Structure and Function of Running Waters
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Channels and flow. Hydrology. Characteristics of river channels. Summary.
Streamwater chemistry. Dissolved gases. Major dissolved components of river water. The bicarbonate buffer system, alkalinity and hardness. Influence of chemical factors on the biota. Summary.
Physical factors of importance to the biota. Current. Substrate. Temperature. Oxygen. Summary.
Autotrophs. Periphyton. Macrophytes. Phytoplankton. Summary.
Heterotrophic energy sources. Decomposition of coarse particulate organic matter. Fine particulate organic matter. Dissolved organic matter. Summary.
Trophic relationships. The microbial loop. Invertebrate consumers. The feeding ecology of riverine fishes. Lotic food webs. Summary.
Predation and its consequences. Choice and vulnerability. Predator control of prey distribution and abundances. Summary.
Herbivory. Periphyton-grazer interactions. Herbivory on macrophytes. Grazing on lotic phytoplankton. Summary.
Competitive interactions. Distributional patterns and resource partitioning. Experimental studies of competition. Summary.
Drift. Composition and periodicity. Drift and downstream displacement. Functional basis of drift. Summary.
Lotic communities. Local and regional diversity. Community structure. Summary.
Organic matter in lotic ecosystems. Dynamics of dissolved and particulate organic matter. Fate of dissolved and particulate organic carbon. Organic matter budgets. The river continuum concept. Summary.
Nutrient dynamics. Basic principles of nutrient cycling. Nutrient concentrations in running waters. Transport and transformation of nutrients. Summary.
Modification of running waters by humankind. Brief history of river modification. Dams and impoundments. Transformation of the land. Alien species. Climate change. Imperilment of the biota. Recovery and restoration of running waters. Summary. Index.
J.D. Allan, School of Natural Resources & Environment
University of Michigan