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j:an:ð ka n:am: n:hiø l:ðt:a !  Types of emphatic negation.

       Negation is a necessary but potentially dangerous part of human language.  The danger lies in the risk negation poses to face.  Contradicting what someone has either said or believes (or seems to believe) may have undesirable consequences for the speaker.  Thus, it is not surprising that Hindi-Urdu like other languages has developed a wide range of options for handling negation.  These can be divided into two kinds:  1. Direct, forceful expression of negation.  2. Indirect expression of it.  The first kind attempts to secure agreement by aggressive assertion; the second, by leading hearers to draw their own (negative) conclusions.  Humor sometimes plays a part, too.

 I.  Direct negation:

       A.  Elaborated with  n:am: :

  1.   ... qz:ü v:h m:ðhm:an: hò j:að Ok b:ar Aakr j:an:ð ka n:am: n:hiø l:ðt:a.
        'Debt is the guest who once he comes he never leaves!'

        (from Chapter Eight of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

  2.   ... m:al:t:i c:Øm:kart:i T:i,  T:p:kt:i T:i,  t:s:v:irðø edK:at:i T:i,  g:aðd m:ðø l:ðkr Xhl:t:i T:i,  p:r b:cc:a c:Øp: haðn:ð ka n:am: n:hiø l:ðt:a T:a.
        'Malati made kissing sounds, patted him, showed him pictures, walked back and forth with him in her arms, but the boy wouldn't stop crying.'

        (from Chapter Thirty-three of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 Use of V-n:ð kað t:òy:ar n: hað-  provides near equivalents:

  1'. ... j:að Ok b:ar Aakr j:an:ð kað t:òy:ar n:hiø haðt:a.
  2'. ... b:cc:a c:Øp: haðn:ð kað t:òy:ar n:hiø haðt:a T:a.

 V-n:ð ka n:am: n:hiø l:ð- is most commonly used with third person subjects.

       B.  Elaborated with  kam: :

  3.  m:Øúh AúD:ðrð c:l:i j:an:a Aaòr us:ð b:Øl:a l:an:a;  m:g:r n:hiø,  b:Øl:an:ð ka kam: n:hiø.
        'First thing in the morning you go to Sonari and tell him to come.  But no, on second thought there's no reason to call him here.'

        (from Chapter Twenty-four of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

  4.  l:al:-l:al: AaúK:ðø en:kal:kr b:aðl:a,  " t:Øm: m:ðrð G:r m:ðø m:t: Aay:a krað,  c:Øha,  t:Ømharð Aan:ð ka kÙC kam: n:hiø.
        'Glaring (at her) with red eyes he said,  "Don't come to my house, Chuha!  There's no reason for you to come here."'

        (from Chapter Twenty-seven of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

 V-n:ð ki kaðI v:j:h n:hiø  gives a similar sense:

  3'. ... ( us:ð )  b:Øl:an:ð ki kaðI v:j:h n:hiø hò.
  4'. ...  t:Ømharð Aan:ð ki kaðI v:j:h n:hiø hò.

 V-n:ð ka kam: n:hiø   is most commonly used with second person subjects.

       C. "Southwestern" negation.  ( in  ka ):

  5.  t:Øm: l:aðg:aðø ki Es:m:ðø B:i z:-r kaðI S:rart: hò.  t:Øm: g:øg:a m:ðø RÜb:kr B:i Ap:n:i s:faI dað;  t:að m:an:n:ð ka n:hiø.
        'You guys are up to something in this thing, too.  Even if you bathe in the Ganges, I'm not gonna believe you.'

        (from Chapter Sixteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)



II.  Indirect negation:

  5.       m:òø m:ri T:að_ð hi j:at:i T:i !
  6.       m:ØJ:ð un:ka Vy:a Rr T:a ?
  7.  ej:s:kñ daút: n:hiø dØK:ð,  v:h daút:aðø ka ddü Vy:a j:an:ð ?
        'What does he whose teeth never ached know of the pain of a tooth-ache?'  (He doesn't know anything.)

        (from Chapter Thirty-one of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

  (to be continued)


 Other sections dealing with negation:

        1.  V-n:ðv:al:a  to express disapproval, disbelief, defiance or denial.
        2.  m:j:al: hò !  Warning and warding off.
        3.  m:ar K:aO eb:n:a n:hiø m:an:t:a H  Without V-ing.
        4.  rha n:hiø j:at:a H  Passive of incapacity
        5.  b:n:aO n: b:n:ð H Paired verbs and incapacity.
To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Keyed in and posted 22 - 24 Aug 2004.