y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

Participial adverbs: V- t:ð s:m:y:,  V- t:ð hi ,  V- t:ð  V- t:ð .

I.    In Hindi a relative clause beginning with  j:b:  may be collapsed into a phrase containing a form of the verb in - t:ð  followed by  s:m:y:  or  v:]t: H
1.   p:ha_aðø m:ðø j:b: b:fý eg:r rhi hað t:að b:ahr n:hiø j:an:a c:aehy:ð.
    'In the mountains when it snows you should not go outside.'

2.   b:fý eg:rt:ð s:m:y: Andr rhað.
    'Stay inside when it snows.'

The form in -t:ð  is a non-finite form. If its agent is different from the agent of the main clause its subject is treated the same way as the subject of an infinitive (see notes):

3.   hm:arð b:ahr en:kl:t:ð s:m:y: Aas:m:an: m:ðø b:adl: Ca rhð T:ð.
    'When we went out clouds were gathering in the sky.'

If the agent of V- t:ð  is the same as the agent of the main clause, it is not separately expressed :

4.   K:ðt:aðø m:ðø G:Üm:t:ð v:]t: hm: Aas:m:an: ki t:rf dðK:t:ð rhð.
    'While we were strolling in the fields we kept looking at the sky.'

II.   By replacing  s:m:y:  or v:]t:  with  hi  one may express 'as soon as' :

5.   eb:j:l:i c:m:kt:ð hi p:an:i b:rs:n:ð l:g:a Aaòr hm: v:haú s:ð B:ag: en:kl:ð.
    'As soon as the lighting flashed it began to rain and we made a run for it.'

Subjects of V- t:ð hi  phrases are treated the same way as those of V -  t:ð s:m:y:  phrases :

6.   hm:arð G:r p:hØúc:t:ð hi p:an:i b:rs:n:a b:nd hað g:y:a.
    'As soon as we got home it stopped raining.'

Just as V- t:ð s:m:y:  has its alternatives in a  j:b:  clause, so V- t:ð hi  has its alternatives in a relative clause introduced by  jy:aðø hi  or  j:òs:ð hi :
7.   jy:aðø hi D:Üp: en:kl:i ty:aðø hi g:rm:i m:hs:Üs: haðn:ð l:g:i
    'As soon as the sun came out we began to feel the heat.'

8.   j:òs:ð hi b:rs:at: S:Ø- haðt:i hò v:òs:ð hi g:rm:i km: haðn:ð l:g:t:i hò.
    'As soon as the rainy season starts the heat begins to recede.'

III.  V- t:ð  or V- t:ð hØO  express 'during' or 'so long as':

9.   Aøg:iYi m:ðø Aag: kñ rht:ð hØO Ap:n:ð haT: s:ðøk l:ðn:a.
    'You better warm your hands while there's still fire in the grate.'

The clausal equivalent of V- t:ð  is introduced by  j:b: t:k  (14B):

10. j:b: t:k Aøg:iYi m:ðø Aag: rhðg:i t:b: t:k t:Ømhðø YNR n:hiø l:g:ðg:i.
    'As long as there is fire in the grate you won't feel cold.'

V- t:ð  or V- t:ð hØO  phrases are often used as adverbs to the finite verb :

11. v:h "  c:aðr p:k_að !   c:aðr p:k_að !"  ec:ll:at:ð ( hØO )  B:ag:n:ð l:g:a.
    'He began to run, shouting,'stop thief! Stop thief!'"

IV.  Repetition of V- t:ð  may give the sense of 'by the time' or 'before' :

12. s:Ürj: en:kl:t:ð en:kl:t:ð p:¡NRt:j:i n:di ki Aaðr c:l: edy:ð T:ð.
    'By the time the sun came up Pandit Ji had left for the river.'

Its clausal equivalent is also introduced by  j:b: t:k :

13. j:b: t:k s:Ürj: en:kl:a t:b: t:k p:¡NRt:j:i n:ð st:að*: p:` el:y:ð T:ð.
    'By the time the sun came up Pandit Ji had already read his stotras.'

More commonly V- t:ð   V- t:ð  may express a gradual process leading to the result expressed by the finite verb :

14. t:v:a m:aúj:t:ð m:aúj:t:ð m:òø s:af kr hi dÜúg:a.
    'By scrubbing and scrubbing I'll finally get the wok clean.'

15. s:aT: rht:ð rht:ð b:Ü`a b:Ü`i Ok dÜs:rð s:ð S:kl: m:ðø em:l:n:ð j:Øl:n:ð l:g:ð T:ð.
    'From living together (so long) the old man and woman had come to resemble each other.'

As a special or idiomatic case of this, V- t:ð   V- t:ð  may simply express the cumulative gradualness of an action :

16. Aaús:Ü ,kt:ð ,kt:ð t:að ,kñùg:ð.
    'It takes a while for tears to stop (but they finally will stop).'

17. ehndi Aat:ð Aat:ð Aat:i hò.
    'One learns Hindi bit by bit over a very long time.'

    Perhaps the most frequent use of V- t:ð   V- t:ð  is to express the ongoing progression of an action which is the backdrop or setting for an intervening action:

18. m:òø B:ag:t:ð B:ag:t:ð eg:r p:_i.
    'I fell down in the act of running away.'

19. b:aðl:t:ð b:aðl:t:ð m:ael:k n:ð G:_i p:r n:z:r Ral:i.
    'In the midst of speaking the owner glanced at his watch.'

20. hm:arð p:Øl: p:ar krt:ð krt:ð r¡ss:y:aú XÜXn:ð l:g:iø.
    'Just as we were crossing the bridge the ropes began to give way.'

To use V- t:ð  in these cases (rather than V- t:ð  V- t:ð ) would give the sense of 'while V-ing' rather than 'right in the middle of V-ing'.

    For more on V- t:ð   V- t:ð  see notes on reduplication of participles in the expression of limits and results as well as general notes on participles.  For further information also see Abbi 1977.

These notes also appear as § 15B of  Hindi Structures, pp 137-142.

Matching exercise on participial adverbs.

Transformation exercise on participial adverbs.

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Keyed in by  ev:v:ðk Ag:rv:al: 20-22 May 2002. Posted 24 May 2002.