Sources

It was only fairly recently (2021) that I realized that I should document the sources of some of the terms that I define or explain in the Glossary. I realized that especially when I was reading Irwin (2017) and was adding terms from there that I might later want to go back to. From then on, I've done my best to include my sources unless they came from a website that I was linking the term itself to.

Since then I have also made some efforts -- so far very incomplete -- to look back at terms that I had included in the Glossary previously. Where possible, if I can find a source for at least part of what I've written for the term, I've included that here as well. This typically is for terms that I would not have been familiar with myself.


Abnormal Importations Act Irwin (2017 p. 489)
Active labor market policy Krueger (2020 p. 276)
Agglomeration economy "Can Silicon Valley still dominate global innovation?" The Economist, April 16, 2022. Link
Agricultural Adjustment Act Irwin (2017 p. 502)
All-Russian Cooperative Society Mulder (2022 p. 212)
Amber Road J. M. de Navarro, "Prehistoric Routes between Northern Europe and Italy Defined by the Amber Trade," The Geographical Journal 66(6), December 1925, pp. 481-503. Link
American Commercial Invasion Irwin (2017 p. 362)
American selling price Irwin (2017 p. 635)
American system Irwin (2017 p. 178)
Anaconda Plan "AnacondaPlan," Encyclopedia Virginia. Link
Anglo-American Mutual Aid Agreement B.S.K., 'The Anglo-American Trade Agreement,' Bulletin of International News 15(24), Dec 3, 1938, pp. 3-10. Link
Anglo-American Trade Agreement B.S.K., 'The Anglo-American Trade Agreement,' Bulletin of International News 15(24), Dec 3, 1938, pp. 3-10. Link
Antidumping Act of 1916 Irwin (2017 p. 435)
Apostle of protection Irwin (2017 p. 455)
Argol agreements Irwin (2017 p. 372)
Article 16 1. "The Covenant of the League of Nations," Office of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute, United States Department of State. Link
2. Tom Edgington and Chris Morris, "Brexit: What's the Northern Ireland Protocol?" BBC News, February 3, 2021. Link
Autarchia Mulder (2022 p. 315)
Bandung Conference "The Bandung Conference concludes," This Day in History, April 24, 1955, history.com Link;
Susan Engel, "South-South Cooperation in Southeast Asia: From Bandung and Solidarity to Norms and Rivalry,"" Journal of Current South-East Asian Affairs, 38(2), 2019. Link
Base Erosion and Anti-Abuse Tax Davies, Jon, "GILTI, FDII and BEAT: What They Mean for U.S. Multinationals"", armanino, Apr 29, 2019. Link
Beggar thy neighbor Willis & Porter, "The Pencil of Nature: A New Discovery," 1839, p. 5, Link.
Armstrong, Stocks and Stock-jobbing in Wall Street, 1848, p. 20, Link.
Norris, W.E., The Fight for the Crown, 1898. Link
Everett, William, "Shall We Build More Warships?" The Advocate of Peace, March 1895. Link.
England, George Allen, The Golden Blight, 1916, Link
Benign neglect Peter Kihss, "'Benign Neglect' on Race is Proposed by Moynihan," New York Times, March 1, 1970, Link;
Max Frankel, "Is Benign Neglect the Real Nixon Approach," New York Times, March 8, 1970, Link.
Black Death "Black Death," History.com. Link "
Border adjustment tax Gale, William G., "A quick guide to the 'border adjustments' tax," Real Clear Markets, February 7, 2017. Link
Buenos Aires Consensus Geier, Kathleen, "How Economic Populism Is Transforming the Most Unequal Region of the Globe." The Nation, March 13, 2014. Link
Burke-Hartke Bill Irwin (2017 p. 647)
Butter mountain Reinhorn, Leslie J., "Butter mountains and wine lakes," Economics Letters 94(2), February 2007, pp. 187-20 Link
Buy American Act of 1988 "H.R.4848 - Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988," Congress.gov. Link
Chaco Embargo "League Declares For Embargo on Arms to Paraguay And Bolivia," Madera Tribune, May 17, 1934. Link;
"U.S. Ends Chaco Embargo," New York Times, November 15, 1935. Link
Change through trade Noah Barkin, "Germany's Strategic Gray Zone With China," Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, March 25, 2020. Link
Chaperoning "Neil Robson Discusses 'Chaperoning' as a Brexit Workaround." Firm News, Katten, November 1, 2021. Link
Code of Trade Liberalization Irwin (2017 p. 622)
Collective security Mulder (2022 p. 24)
Commission on Foreign Economic Policy Irwin (2017 p. 615)
Commission on International Trade and Investment Policy Irwin (2017 p. 645)
Committee on Economic Sanctions Mulder (2022 p. 258)
Competitive liberalization Irwin (2017 p. 926)
Conditional MFN Irwin (2017 p. 437)
Contagion Krueger (2020 p. 63 )
Container Levine, Judah, "The History of the Shipping Container," Freightos, April 24, 2016. Link
Contraband "contraband," Dictionary.com Link
Convention of Oslo Mulder (2022 p. 239);
"Tariff Truce Reported," New York Times, Tuesday December 23, 1930. Link
Convention on Financial Assistance Mulder (2022 p. 29)
Cross currency basis James, Jessica, Michael Leister, and Christoph Rieger, Random Walks in Fixed Income and Foreign Exchange, Chapter 1, "What Really is the Cross-Currency Basis?" 2021. Link
Currency manipulator "Factbox: Yellen's watchlist for the U.S. currency manipulator tag," Reuters, December 1, 2021. Link
De minimis rule "America's tariff wall on Chinese imports looks increasingly like Swiss cheese," Economist, February 26, 2022. Link;
"De Minimis Value -- Express Shipment Exemptions," International Trade Administration Link
Defense Production Act Siripurapu, Anshu, "What Is the Defense Production Act?"" Council on Foreign Relations, January 26, 2021. Link
Deglobalization Kornprobst, Markus and Jon Wallace, "What Is Deglobalization?" Chatham House, October 18, 2021. Link
Destination principle OECD International VAT/GST Guidelines: Guidelines on Neutrality, Committee on Fiscal Affairs, Working Party #9 on Consumption Taxes, Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, June 28, 2011 Link
Dirty compromise Irwin (2017 p. 85)
Dollar gap Irwin (2017 p. 595)
Dollar Index "Dollar Index (DXY) the barometer for global currencies," Motilal Oswal Investment Servicves Link
Double Irish Investopedia Link
Doux commerce Emma Borg, "The thesis of 'doux commerce' and the social licence to operate framework," Business Ethics, the Environment & Responsibility 30(3), July 2021, pp. 412-422. Link
Economic statecraft David A. Baldwin, "Economic statecraft," Britannica. Link
Economic Weapon, The Mulder (2022)
Embargo Act of 1807 Robert McNamara, "The Full Story of Thomas Jefferson's Embargo Act of 1807," ThoughtCo. Link
Energy Crisis of the 1970s "Energy Crisis (1970s)," History.com Link;
Graefe, Laura, "Oil Shock of 1978-79," Federal Reserve History, November 22, 2013. Link
Establishment "Establishment, firm, or enterprise: does the unit of analysis matter?" Monthly Labor Review, Bureau of Labor Statistics, November 2016. Link
Europe à la carte EUABC.com. Link
Export Control Act "Relations with Japan 1938-1940," Peace and War: United States Foreign Policy, 1931-1941, United States Department of State, Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1943, p. 97. Link
First sale customs valuation "Use of the 'First Sale Rule' for Customs Valuation of U.S. Imports,"" USITC #4121 Link
Flag of convenience "Flag of convenience," Cambridge Dictionary Link
Flexible tariff Irwin (2017 p. 429)
Flow of funds "Flow Of Funds (FOF)," Investopedia Link
Force Bill Irwin (2017 p. 219)
Fourteen Points "The Fourteen Points," The National WWI Museum and Memorial. Link
Frankincense Trail Roberts, David, "On the Frankincense Trail," Smithsonian Magazine, October 1998 Link;
"What Was Traded In The Incense Trade Route?" WorldAtlas Link.
Free good Mulder (2022 p. 35)
Free Trade Convention Irwin (2017 p. 210)
Gephardt Amendment Irwin (2017 p. 719)
Gray areas Krueger (2020 p. 173)
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Irwin (2017 p. 490)
Gucci exemption "Could the West punish China the way it has punished Russia?" The Economist, April 23, 2022. Link
Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act "S.945 - Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, 116th Congress (2019-2020)," Congress.gov. Link
Human Development Index Source Link
Immigration Act of 1924 "Historical Highlights: The Immigration Act of 1924," History, Art, & Archives, United States House of Representatives. Link
Import Duties Act of 1932 Irwin (2017 p. 489)
Iowa Idea Irwin (2017 p. 388)
Italian-Ethiopian Sanctions "Italo-Ethiopian War," Britannica. Link
Jay Treaty Irwin (2017 p. 125)
Job polarization Keller, Wolfgang and Hâle Utar, 2016. "International Trade and Job Polarization: Evidence at the Worker-Level," NBER Working Paper #22315 (June). Link
Jokers Irwin (2017 p. 399)
Just-in-case Willy Shih, "From Just-In-Time To Just-In-Case: Is Excess And Obsolete Next?" Forbes, January 30, 2022. Link
Just-in-time Rosemary Carlson, "Just-In-Time (JIT) Inventory Management," The Balance Small Business, March 12, 2021. Link
Know Your Customer "Know Your Customer in Banking," Thales Group. Link
League to Enforce Peace "League to Enforce Peace," Military Wiki, Fandom. Link
Lend-Lease Act Mulder (2022 p. 390)
Long-Term Arrangment "The History and Current Status of the Multifiber Arrangement," USITC #850, January 1978. Link
Managed trade Irwin (2017 p. 730)
Mandatory Oil Import Quota Program Cicchetti, Charles C. and Willian J. Gillen, "The Mandatory Oil Import Quota Program: A Consideration of Economic Efficiency and Equity,"" Natural Resources Journal 13(3), Summer 1973, pp. 399-430. Link
Market disruption "The History and Current Status of the Multifiber Arrangement," USITC #850, January 1978. Link
Market Oriented Sector Selective talks "U.S.-JAPAN TRADE: Evaluation of the Market-Oriented Sector-Selective Talks," GAO, July 1988. Link
Maximum-minimum tariff schedule Irwin (2017 p. 436)
Méline tariff Irwin (2017 p. 370)
Metageography "Martin Lewis: Metageographies, postmodernism and fallacy of unit comparability," Exploring Geopolitics. Link
Middle income trap Gill, Indermit S. and Homi Kharas, "The Middle-Income Trap Turns Ten," Policy Research Working Paper 7403, World Bank, August 2015. Link.
Mills Bill 1. Irwin (2017 p. 317)
2. Irwin (2017 p. 639)
Ministry of Economic Warfare "Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State (RG 84)," State Department and Foreign Affairs Records, Holocaust-Era Assets, National Archives. Link
Mongrel Tariff Irwin (2017 p. 287)
Most Favored Nation "Peace and Friendship Treaty of Utrecht between Spain and Great Britain," Wikisource Link
Multilateral-bilateral Irwin (2017 p. 565)
Non-intercourse Act Irwin (2017 p. 132)
Nonimportation Agreements Irwin (2017 p. 58)
Normal Trade Relations Sadly, I no longer recall, and cannot find, the source of this quotation.
Northern Ireland Protocol Tom Edgington and Chris Morris, "Brexit: What's the Northern Ireland Protocol?" BBC News, February 3, 2021. Link
Nullification crisis Irwin (2017 p. 206)
Open Door Notes Irwin (2017 p. 371)
Organization for Trade Cooperation Irwin (2017 p. 618)
Origin principle OECD International VAT/GST Guidelines: Guidelines on Neutrality, Committee on Fiscal Affairs, Working Party #9 on Consumption Taxes, Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, June 28, 2011 Link
Pacific Alliance "What Is the Pacific Alliance?" Alianza del Pacífico, Link.
Pacific blockade "Pacific blockade," Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Link;
Mulder (2022 p. 36)
Panama Papers "What are the Panama Papers? A guide to history's biggest data leak," The Guardian. Link.
Para-tariff "Para-tariffs definition," Law Insider, Link
Parallel import "Parallel Imports / Gray Market," International Trademark Association, Link
Paris Declaration of 1856 "Declaration Respecting Maritime Law. Paris, 16 April 1856," Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries, International Committee of the Red Cross. Link
Partnership Irwin (2017 p. 820)
Passporting Brian Beers, "Passporting," Investopedia, August 26, 2021, Link
Patent box "What Is a Patent Box?" TaxEdu, Tax Foundation, Link.
"Use the Patent Box to reduce your Corporation Tax on profits," Gov.uk, Link.
Pauper labor argument Brownlow, William G. 1844. A Political Register, Setting Forth the Principles of the Whig and Locofoco Parties in the United States, with the Life and Public Services of Henry Clay, Jonesborough, Tenn: The Jonesborough Whig, p. 67.
Littell, John S. 1844. "A Sketch of the Life, Public Services, and Character of Henry Clay," in ("prefixed to") The Clay Minstrel or National Songster, New York: Greeley and M'Elrath, p. 31.
Whig Congressional Committee. 1844. The Prospect Before Us, Locofoco Imposition Exposed. To the People of the United States, Published by order of Hon. Willis Green, Chairman of the Whig Congressional Executive Committee, at Washington, July 25, p. 5.
Pax Mongolica "Pax Mongolica," Silk Road: History of the Silk Road. Link
Payment at sight Justin Pritchard, "Different Types of Letters of Credit," The Balance, December 10, 2021, Link.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act Irwin (2017 p. 394)
PEM Convention "The pan-Euro-Mediterranean cumulation and the PEM Convention," Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission, Link
Perverse loop Lorenzo Bini Smaghi, "The perverse loop that is the euro's key weakness," Financial Times, March 2, 2018, Link
Phantom GDP Mark Thoma, "Michael Mandel: Phantom GDP?" Economist's View, June 8, 2007, Link
PHARE Programme "The PHARE Programme and the enlargement of the European Union," Briefing No 33, European Parliament, December 4, 1998, Link
Prespa Agreement Katerina Topalova, "North Macedonia, Greece: Rewriting History after Prespa," Reporting Democracy, June 17, 2020, Link
Prohibitory Act Irwin (2017 p. 65)
Protected designation of origin "Quality Schemes Explained," European Commission. Link
Prussian Tariff of 1818 Henderson, W. O., "The Zollverein," History New Series 19(73), June 1934, pp. 1-19. Link
Public Law 480 "Public Law 480: 'Better Than a Bomber'," Middle East Report 145, March/April 1987, Link
Quadrilateral Security Dialogue Patrick Gerard Buchan and Benjamin Rimland, "Defining the Diamond: The Past, Present, and Future of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue," CSIS Briefs, March 2020, Link
Quota novanta Davide Bernardi and Roberto Ricciuti, "An Economic Analysis of 'Quota 90'," Working Paper #9, Department of Economics, University of Verona, June 2021. Link
Recession "Business Cycle Dating Procedure: Frequently Asked Questions," NBER. Link
Relative specificity George Tuttle, III," "Harmonized Tariff Classification -- What You Need to Know!" Customs Brokers & Freight Forwarders Association of Northern California December Education Event, p. 37, December 14, 2016, Link
Repurchase agreement "Repo and Reverse Repo Agreements," Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Link
Residential Profit Allocation by Income Eric Toder, "Is A Modified Destination-Based Income Tax The Solution For Taxing Global Multinational Corporations?" TaxVox: Business Taxes, Tax Policy Center, April 15, 2020, Link.
Revenue Act of 1913 Joseph J. Thorndike, "Tax History: Original Intent and the Revenue Act of 1913," Tax History Project, Article Archive, TaxAnalysts, Link.
"Underwood Tariff," History Central, Link.
Reverse consensus "WTO Bodies involved in the dispute settlement process," Dispute Settlement System Training Module: Chapter 3, World Trade Organization Link
Reverse countertrade Thomas B. McVey, "Countertrade and Barter: Alternative Trade Financing by Third World Nations," Maryland Journal of International Law 6(2), 1981, p. 202, Link
Reverse Lend-Lease D. P. E., "Lend-Lease and Reverse Lend-Lease Aid: Part II," Bulletin of International News 22(4), February 17, 1945, pp. 157-164. Link
Rotterdam Rules "The Rotterdam Rules," UNCTAD, Link
São Paulo Consensus "UNCTAD XI Concludes With Adoption Of Sao Paulo Consensus' Part 1 of 2," Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, June 21, 2004. Link
Screwdriver plant Mair, A. "Screwdriver Plant or Independent Automobile Producer?" in Honda's Global Local Corporation. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 1994, p. 87. Link
Sea turtle "As attitudes to the West sour, China's students turn home," The Economist, January 21, 2021. Link
Section 806.30 "Imports Under Items 805.30 and 807.00 of the Tariff Schedule-S of the United States, 1984-87," Report on Investigation No. 332-237, Under Section 332(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, USITC Publication 2144, December 1988. Link
Section 807.00 "Imports Under Items 805.30 and 807.00 of the Tariff Schedule-S of the United States, 1984-87," Report on Investigation No. 332-237, Under Section 332(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, USITC Publication 2144, December 1988. Link
Secured Overnight Financing Rate "Secured Overnight Financing Rate Data," Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Link
Semiconductor Agreement Johnson, Bryan, "The U.S.-Japan Semiconductor Agreement: Keeping Up the Managed Trade Agenda," Explore Issues, The Heritage Foundation, January 24, 1991, Link
Service mark "Service Mark," Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, Link
Shanzhai culture "Shanzhai creativity: when fake becomes original," HFG: Law and Intellectual Property, Link.
Short-Term Arrangement "The History and Current Status of the Multifiber Arrangement," USITC #850, January 1978. Link
Shuttle trade E-mail from Ksenia Yudaeva to Bob Stern June 7, 2002;
"Shuttle Trade," Eleventh Meeting of the IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics Washington, D.C., October 21-23, 1998, Link
Sight Letter of Credit Justin Pritchard, "Different Types of Letters of Credit," The Balance, December 10, 2021, Link.
Silver Purchase Act "Silver Purchase Act of 1934 (United States)," Encyclopedia of Money, Link
Slowbalisation "Globalisation has faltered," Economist, January 24, 2019. Link
Smiling curve Ming Ye, Bo Meng, and Shang-jin Wei, "Measuring Smile Curves in Global Value Chains," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 82(5), October 2020, pp. 988-1016. Link
Sneaky protectionism Jürgen Wandel, "Do free trade agreements promote sneaky protectionism? A classical liberal perspective," International Journal of Management and Economics 55(3), 2019, pp. 185-200. Link
Softwood lumber dispute "Summary and Explanation of the U.S.-Canada Lumber Dispute," Link
Sogo shosha "Sogo shosha," Reference for Business, Link
South-South Cooperation Susan Engel, "South-South Cooperation in Southeast Asia: From Bandung and Solidarity to Norms and Rivalry," Journal of Current South-East Asian Affairs, 38(2), 2019. Link
Special Trade Representative Irwin (2017 p. 663)
SPFS Devonshire-Ellis, Chris, "SPFS -- Russia's Alternative To SWIFT," Russia Briefing from Dezan Shira & Associates, December 15, 2021. Link
Stamp Act "Stamp Act," History.com, Link
Stop-go cycle Krueger (2020 p. 234)
Structural Impediments Initiative Matsushita, Mitsuo, "The Structural Impediments Initiative: An Example of Bilateral Trade Negotiation," Michigan Journal of International Law 12(2), 1990, Link
Suez Crisis Charles Williams, Harold MacMillan, London: Phoenix Books, 2009, Ch. 16.
Sugar Act of 1764 Irwin (2017 p. 57)
Sunrise industry "Sunrise Industry," Investopedia Link
Super 301 Baker, Arnold, Felicia Gross, and Edward Tower, "Super 301 Trade Sanctions: An Empirical Investigation of the Wood Products Case," North American Journal of Economies and Finance 8(1), pp. 39-55, Link
Surrender requirement Jorge Ivan Canales-Kriljenko, "Foreign Exchange Intervention in Developing and Transition Economies: Results of a Survey," IMF Working Paper WP/03/95, May 2003, Link
Switch trading "Reading: Countertrade," Lumen: Introduction to Business, Link
Systemic 5 "Consolidated Spillover Report: Implications from the Analysis of the Systemic-5," International Monetary Fund, November 7, 2011, Link
Taper tantrum "Taper Tantrum," Investopedia. Link
Tariff Act of 1857 "Panic of 1857 Tariff Act of 1857," Finest Known. Link
Tariff anomaly "Tariff Anomaly," The Free Financial Dictionary. Link
Tariff Board Irwin (2017 p. 395)
Tariff deficit "Electricity Tariff Deficit: Temporary or Permanent problem in the EU?" Economic and Financial Affairs, European Commission. Link
Tariff engineering "Is Tariff Engineering Beneficial for Importers?" Customs, Import, Industry Spotlight, June 18, 2019, GreenWorldWide.com. Link
Tariff equality Irwin (2017 p. 443)
Tariff exclusion Schwartzenberg, Andres B., "Section 301 Tariff Exclusions on U.S. Imports from China," Congressional Research Service, In Focus, updated February 17, 2022. Link
Tariff reform Zebel, Sydney H. "Joseph Chamberlain and the Genesis of Tariff Reform," Journal of British Studies, January, 2014. Link
Tariff Reform League Andrew S. Thompson, "Tariff Reform: An Imperial Strategy, 1903-1913," The Historical Journal 40(4), December 1997, pp. 1033-1054. Link
Tax buoyancy Mohammed Yousuf and S. M. Jakaria Huq, "Elasticity and Buoyancy of Major Tax Categories: Evidence from Bangladesh and Its Policy Implications," Research Study Series No. - FDRS 03/2013, Ministry of Finance, Bangladesh, 2013. Link
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act Davies, Jon, "GILTI, FDII and BEAT: What They Mean for U.S. Multinationals", armanino, Apr 29, 2019. Link
Tax elasticity Mohammed Yousuf and S. M. Jakaria Huq, "Elasticity and Buoyancy of Major Tax Categories: Evidence from Bangladesh and Its Policy Implications," Research Study Series No. - FDRS 03/2013, Ministry of Finance, Bangladesh, 2013. Link
Tax inversion Zachary Mider, "Tax Inversion," Bloomberg, March 2, 2017. Link
Taxation at origin OECD International VAT/GST Guidelines: Guidelines on Neutrality, Committee on Fiscal Affairs, Working Party #9 on Consumption Taxes, Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, June 28, 2011 Link
Tea Act of 1773 "Tea Act," History.com Link
Tesobono Nora Lustig, "The Mexican Peso Crisis: the Foreseeable and the Surprise," Brookings Institution, June 1995 Link
Textile and Apparel Trade Enforcement Act H.R.1562 - "Textile and Apparel Trade Enforcement Act of 1985." Link
Tilsit treaty "Treaties of Tilsit," Oxford Reference. Link
Townshend Revenue Act Irwin (2017 p. 59)
Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 Price, Joseph H., "The Trade and Tariff Act of 1984: An Analytical Overview," International Lawyer 19(1), 2018 Link;
Irwin (2017 p. 717)
Trade or fade 1. "Trade-or-fade Rule," Link
2. Irwin (2017 p. 627)
Trading with the Enemy Act 1. Coates, Benjamin A., "The Secret Life of Statutes: A Century of the Trading with the Enemy Act," Modern American History, 1(2), 151-172. Link
2. "Trading with the Enemy Act 1914," Military Wiki, Fandom. Link
Transit zone "Transit zone," Dictionary of International Trade Link
Transnational corporation "Transnational corporation," Oxford Reference Link
"What Is a Transnational or a Borderless Corporation?" CHRON Link
"Domestic, Transnational, or Multinational Business?" Northeastern University D'Amore-McKin School of Business, Link
Treaties of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation Andreas Paulus, "Treaties of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation," Oxford Public International Law. Link
Treaty of Amity and Commerce Irwin (2017 p. 66)
Treaty of Constantinople Mulder (202 p. 305)
Treaty of Utrecht See Most Favored Nation
Treaty of Westphalia "Nation State," New World Encyclopedia Link
Treaty port "treaty port," Merriam-Webster Link
Triadic patent family "Triadic patent families," OECD: Data. Link
Trigger price mechanism Samuel L. Bright and Joseph A. McKinney, "The Economics of the Steel Trigger Price Mechanism," Business Economics 19(4), July 1984, pp. 40-46. Link
Tripartite Agreement of 1936 Ian M. Drummond, London, Washington, and the Management of the Franc, 1936-39, Princeton Studies in International Finance, No. 45, November, 1979. Link
Tripartite Free Trade Area Soamiely Andriamananjara, "Understanding the importance of the Tripartite Free Trade Area," Brookings, June 17, 2015. Link
Triple transformation rule Jones, Vivian C. and Liana Wong, "International Trade Rules of Origin," Congressional Research Service RL34524, Updated March 3, 2020. Link
Troika "Troika," Eurofound, August 31, 2017. Link
Truman Doctrine "The Truman Doctrine, 1947," Office of the Historian, US Department of State. Link
Tuna-dolphin case "Background on the Epic WTO Tuna Dolphin Fight," Public Citizen. Link
Twentieth Century Fund Mulder (2022 p. 253)
Twenty-foot equivalent unit "Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit," FreightRight. Link
Unconditional MFN Irwin (2017 p. 437)
United Nations Mulder (2022 p. 358)
Uridashi bond "Uridashi Bonds," Moneyzine Link
Vocal for local "'Vocal for local should become mantra for every Indian': PM Nodi," The Times of India, August 15, 2020. Link
Walker principles "WTO Appellate Body Reform Proposals Urged," RStreet, December 9, 2019. Link
Walker Tariff Daniel Vermilya, "Walker Tariff of 1846: Definition & Summary," Study.com Link
Warsaw Pact "The Warsaw Treaty Organization, 1955," Office of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute United States Department of State. Link
Wassenaar Arrangement "Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies," Fact Sheet Released by the Bureau of Nonproliferation, March 22, 2000, U.S. Department of State. Link
Watchlist "Factbox: Yellen's watchlist for the U.S. currency manipulator tag," Reuters, December 1, 2021. Link
Webb-Pomerene Act Eliot Jones, "The Webb-Pomerene Act," Journal of Political Economy 28(9), November 1920, pp. 754-767. Link
Whatever it takes "Verbatim of the remarks made by Mario Draghi," European Central Bank, Eurosystem, July 26, 2012 Link
Wine lake Reinhorn, Leslie J., "Butter mountains and wine lakes," Economics Letters 94(2), February 2007, pp. 187-201. Link
Withhold release order "Forced Labor," U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Link
WorkingRequirement Marketa Trimble, "Patent Working Requirements: Historical and Comparative Perspectives," UC Irvine Law Review 6(3), December, 2016. Link
World Economic Conference Irwin (2017 pp. 418, 507);
"Report of the World Economic Conference adopted on May 23, 1927," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 134, November 1927, pp. 174-206. Link
X-efficiency Harvey Leibenstein, "X-Efficiency: From Concept to Theory," Challenge 22(4), Sep/Oct 1971, pp. 13-22. Link
Yaoundé Convention "The Yaoundé Convention," CVCE.eu. Link
Yen bloc Warren S. Hunsberger, "The Yen Bloc in Japan's Expansion Program," Far Eastern Survey 7(22), November 9, 1938, p. 251. Link;
Mulder (2022 p. 352)
Yield spread Thomas Kenny, "What Is Yield Spread?" The Balance Link
Yom Kippur War "Yom Kippur War," History.com Link; "Energy Crisis (1970s)," History.com Link.
Zaibatsu "Zaibatsu," New World Encyclopedia. Link
Zero sum game Bhattacharya, Ananyo, The Man from the Future: The Visionary Life of John von Neuman, New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co., 2022.
Zeroing "Zeroing," Glossary: A guide to "WTO speak", World Trade Organization Link.
Zipf's Law Hosch, William L., "Zipf's Law," Britannica. Link
Zollverein Henderson, W. O., "The Zollverein," History New Series 19(73), June 1934, pp. 1-19. Link