:l:að,  hm: kp:_ðv:al:i dÜkan: m:ðø c:l:ðø.  'C'mon, let's go to the cloth store.'

2.  -v:al:a can be used as a way of characterizing human beings, usually by their occupation, but also by other distinguishing features, such as where they live or where they come from:

 2a.   dÜD:v:al:a raðz: Aat:a hò.  'The milkman comes every day.' 

 2b.    Pl:v:al:ð kñ p:as: n:aery:l: hòø ?  s:nt:rð hòø ?  Aam: hòø ?
 'Does the fruitseller have coconuts?  Tangerines?  Mangoes?' 

 2c.    g:aúv:v:al:ð Vy:a khðøg:ð ?   'What will the villagers say?' 

3.  When used with an infinitive and a form of  haðn:a,  -v:al:a can indicate the future in a way comparable to the English 'be going to V':

 3a.   n:I dØkan: K:Øl:n:ðv:al:i hò.  'A new store is going to open.'  

 3b.   l:_ki eg:rn:ð hi v:al:i T:i j:b: v:h b:c:an:ð p:hØúc:a.
 'The girl was about to fall when he got there to save her.' 

4.  Another use of -v:al:a is as an alternant to the relative clause, especially when it expresses habitual action or situations in progress (see discussion of participles):

 4a.    es:t:ar es:K:an:ðv:al:a Aadm:i Aaj: G:r p:r Aaram: kr rha hò.
 cf:    j:að Aadm:i es:t:ar es:K:at:a hò v:h Aaj: G:r p:r Aaram: kr rha hò.
 'The man who teaches sitar is relaxing at home today.' 
 4b.    s:am:n:ð s:ð Aan:ðv:al:i m:aðXr m:ðri m:aðXr s:ð Xkra g:I.
 cf:    j:að m:aðXr s:m:n:ð s:ð Aa rhi T:i v:h m:ðri m:aðXr s:ð Xkra g:I.
 'An oncoming car collided with mine.' 
 4c.    RaúX K:an:ðv:al:ð kam: . . .
 cf:    kam: j:að krn:ð s:ð Aadm:i RaúX K:at:a hò . . .
 'Things which a person gets scolded for doing...' 
      ( from Chapter 7 of  m:nn:Ü B:NRari's novel  Aap:ka b:øXi )

5.  -v:al:a may be used with the non-oblique form of adjectives, especially when the speaker is pointing to something:

 5a.   v:hv:al:i qm:iz: diej:O.  'Give me that shirt (over there).'  

 5b.    y:ðv:al:ð Aam: n:hiø c:aehy:ðø.  v:h p:il:ðv:al:ð dað !
 'I don't want these mangos (here).  Give me those yellow ones (there).' 


To index of grammatical notes.

To index of m:lhar.

Keyed in and posted 9-10 Sept 2001.