y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

15A.  ka of subject.

    In Hindi, if a verb is not finite, that is, if it is not altered for number, gender or person, then its subject is usually marked with ka :

    kÙC B:Vt: c:aht:ð hòø ek y:h dðv:t:a p:àTv:i p:r AaO.
    kÙC B:Vt: Es: dðv:t:a ka p:àTv:i p:r Aan:a c:aht:ð hòø.
    'Some devotees want this deity to come to earth.';

In the first sentence the verb AaO  'come' agrees in number and person with its subject y:h dðv:t:a . In the second sentence Aa- occurs in a non-finite form, in this case, the infinitive. Its subject, therefore, is marked with kaH Es: dðv:t:a ka Aan:a , literally 'the coming of this deity'. Naturally, if the infinitive of such a subject is itself followed by a postposition (see 9B), then we find  of subject:

    p:r p:Øj:ari us:kñ D:rt:i p:r j:nm: l:ðn:ð s:ð Rrt:ð hòø.
    'But the priests are afraid of his being born on Earth.'

    ka of subject is a very important use of ka in Hindi. It applies to the subjects of many other non-finite forms besides those of infinitives in -n:aH see 15B. In Hindi subject (of the finnte verb) has a two-part definition: 1) Anything followed by the posposition n:ð is a subject. 2) If  n:ð  is absent, then that with which the verb agrees in number, gender or person is the subject. In the following, s:Üz:n: is followed by n:ð , so s:Üz:n: is the subject of  B:ðj:aH

    m:ØJ:ð y:h p:s:ød n:hiø Aay:a ek s:Üz:n: n:ð v:h p:*: B:ðj:a.
    'I didn't like it that Susan sent the letter.'

The same thing can be said with a non-finite form of  B:ðj:- and ka of subject :

    s:Üz:n: ka v:h p:*: B:ðj:n:a m:ØJ:ð p:s:nd n:hiø Aay:a.
It is important to bear in mind that a subject is not necessarily an agent, and vice versa. In the following, while Et:n:i b:at:ðø is not the agent of  m:al:Üm: haðn:a  it is the subject and for that reason gets  ka H

    t:Ømhðø Es: um:r m:ðø Et:n:i b:at:aðø ka m:al:Üm: haðn:a AcCa n:hiø hò.
    'It's not good for you to know so many things at this age.'

Similarily, g:a_i is the subject, but not the agent, in :

    Es: g:a_i ka s:aðm:v:ar t:k Yik eky:a j:an:a n:am:Øm:ekn: hò.
    'It's impossible for this car to be fixed by Monday.'

If the subject of an infinitive is the same as the agent of the main verb it is usually replaced by Ap:n:a H

    Ap:n:a Et:n:i j:ldi p:hc:an:a j:an:a m:ØJ:ð eb:l:kÙl: AcCa n:hiø l:g:a.
    'I did not like my being recognized so quickly one bit.'

    Inanimate subjects, especially if they are intangible ( c:aðX ) or undifferentiable ( p:an:i ), tend more often not to get  ka  of subject :

    Aaj: p:an:i b:rs:n:a m:Ø¡Skl: hò.
    'It's unlikely to rain today.'

    b:arh b:j:n:ð ka Eøt:z:ar krað.
    'Wait for it to strike 12.'

    unhðø c:aðX Aan:a s:mB:v: T:a.
    'They might have gotten hurt.'

In these cases few speakers would choose to have ka ( or  ) follow p:an:i,  b:arh or c:aðX . Unfortunately the presence or absence of  ka  with such subjects depends somewhat on the identity of the final expression, too. A rule is hard to find.

    eks:an: p:an:i (  ) b:rs:n:ð ki )t:ix:a m:ðø hòø.
    'The farmers are waiting for it to rain.'

    Es: m:aòs:m: m:ðø Aadm:i kað z:Økam: hað j:an:ð ka Rr hò.
    'In this weather a body's liable to catch cold.'

    kaðI p:rðS:an:i n:hiø. kl: D:Üp: ka en:kl:n:a p:Vka hò.
    'Don't worry. The sun's bound to come out tomorrow.

    The same rules for  ka  of subject apply to infinitive followed by postpositions like m:ðø,  p:r,  t:k,  kñ b:ad,  kñ p:hl:ð,  etc.

    n:I v:ðsp:a kñ )apt: eky:ð j:an:ð m:ðø kI p:rðS:aen:y:aú AaIø.
    'Many difficulties attended the acquisition of a new Vespa.'

    m:ðrð em:*:aðø kñ Aan:ð kñ p:hl:ð hi eb:skÙX Q:tm: eky:ð j:a c:Økñ T:ð.
    'By the time my friends arrived the cookies had already been finished off.'

    b:cc:i kñ p:tT:r en:g:l:n:ð s:ð m:aú kñ p:ðX m:ðø ddü haðn:ð l:g:a.
    'The mother got a stomachache from her daughter's having swallowed a stone.

Coloquial speech tends to avoid constructions requiring  ka  of subject in favor of  ek -clauses or  j:b:-clauses

Drill 15A.  ka  of subject.

    Vocab.      s:mB:v:    10 -- possible
                     As:mB:v:    13 -- impossible
                     uec:t:    2 -- fitting, proper, best
                     Aen:v:ay:ü    2 -- inevitable; compulsory
                     keYn:    17 -- difficult; unlikely
                     n:am:Øm:ekn:    1 -- impossible
                     V- n:a Yik rhn:a    -- to be ok to V
                     V- n:ð kñ hq m:ðø haðn:a    -- to be in favor of V-ing

    Answer the following questions either positively or negatively using an infinitive and the governing expressions presented in parentheses.


    Vy:a b:fý eg:rðg:i ? ( s:mB:v: / As:mB:v: )
    'Will it snow ?'

                            s:mB:v: hò.
    haú,  b:fý eg:rn:i
                            As:mB:v: n:hiø hò.
    'Yes, possibly'        'It's not impossible.'

                            s:mB:v: n:hiø hò.
    n:hiø,  b:fý eg:rn:i
                            As:mB:v: hò.
    'It's not possible.'         'No, impossible.'

    Vy:a s:ðn:a hX j:aO ?   ( uec:t: )
    Vy:a m:ØJ:ð p:rix:a dðn:i p:_ðg:i ?   ( Aen:v:ay:ü )
    Vy:a AcCi p:tn:i em:l:ðg:i ?   ( keYn: )
    Vy:a m:òø Aap:kñ p:as: b:òYÜø,  dadaj:i ?   ( z:-ri )
    Vy:a unhðø Afs:aðs: hò ?   ( m:Øm:ekn:  or  n:am:Øm:ekn: )
    Vy:a eb:j:l:i y:haú p:hØúc:ðg:i ?   ( p:Vka )
    Vy:a m:òø ep:t:a kað b:t:aUú ?   ( Yik rhn:a )
    Vy:a c:aðr p:k_ð j:aOøg:ð ?   ( s:øB:v: )
    Vy:a eb:ll:i m:r j:aOg:i ?   ( V-n:ð ka Rr )
   Vy:a b:cc:ð y:h eflm: dðK: s:kt:ð hòø ?   ( m:n:a )
   Vy:a ( hm: )  l:hraðø m:ðø K:ðl:ðø ?  ( AcCa )
   ( Aap:kñ Qy:al: m:ðø ) Vy:a ran:i v:haú rhðø ?   ( V-n:ð kñ hq m:ðø )

Drill 15A. Key.

    haú,  s:ðn:a ka hX j:an:a uec:t: hò.
      n:hiø,  s:ðn:a ka hX j:an:a uec:t: n:hiø hò.

    haú,  t:Ømhara p:rix:a dðn:a Aen:v:ay:ü hò.
      n:hiø,  t:Ømhara p:rix:a dðn:a Aen:v:ay:ü n:hiø hò.

    haú,  AcCi p:tn:i em:l:n:i keYn: n:hiø hò.
      n:hiø,  AcCi p:tn:i em:l:n:i keYn: hò.

    haú,  t:Ømhara m:ðrð p:as: b:òYn:a z:-ri hò.
      n:hiø,  t:Ømhara m:ðr( p:as: b:òYn:a z:-ri n:hiø &r.

    haú,  un:kað Afs:aðs: haðn:a /  m:Øm:ekn: hò. / n:am:Øm:ekn: n:hiø hò.
      n:hiø,  un:kað Afs:aðs: haðn:a / m:Øm:ekn: n:hiø hò. / n:am:Øm:ekn: hò.

    haú,  eb:j:l:i ka y:haú p:hØúc:n:a p:Vka hò.
      n:hiø,  eb:j:l:i ka y:haú p:hØúc:n:a p:Vka n:hiø hò.

    haú,  Aap:ka ep:t:a kað b:t:an:a Yik rhðg:a.
       n:hiø,  Aap:ka ep:t:a kað b:t:an:a Yik n:hiø rhðg:a.

    haú,  c:aðraðø ka p:k_a j:an:a s:mB:v: hò.
      n:hiø,  c:aðraðø ka p:k_a j:an:a s:mB:v: n:hiø hò.

    haú,  eb:ll:i kñ m:r j:an:ð ka Rr hò.
      n:hiø,  eb:ll:i kñ m:r j:an:ð ka Rr n:hiø hò.

   haú,  b:cc:aðø kað ( or ka ) y:h eflm: dðK:n:a m:n:a n:hiø hò.
      n:hiø,  b:cc:að kað ( or ka ) y:h eflm: dðK:n:a m:n:a hò.

   haú,  l:hraðø m:ðø K:ðl:n:a AcCa hò.
      n:hiø,  l:hraðø m:ðø K:ðl:n:a AcCa n:hiø hò.

   haú,  m:òø ran:i kñ v:haú rhn:ð kñ hq m:ðø hÜú.
      n:hiø,  m:òø ran:i kñ v:haú rhn:ð kñ hq m:ðø n:hiø hÜú.
      n:hiø,  m:òø ran:i kñ v:haú n: rhn:ð kñ hq m:ðø hÜú.

Exercise 15A.   ka of subject

    Translate into Hindi, using ka of subject.

1.    Her girlfriend is unlikely to have matches.
2.    The tourists are waiting ( )t:ix:a m:ðø ) for the sun to come out.
3.    People here won't like ( p:s:nd ) your burping after eating.
4.    Actually it's always possible for accidents to happen.
5.    If you spit in the bus the conductors liable to get mad..
6.    You are sure to be implicated in this affair.
7.    It's essential ( z:-ri ) for the yogurt to set.


    us:ki s:hðl:i kñ p:as: m:aec:s: ( ka ) haðn:a m:Ø¡Skl:  or keYn: ) hò.
    XÜersX D:Üp: (  ) en:kl:n:ð ki )t:ix:a m:ðø hòø.
    y:haú kñ l:aðg: t:Ømhara K:an:ð kñ b:ad Rkar m:arn:a p:s:ød n:hiø krðøg:ð.
      y:haú kñ l:aðg:aðø kað t:Ømhara K:an:ð kñ b:ad Rkar m:arn:a p:s:ød n:hiø AaOg:a.
    v:òs:ð t:að dØG:üXn:a  / ka haðn:a / haðn:i hm:ðS:a s:mB:v: ( or m:Øm:ekn: ) hò.
    t:Ømharð b:s: m:ðø T:Ükn:ð s:ð kNRVXr kað g:Øss:a Aan:ð ka Rr hò.
      Ag:r t:Øm: b:s: m:ðø T:Ükaðg:ð ) t:að kNRVXr kñ n:araz: haðn:ð ka Rr hò.
    Es: m:am:l:ð m:ðø t:Ømharð n:am: ka el:y:a j:an:a p:Vka / Aen:v:ay:ü hò.
    dhi ka j:m:n:a z:-ri hò.