y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

Notes on V-n:ðv:al:a with n:hiø or kaòn:.

       Hindi-Urdu speakers use the infinitive in -v:al:a together with a negative or an interrogative pronoun to express strong disapproval, disbelief, defiance, or denial:

(1) y:h em:l:v:al:aðø Aaòr eks:an:aðø kñ b:ic: ka m:ØAam:l:a hò. s:rkar Es:m:ðø dQ:l: dðn:ðv:al:i kaòn: ?
      'This matter is between the mill-owners and the farmers. Who is the government to interfere?'

      (from )ðm:c:nd's g:aðdan:, Chapter Twenty-two. See context.)

(2) G:r t:Ømhara, m:ael:k t:Øm:, m:òø B:l:a kaòn: haðt:i hÜú, t:Ømhðø G:r s:ð en:kal:n:ðv:al:i ?
      'The house belongs to you. You're the lord and master. Who am I to throw you out of your house?!'

      (from g:aðdan:, Chapter Four. See context.)

(3) j:b: B:òy:a n:ð p:ndÒh ,p:y:ð m:ðö s:aòda kr el:y:a, t:að y:h b:ic: m:ðö kÜdn:ðv:al:i kaòn: !
      'When Brother has made the deal for 15 rupees, who is she to jump into the middle?'

      (from g:aðdan:, Chapter Four. See context.)

(4) v:h m:ØJ:s:ð m:z:aq krt:i hò, edK:at:i hò ek m:ØJ:ð t:ðri p:rv:ah n:hiø hò; l:ðekn: m:òø ehmm:t: harn:ðv:al:a m:n:Ø\y: n:hiø hÜú.
      'She makes fun of me, shows that she doesn't care one bit about me. But I am not a man to lose heart.'

       g:aðdan:, Chapter Seven. See context.

To express denial, disbelief, etc. a j:að-clause with the infinitive can almost always be used instead of V- n:ð v:al:a. Compare (5b) with (6):

(5a) kÙm:ar ki Vy:a ray: hò, v:ð j:ay:ðøg:ð y:a n:hiø ?
      'What does the prince have to say about this? Will he go or not?'

       (from c:ndÒkant:a, Chapter Four.)

(5b) Aap: Q:Ød j:an:t:ð hòø ek kØm:ar kal: s:ð B:i Rrn:ðv:al:ð n:hiø, v:h j:al:im: Q:aú Vy:a c:iz: hò !
      'You yourself know that the prince is not one to fear Death Itself. What is Zalim Khan in comparison?'

       (from c:ndÒkant:a, Chapter Four.)

(6) Aaðökarn:aT: un: Aadem:y:aðö m:ðö n:hiø hò j:að En: D:m:eky:aðö s:ð Rr j:ay:.
      'Omkarnath is not one of those men who fears threats such as these.'

       (from g:aðdan:, Chapter Six. See context.)

Indeed, at times such clauses must be used:

(7) ePr eks:ki ehmm:t: hò, j:að us: p:r hús:ð
      'Then who would have the nerve to laugh at her ... ?'

       (from g:aðdan:, Chapter Twenty-six. See context.)

(8a) kÙm:ar :    t:Ømharð m:ael:k ka Vy:a n:am: hò ?
      'The prince: "What is the name of your master?"'

(8b) Ok :     Oðs:i eks:ki m:j:al: hò j:að hm:arð m:ael:k ka n:am: l:ð !
      'One (of the women): "Who would dare to utter the name of our master?"'

       (from c:ndÒkant:a, Chapter Four.)

See more notes on m:j:al: with infinitives or j:að-clauses.

Note from kÙs:Øm: j:òn:: The person, number, and gender of the subject in the main clause may carry over into a j:að-clause like that in (5b) just in case there is no intervening predicate noun:

(9a) m:òø Oðs:i n:hiø hÜú j:að t:Ømhðø D:aðK:a / / / dÜú.
      'I am not the sort to deceive you.'

If a predicate noun such as Aaòrt: (9b) or kaòn: (9c) intervenes, such carry-over is blocked:

(9b) m:òø Oðs:i Aaòrt: n:hiø hÜú j:að t:Ømhðø D:aðK:a dð.
      'I am not the sort of woman to deceive you.'

(9c) m:òø Oðs:i kaòn: hÜú j:að t:Ømhðø D:aðK:a dð.
      'Who am I to deceive you?'

More on j:að-clauses with the subjunctive.

Exercise on V- n:ðv:al:a with interrogatives or negatives.

 Other sections dealing with negation:

        1.  m:j:al: hò !  Warning and warding off.
        2.  m:ar K:aO eb:n:a n:hiø m:an:t:a H  Without V-ing.
        3.  rha n:hiø j:at:a H  Passive of incapacity
        4.  b:n:aO n: b:n:ð H  Paired verbs and incapacity.
        5.  j:an:ð ka n:am: n:hiø l:ðt:a H  Empahtic negation.
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Drafted 3-5 Jan 2001. Posted on 5-8 Jan 2001. Augmented 14 Jan 2001. IE-enabled 15 June 2002. Cross-referenced 22 Aug 2004.