Acemoglu, Daron, Pol Antràs, and Elhanan Helpman. 2007. “Contracts and Technology Adoption,” American Economic Review 97(3), June, pp. 916-943. See Dixit-Stiglitz utility.

Akamatsu, Kaname. 1961. "A Theory of Unbalanced Growth in the World Economy," Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 86(Heft 2), pp. 196-217. See Flying Geese.

Alchian, Armen A. and William R. Allen. 1964. University Economics, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. See Alchian-Allen Theorem.

Alexander, Sidney. 1952. "Effects of a Devaluation on a Trade Balance," IMF Staff Papers, 2(2), (April), pp. 263-278. See absorption approach.

Anderson, James E. and J. Peter Neary. 1996. "A New Approach to Evaluating Trade Policy," Review of Economic Studies 63(1), (January), pp. 107-125. See trade restrictiveness index.

Anderson, James E. and Eric van Wincoop. 2003. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," American Economic Review 93(1), (March), pp. 170-192. See multilateral resistance.

Anderson, Kym. 2001. "Globalization, WTO, and ASEAN," ASEAN Economic Bulletin 18(1), (April), pp. 12-23. See Ullyses Effect.

Angell, James W. 1926. The Theory of International Prices. History, Criticism and Restatement Cambridge: Harvard University Press. See price-specie flow mechanism.

Antweiler, Werner and Daniel Trefler. 2002. "Increasing Returns and All That: A View from Trade," American Economic Review 92(1), (March), pp. 93-119. See intra-mediate trade.

Arkolakis, Costas, Svetlana Demidova, Peter J. Klenow, and Andreés Rodríguez-Clare. 2008. "Endogenous Variety and the Gains from Trade," American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings 98(2), (May), pp. 444-450. See Feenstra ratio.

Arkolakis, Costas, Arnaud Costinot, and Andreés Rodríguez-Clare. 2012. "New Trade Models, Same Old Gains?" American Economic Review 102(1), (February), pp. 94-130. See ACR formula.

Armington, Paul S. 1969. "A Theory of Demand for Products Distinguished by Place of Production," IMF Staff Papers 16(1), (March), pp. 159-178. See Armington assumption.

Arndt, Sven W. 1997. "Globalization and the Open Economy," North American Journal of Economics and Finance 8(1), pp. 71-79. See intra-product specialization.

Arrow, K.J., H.B. Chenery, B.S. Minhas, and R.M. Solow. 1961. "Capital-Labor Substitution and Economic Efficiency," Review of Economics and Statistics 43(3), (August), pp. 225-250. See CES function, homohypallagic, and SMAC function.

Ashley, William James. 1903. The Tariff Problem, London: P.S. King & Son. See dumping.

Auspitz, Rudolf und Richard Lieben. 1879. Théorie des Preises Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. See offer curve.

Autor, David, David Dorn, and Gordon Hanson. 2013. "The China Syndrome: The Impact of Import Competition on US Labor Markets," American Economic Review 103(6), pp. 2121-2168. See China shock.

Autor, David, David Dorn, and Gordon Hanson. 2016. "The China Shock: Learning about Labor Market Adjustment to Large Changes in Trade," Annual Review of Economics 8, pp. 205-240. See China shock.

Backus, David K. and Gregor W. Smith. 1993. "Consumption and Real Exchange Rates in Dynamic Economies with Non-traded Goods," Journal of International Economics 35(3-4), November, pp. 297-316. See Backus-Smith Puzzle.

Backus, David K., Patrick J. Kehoe and Finn E. Kydland. 1992. "International Real Business Cycles," Journal of Political Economy 100(4), August, pp. 745-777. See quantity anomaly.

Bagwell, Kyle and Robert W. Staiger. 1999. "Regionalism and Multilateral Tariff Cooperation," in John Piggott and Alan Woodland, eds., International Trade Policy and the Pacific Rim, New York, NY: St. Martins Press. See tariff complementarity.

Balassa, Bela. 1964. "The Purchasing Power Parity Doctrine: A Reappraisal," Journal of Political Economy 72(6), (December) pp. 584-596. See Balassa-Samuelson Effect.

Balassa, Bela. 1965. "Trade Liberalization and 'Revealed' Comparative Advantage," Manchester School 33(2), (May) pp. 99-123. See revealed comparative advantage.

Baldwin, Richard E. 1988. "Hysteresis In Import Prices: The Beachhead Effect," American Economic Review 78(4), (September), pp. 773-785. See Beachhead effect.

Baldwin, Richard E. 2006. "Globalization: The Great Unbundling(s)," paper contributed to the project Globalisation Challenges for Europe and Finland organized by the Secretariat of the Economic Council of Finland, September 30, 2006. See 2nd unbundling.

Baldwin, Richard E. 2009. "The Spoke Trap: hub and spoke bilateralism in East Asia," working paper No. 2009/28, NCCR Trade Regulation, Swiss National Center of Competence in Research. See hub-ness.

Baldwin, Robert E. 1948. "Equilibrium in International Trade: A Diagrammatic Analysis," Quarterly Journal of Economics 62(5), (November), pp. 748-762. See Baldwin envelope.

Baldwin, Robert E. 1969. "The Case Against Infant Industry Protection," Journal of Political Economy 77(3), (May-June), pp. 295-305. See infant industry protection.

Barro, Robert. 1999. "Reagan vs. Clinton: Who's the Economic Champ?" Business Week, February 22, p. 22. See misery index.

Bartik, Timothy. 1991. Who Benefits from State and Local Economic Development Policies?, W.E. Upjohn Institute. See Bartik instrument.

Bastable, C. F. 1899. The Commerce of Nations, 2nd edition revised, London: Methuen & Co. See infant industry protection.

Baumol, William J., John C. Panzar, and Robert D. Willig. 1982. Contestable Markets and the Theory of Industry Structure, Academic Press, 1982. See contestable market.

Benassy, Jean-Pascal. 1996. "Taste for Variety and Optimum Production Patterns in Monopolistic Competition," Economic Letters, 42(1), July 1996, pp. 41-47. See Dixit-Stiglitz utility.

Bentham, Jeremy. 1789. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, London: Hafner, 1948, p. 326. See international.

Bergson, Abram. 1938. "A Reformulation of Certain Aspects of Welfare Economics," Quarterly Journal of Economics 52(2), (February), pp. 310-334. See Bergsonian social welfare function.

Bergsten, C. Fred. 1975. Toward a New International Economic Order, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. See bicycle theory.

Bergsten, C. Fred. 1997. "Open Regionalism," The World Economy 20(5), (August), pp. 545-565. See open regionalism.

Bergsten, C. Fred. and William R. Cline 1982. Trade Policy in the 1980s Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. See bicycle theory.

Bernanke, Ben S. 2004. "The Great Moderation," Remarks at the meetings of the Eastern Economic Association, Washington, DC, February 20, online. See Great Moderation.

Bernanke, Ben S. 2005. "The Global Saving Glut and the U.S. Current Account Deficit," Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke At the Sandridge Lecture, Virginia Association of Economists, Richmond, Virginia, March 10, online. See global saving glut.

Bernard, Andrew B., Emily J. Blanchard, Ilke Van Beveren, and Hylke Vandenbussche. 2012. "Carry-Along Trade," NBER Working Paper #18246, July. See carry-along trade.

Bernhofen, Daniel M. and John C. Brown. 2005. "An Empirical Assessment of the Comparative Advantage Gains from Trade: Evidence from Japan," American Economic Review 95(1), (March), pp. 208-225. See Deardorff-Dixit-Norman Index.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1958. "Immiserizing Growth: A Geometrical Note," Review of Economic Studies 25(3), (June), pp. 201-205. See immizerizing growth.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1982. "Directly Unproductive Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities," Journal of Political Economy 90(5), (October), pp. 988-1002. See DUP activities.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1984. "Splintering and Disembodiment of Services and Developing Nations," The World Economy 7(2), (June), pp. 133-144. See splintering.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1984. "Why Are Services Cheaper in Poor Countries?," Economic Journal 94(374), (June), pp. 279-286. See Kravis-Lipsey-Bhagwati Effect.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1985. "Protectionism: Old Wine in New Bottles," Journal of Policy Modeling 7(1), pp. 23-33. See quid pro quo FDI.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1987. "Quid Pro Quo DFI and VIEs: Political-Economy-Theoretic Analyses," International Economic Journal 1(1), pp. 1-14. See VIE.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1991. The World Trading System at Risk, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. See stumbling bloc.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1993. "Regionalism and Multilateralism: An Overview," in Jaime de Melo and Arvind Panagariya, eds., New Dimensions in Regional Integration, pp. 22-51. See dynamic time path question.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1995. "US Trade Policy: The Infatuation with FTAs," Discussion Paper Series No. 726, April; said to be forthcoming in Claude Barfield, ed., The Dangerous Obsession with Free Trade Areas, AEI, 1995, although I do not find record of this being published. See spaghetti bowl.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. and Vivek H. Dehejia. 1994. "Freer Trade and Wages of the Unskilled -- Is Marx Striking Again?" in Jagdish N. Bhagwati and Marvin Kosters, eds., Trade and Wages: Leveling Wages Down?, Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, pp. 36-75. See kaleidoscope comparative advantage.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. and Arvind Panagariya, eds. 1996. The Economics of Preferential Trade Agreements, College Park : Center for International Economics, University of Maryland. See preferential trading arrangement.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. and V. K. Ramaswami. 1963. "Domestic Distortions, Tariffs and the Theory of Optimum Subsidy," Journal of Political Economy, 71(1), (February), pp. 44-50. See second-best argument for protection.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N., V. K. Ramaswami, and T. N. Srinivasan. 1969. "Domestic Distortions, Tariffs and the Theory of Optimum Subsidy: Some Further Results," Journal of Political Economy, 77(6), (November-December), pp. 1005-1010. See second-best argument for protection.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. and T.N. Srinivasan. 1980. "Revenue Seeking: A Generalization of the Theory of Tariffs," Journal of Political Economy 88(6), (December), pp. 1069-1087. See revenue seeking.

Bickerdike, C. F. 1906. "The Theory of Incipient Taxes," Economic Journal 16(64), December, pp. 529-535. See deadweight loss.

Bickerdike, C. F. 1920. "The Instability of Foreign Exchanges," Economic Journal 30(117), (March), pp. 118-122. See Bickerdike-Robinson-Metzler Condition.

Bierwag, G. O. 1964. "Balanced Growth and Technological Progress," Oxford Economic Papers N.S. 16(1), (March), pp. 55-69. See Lerner diagram.

Borkakoti, Jitendralal. 1975. "Some Welfare Implications of the Neo-Technology Hypothesis of the Pattern of International Trade," Oxford Economic Papers, 27(3) (November), pp. 383-399. See neotechnology model.

Bowley, Arthur. 1924. The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics: An Introductory Treatise, Oxford: Clarendon Press. See Edgeworth-Bowley box, offer curve.

Bown, Chad P. 2015. "Global Antidumping Database," World Bank, . See Global Antidumping Database.

Bown, Chad P. and Meredith A. Crowley. 2007. "Trade Deflection and Trade Depression," Journal of International Economics 72, pp. 176-201. See trade deflection.

Brainard, S. Lael. 1997. "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Trade-off Between Multinational Sales and Trade," American Economic Review 87(4), (Septembrer), pp. 520-544. See proximity-concentration tradeoff.

Bramhall, David F. and Walter Isard. 1960. "Gravity, Potential, and Spatial Interaction Models," chapter 6 in Walter Isard, Methods of Regional Analysis: an Introduction to Regional Science, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 493-568. See gravity model.

Brander, James and Paul Krugman. 1983. "A 'Reciprocal Dumping' Model of International Trade," Journal of International Economics 15(3/4), (November), pp. 313-321. See reciprocal dumping.

Brander, James A. and Barbara J. Spencer. 1981. "Tariffs and the Extraction of Foreign Monopoliy Rents under Potential Entry," Canadian Journal of Economics 14(3), (August), pp. 371-389. See strategic trade policy.

Brander, James A. and Barbara J. Spencer. 1984. "Tariff Protection and Imperfect Competition," in Henryk Kierzkowski, ed., Monopolistic Competition and International Trade, Oxford Univ. Press. See strategic trade policy argument for a tariff.

Brecher, Richard A. and C.F. Diaz-Alejandro. 1977. "Tariffs, Foreign Capital, and Immiserizing Growth," Journal of International Economics 7(4), (November), pp. 317-322. See Brecher-Alejandro Proposition.

Brecher, Richard A. and Robert C. Feenstra. 1983. "International Trade and Capital Mobility between Diversified Economies," Journal of International Economics 14(3-4), (May), pp. 321-339. See hat algebra.

Bruno, Michael. 1963. Interdependence, Resource Use and Structural Change in Israel, Jerusalem: Bank of Israel. See domestic resource cost.

Bruno, Michael. 1972. "Domestic Resource Costs and Effective Protection: Clarification and Synthesis," Journal of Political Economy 80(1), (Jan-Feb), pp. 16-33. See domestic resource cost.

Bruno, Michael and Jack Habib. 1976. "Taxes, Family Grants, and Redistribution," Journal of Public Economics 5(1-2), January-February, pp. 57-79. See Harberger triangle.

Buiter, Willem and Ebrahim Rahbari. 2012. "Rising Risks of Greek Euro Area Exit," Global Economics View, February 6. See grexit.

Cagan, P. 1956. "The Monetary Dynamics of Hyperinflation," in Milton Friedman, ed., Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. See hyperinflation.

Calvo, Guillermo A. 1998. "Capital Flows and Capital Market Crises: The Simple Economics of Sudden Stops," Journal of Applied Economics 1(1), (November), pp. 35-54. See sudden stop.

Calvo, Guillermo A. and Carmen Reinhart. 2002. "Fear of Floating," Quarterly Journal of Economics 117(2), (May), pp. 379-408. See fear of floating.

Cantillon, Richard. 1730 but not published until 1755. Essay on the Nature of Commerce in General, translated by Henry Higgs, with a new introduction by Anthony Brewer, New Brunswick, USA: Transaction Publishers, 5th printing 2009. See price-specie flow mechanism.

Carr, David L., James R. Markusen, and Keith E. Maskus. 2001. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise," American Economic Review 91(3), (June), pp. 693-708. See knowledge capital model.

Cassel, Gustav. 1918. "Abnormal Deviations in International Exchanges," Economic Journal 28(112), (December), pp. 413-415. See purchasing power parity.

Chase, Samuel B., Jr. 1964. "Summary of Conference Discussion," in John F. Due, ed., The Role of Direct and Indirect Taxes in the Federal Revenue System Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 295-313. See Harberger triangle.

Chinn, Menzie D. and Hiro Ito. 2006. "What Matters for Financial Development? Capital Controls, Institutions, and Interactions," Journal of Development Economics 81(1), October, pp. 163-192. See Chinn-Ito index.

Chipman, John S. 1965. "A Survey of the Theory of International Trade: Part I, The Classical Theory," Econometrica 33(3), July, pp. 477-519. See comparative advantage.

Chipman, John S. 2002. "Pareto: Manuel of Political Economy," unpublished manuscript, "a slightly abridged version [of which] was published in French in the Dictionaire des grandes æuvres économiques edited by Xavier Greffe, Jérôme Lallemant, and Michel De Vroey, Paris: Dalloz, pp. 424-433." See ophelimity.

Christensen, Laurits R., Dale W. Jorgenson, and Lawrence J. Lau. 1973. "Transcendental Logarithmic Production Frontiers," Review of Economics and Statistics 55(1), (February) pp. 28-45. See translog function.

Ciuriak, Dan. 2005. "Anti-dumping at 100 Years and Counting: A Canadian Perspective," World Economy 28(5), pp. 641-649. See dumping.

Coase, Ronald. 1960. "The Problem of Social Cost," Journal of Law and Economics 3, (October), pp. 1-44. See Coase Theorem.

Cobb, Charles W. and Paul H. Douglas. 1928. "A Theory of Production," American Economic Review 18 (1, Supplement), (March), pp. 139-165. See Cobb-Douglas function.

Corden, W. Max. 1966. "The Structure of a Tariff System and the Effective Protective Rate," Journal of Political Economy 74(3), (June), pp. 221-237. See effective rate of protection.

Corden, W. Max. 1974. Trade Policy and Economic Welfare Oxford: Clarendon Press. See conservative social welfare function.

Corden, W. Max. and J. Peter Neary. 1982. "Booming Sector and De-Industrialization in a Small Open Economy," Economic Journal 92(368), (December), pp. 825-848. See origin of Dutch disease.

Costinot, Arnaud and Andres Rodriguez Clare. 2013. "Online Appendix to Trade Theory with Numbers: Quantifying the Consequences of Globalization," March. See exact hat algebra.

Costinot, Arnaud and Jonathan Vogel. 2015. "Beyond Ricardo: Assignment Models in International Trade," Annual Review of Economics 7, pp. 31-62. See Ricardo-Roy Model.

Courant, Paul N. and Alan V. Deardorff. 1992. "International Trade with Lumpy Countries," Journal of Political Economy 100(1), February, pp. 198-210. See lumpy country.

Cournot, A.. 1897. Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth, New York. See Cournot's law.

Creamer, D.. 1943. "Shifts of Manufacturing Industries," Industrial Location and Natural Resources, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 85-104. See constant market share analysis.

Deardorff, Alan V. 1979. "One-Way Arbitrage and Its Implications for the Foreign Exchange Market," Journal of Political Economy 87(2), (April), pp. 351-364. See one-way arbitrage.

Deardorff, Alan V. 1980. "The General Validity of the Law of Comparative Advantage," Journal of Political Economy 88(5), (October), pp. 941-957. See Deardorff-Dixit-Norman Index.

Deardorff, Alan V. 1982. "The General Validity of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem," American Economic Review 72(4), (September), pp. 683-694. See comvariance.

Deardorff, Alan V. 1994. "The Possibility of Factor Price Equalization, Revisited," Journal of International Economics 36(1-2), (February), pp. 167-175. See lens condition.

Deardorff, Alan V. and Robert M. Stern, eds. 1994. The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem: A Golden Jubilee Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. See Edgeworth-Bowley box.

Dekle, Robert, Jonathan Eaton, and Samuel Kortum. 2007. "Unbalanced Trade" American Economic Review Papers and Procedings 97(2). May, pp. 351-355. See hat algebra.

Dixit, Avinash K and Gene M. Grossman. 1982. "Trade and Protection with Multistage Production," Review of Economic Studies 49(4), pp. 583-594. See multistage production.

Dixit, Avinash K and Victor Norman. 1980. Theory of International Trade, London: Cambridge University Press. See Integrated World Economy, Deardorff-Dixit-Norman Index.

Dixit, Avinash K. and Joseph E. Stiglitz. 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review 67(3), (June), pp. 297-308. See Dixit-Stiglitz function.

Dornbusch, Rudiger. 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy 84(6), (December), pp. 1161-1176. See exchange rate overshooting.

Dornbusch, Rudiger, Stanley Fischer, and Paul A. Samuelson. 1977. "Comparative Advantage, Trade, and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods," American Economic Review 67(5), (December), pp. 823-839. See DFS model, continuum-of-goods model.

Dornbusch, Rudiger, Stanley Fischer, and Paul A. Samuelson. 1980. "Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory with a Continuum of Goods," Quarterly Journal of Economics 95(2), (September), pp. 203-224. See DFS model, continuum-of-goods model.

Dorrance, G.S. 1948. "The Income Terms of Trade," Review of Economic Studies 16(1), pp. 50-56. See income terms of trade.

Dunning, J.H. 1979. "Explaining Changing Patterns of International Production: In Defence of an Eclectic Theory," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 41(4), (November), pp. 269-295. See OLI paradigm.

Dupuit, Arsène Jules Étienne Juvénal. 1844. "De la mesure de l'utilité des travaux publics," Annales des ponts et chausses, second series, 8; translated by R.H. Barback as "On the measurement of the utility of public works." International Economic Papers 2, 1952, pp.83-110; reprinted in Kenneth J. Arrow and Tibor Scitovsky, eds., Readings in Welfare Economics, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1969, pp. 255-83. See Harberger triangle.

Eaton, Jonathan and Samuel Kortum. 2002. "Technology, Geography, and Trade," Econometrica 70(5), (September), pp. 1741-1779. See Eaton-Kortum Model.

Eaton, Jonathan, Samuel Kortum, Brent Neiman, and John Romalis. 2011. "Trade and the Global Recession," NBER Working Paper #16666 (January). See Head-Ries Index.

Economist. 2010. "Economics focus: From bail-out to bail-in," January 28. See bail-in.

Edgeworth, Francis. Y. 1881. Mathematical Psychics. See Edgeworth-Bowley box.

Edgeworth, Francis. Y. 1894. "The Theory of International Values, Part I," Economic Journal 4(13), (March) pp. 35-50. See immiserizing growth.

Edgeworth, Francis. Y. 1894. "The Theory of International Values, Part II," Economic Journal 4(15), (September) pp. 424-443. See offer curve.

Edgeworth, Francis. Y. 1894. "The Theory of International Values, Part III," Economic Journal 4(16), (December) pp. 606-638. See offer curve.

Eichengreen, Barry and Ricardo Hausmann. 1999. "Exchange Rate and Financial Fragility," NBER Working Paper 7418. See original sin.

Ely, Richard T. 1888. Problems of Today, Boston: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. See infant industry protection.

Erler, Georg. 1956. Grundproblema des Internationalen Wirtschaftsrechts, Göttingen: Verlag Otto Schwartz. See Most Favored Nation.

Estevadeordal, Antoni and Alan M. Taylor. 2013. "Is the Washington Consensus Dead? Growth, Openness, and the Great Liberalization, 1970s-2000s", Review of Economics and Statistics, 95(5), December, pp. 1669–1690. See great liberalization.

Ethier, Wilfred. 1974. "Some of the Theorems of International Trade with Many Goods and Factors," Journal of International Economics 4(2), (May), pp. 199-206. See core propositions.

Ethier, Wilfred J. 1982. "Decreasing Costs in International Trade and Frank Graham's Argument for Protection," Econometrica 50(5), (September), pp. 1243-1268. See Graham argument for protection.

Ethier, Wilfred J. 1982. "National and international returns to scale in the theory of international trade," American Economic Review 72(3), (June), pp. 389-405. See international returns to scale, Dixit-Stiglitz utility.

Fama, Eugene F. 1984. "Forward and Spot Exchange Rates," Journal of Monetary Economics 14(3), (November), pp. 319-338. See Fama regression.

Feenstra, Robert C. 1994. "New Product Varieties and the Measurement of International Prices," American Economic Review 84(1), (March), pp. 157-77. See Feenstra ratio.

Feenstra, Robert C. 1998. "Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives 12(4), (Fall), pp. 31-50. See disintegration.

Feenstra, Robert C. and Gordon H. Hanson 2003. "Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages," in Kwan Choi and James Harrigan, eds., Handbook of International Trade Basil Blackwell, pp. 146-187. See global production sharing.

Feldstein, Martin and Charles Horioka. 1980. "Domestic Saving and International Capital Flows," Economic Journal 90(358), (June), pp. 314-329. See Feldstein-Horioka puzzle.

Ferrantino, Michael. 2006. "Quantifying the Trade and Economic Effects of Non-Tariff Measures," OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 28, January 20. See handicraft method.

Fetter, Frank Whitson. 1935. "Favorable Balance of Trade," Quarterly Journal of Economics 49(4), (August), pp. 621-645. See balance of trade.

Findlay, Ronald. 1971. "Comparative Advantage, Effective Protection and the Domestic Resource Cost of Foreign Exchange," Journal of International Economics 1(2), May pp. 189-204. See Lerner diagram.

Findlay, Ronald and Harry Grubert. 1959. "Factor Intensities, Technological Progress and the Terms of Trade," Oxford Economic Papers 11(1), February, pp. 111-121. See Lerner diagram.

Finger, J. Michael. 1993. Antidumping: How It Works and Who Gets Hurt, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. See dumping.

Finger, J. Michael and Mordechai E. Kreinin. 1979. "A Measure of 'Export Similarity' and Its Possible Uses," Economic Journal, 89(356), (December), pp. 905-912. See Finger-Kreinin Index .

Fisher, Irving. 1930. The Theory of Interest, New York: Macmillan. See Fisher Effect.

Fleming, J.M. 1962. "Domestic Financial Policies under Fixed and under Floating Exchange Rates," IMF Staff Papers 9(3), (November), pp. 369-380. See Mundell-Fleming Model.

Freund, Caroline and Martha Denisse Pierola. 2015. "Export Superstars," Review of Economics and Statistics 97(5), (December), pp. 1023-1032. See ExportSuperstar.

Flood, Robert P., and Peter M. Garber, 1984. "Collapsing exchange rate regimes: some linear examples," Journal of International Economics 17, pp. 1-13. See Canonical Model Of Currency Crises.

Frankel, Jeffrey. 1997. Regional Trading Blocs in the World Economic System Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. See natural trading partner, preferential trading arrangement, supernatural trading bloc, trade intensity index.

Friedman, Milton. 1953. "The Case for Flexible Exchange Rates," Essays in Positive Economics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. See stabilizing speculation.

Friedman, Milton. 1969. "The Optimum Quantity of Money," The Optimum Quantity of Money and Other Essays, Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company. See Friedman rule, helicopter money.

Froot, Kenneth A. and Kenneth Rogoff. 1991. "The EMS, the EMU, and the Transition to a Common Currency," NBER Macroeconomics Annual (6), pp. 269-328. See Froot-Rogoff effect.

Gabaix, Xavier. 2011. "The Granular Origins of Aggregate Fluctuations," Econometrica 79(3), (May), pp. 733-772. See granularity.

Geary, Roy C. 1950. "A Note on 'A Constant-Utility Index of the Cost of Living'," Review of Economic Studies 18(2), (January), pp. 65–66. See Stone-Geary function.

Gini, Corrado. 1912. "Variabilità e mutabilità," ("Variability and Mutability") C. Cuppini, Bologna. See Gini coefficient.

Glejser, H. and A. Dramais. 1969. "A Gravity Model of Interdependent Equations to Estimate Flow Creation and Diversion," Journal of Regional Science 9(3), pp. 439-449. See gravity model.

Gourinchas, Pierre-Olivier and Olivier Jeanne. 2007. "Capital Flows to Developing Countries: The Allocation Puzzle," CEPR Discussion paper No. DP6561. See allocation puzzle.

Graham, Frank. 1923. "Some Aspects of Protection Further Considered," Quarterly Journal of Economics 37, (July), pp. 199-227. See decreasing cost argument for protection, Graham's argument for protection, Graham's paradox

Grossman, Gene M. and Elhanan Helpman. 1999. "The Internationalization of Economic Activity," National Science Foundation grant, July. See internationalization.

Grossman, Gene M. and Alan Krueger. 1993. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," in Peter M. Garber, ed., The Mexico-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 13-56. See environmental Kuznets curve.

Grubel, Herbert G. 1970. "The Theory of Intra-Industry Trade", in I. A. McDougall and R. H. Snape, eds., Studies in International Economics, Amsterdam. See home market effect.

Grubel, Herbert G. and Peter J. Lloyd. 1975. Intra-Industry Trade: The Theory and Measurement of International Trade in Differentiated Products, New York: Wiley. See Grubel-Lloyd Index, intra-industry trade.

Grunwald, Joseph and Kenneth Flamm. 1985. The Global Factory: Foreign Assembly in International Trade, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. See the global factory.

Haberler, Gottfried von. 1937. The Theory of International Trade with Its Applications to Commercial Policy, New York: Macmillan. See specific factor.

Haberler, Gottfried von. 1949. "The Market for Foreign Exchange and Stability of the Balance of Payments," Kyklos, 4. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Hamilton, Alexander. 1791. Report on Manufactures, December 5; available online from several sites, including the Constitution Society. See infant industry protection .

Hamilton, Clive and Paul Kniest. 1991. "Trade Liberalisation, Structural Adjustment and Intra-Industry Trade: A Note," Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 127(2), (June), pp. 356-367. See marginal intra-industry trade .

Hansen, Alvin. 1949. Monetary Theory and Fiscal Policy New York: McGraw-Hill. See IS-LM Model.

Harberger, Arnold C. 1950. "Currency Depreciation, Income, and the Balance of Trade," Journal of Political Economy 58(1), (February), pp. 47-60. See Harberger-Laursen-Metzler Effect.

Harberger, Arnold C. 1954. "Monopoly and Resource Allocation," American Economic Review 44(2), May, pp. 77-87. See Harberger triangle.

Harberger, Arnold C. 1964a. "Taxation, Resource Allocation, and Welfare," in John F. Due, ed., The Role of Direct and Indirect Taxes in the Federal Revenue System, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 25-70. See Harberger triangle.

Harberger, Arnold C. 1964b. "The Measurement of Waste," American Economic Review 54(3), May, pp. 58-76. See Harberger triangle.

Hardin, Garrett. 1968. "The Tragedy of the Commons," Science 162(3859) (December 16), pp. 1243–1248. See tragedy of the commons.

Harrod, Roy F. 1933. International Economics, London: James Nisbet and Cambridge University Press. See BalassaSamuelsonEffect .

Hatton, Timothy J. and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 2007. "A Dual Policy Paradox: Why Have Trade and Immigration Policies Always Differed in Labor-Scarce Economies," in T. Hatton, K. O'Rourke, and A. Taylor, eds., The New Comparative Economic History, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See dual policy paradox.

Hausmann, Ricardo, Jason Hwang, and Dani Rodrik. 2007. "What You Export Matters," Journal of Economic Growth 12(1), (March), pp. 1-25. See product mix diagram.

Head, Keith and John Ries. (2001). "Increasing Returns versus National Product Differentiation as an Explanation for the Pattern of U.S.-Canada Trade," American Economic Review 91(4), (September), pp. 858-876. See Head-Ries Index.

Heckscher, Eli. 1919. "The Effect of Foreign Trade on the Distribution of Income," Ekonomisk Tidskrift, pp. 497-512. See Heckscher-Ohlin Model.

Herfindahl, Orris C. 1950. Concentration in the U.S. Steel Industry, unpublished doctoral dissertaiton, Columbia University. See Herfindahl index, Hirschman index.

Hicks, John R. 1937. "Mr. Keynes and the 'Classics': A Suggested Interpretation," Econometrica 5, April, pp. 147-159. See IS-LM Model.

Hicks, John R. 1939. "The Foundations of Welfare Economics," Economic Journal 49(196), December, pp. 696-712. See Kaldor-Hicks criterion.

Hines, James R. 1999. "Three Sides of Harberger Triangles," Journal of Economic Perspectives 13(2), Spring, pp. 167-188. See Harberger triangle.

Hirschman, Albert O. 1945. National Power and the Structure of Foreign Trade, Berkeley. See Herfindahl index, Hirschman index.

Hirschman, Albert O. 1949. "Devaluation and the Trade Balance: A Note," Review of Economics and Statistics, 31(1), February, pp. 50-53. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Hirschman, Albert O. 1964. "The Paternity of an Index," American Economic Review, 54(5), (September), pp. 761-762. See Gini coefficient.

Hotelling, Harold. 1938. "The General Welfare in Relation to Problems of Taxation and of Railway and Utility Rates," Econometrica 6(3), July, pp. 242-269. See deadweight loss.

Hufbauer, Gary C. 1966. Synthetic Materials and the Theory of International Trade, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. See technology gap model.

Hufbauer, Gary C. 1970. "The Impact of National Characteristics and Technology on Commodity Composition of Trade in Manufactured Goods," in Raymond Vernon, ed., The Technology Factor in International Trade, New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. See neotechnology model.

Hume, David. 1777. "Of the Balance of Trade," Essay V in Essays: Moral, Political, Literary. See price-specie flow mechanism.

Hummels, David, Dana Rapoport, and Kei-Mu Yi. 1998. "Vertical Specialization and the Changing Nature of World Trade," FRBNY Economic Policy Review, (June), pp. 79-99. See vertical specialization.

Hummels, David and Alexandre Skiba. 2004. "Shipping the Good Apples Out? An Empirical Confirmation of the Alchian-Allen Conjecture," Journal of Political Economy 112(6), (December), pp. 1384-1402. See Alchian-Allen Theorem.

Inada, Ken-Ichi. 1963. "On a Two-Sector Model of Economic Growth: Comments and a Generalization," Review of Economic Studies 30(2), June, pp. 119-127. See Inada conditions.

International Monetary Fund. 2010. "Reserve Accumulation and Intern ational Monetary Stability: Supplementary Information," IMF Policy Paper, Prepared by the Strategy, Policy and Review Department, April 13. Online See New bancor.

Ippolito, Richard A. 1976. "The Market for Illicit Monopoly: Its Implication for Social Welfare," Atlantic Economic Journal 4(2), Spring, pp. 9-18. See Harberger triangle.

Jenkin, H. C. Fleeming. 1871-72. "On the principles which regulate the incidence of taxes," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Session 1871-1872, pp. 618-31. See Harberger triangle.

Johnson, Harry G. 1953. "Equilibrium Growth in an Expanding Economy," Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 19(4), (November), pp. 478-500. See immiserizing growth.

Johnson, Harry G. 1953/1954. "Optimum Tariffs and Retaliation," Review of Economic Studies 21(2), pp. 142-153. See optimal tariff argument, tariffs and retaliation.

Johnson, Harry G. 1955. "Economic Expansion and International Trade," Manchester School 23(2), (May), pp. 95-112. See immizerizing growth.

Johnson, Harry G. 1958. "The Gains from Freer Trade with Europe: An Estimate," Manchester School 26(3), September, pp. 247-255. See Harberger triangle.

Johnson, Robert C. and Guillermo Noguera 2012. "Accounting for Intermediates: Production Sharing and Trade in Value Added," Journal of International Economics 86(2), (March), pp. 224-236. See production sharing and VAX ratio.

Jones, Ronald W. 1965. "The Structure of Simple General Equilibrium Models," Journal of Political Economy 73(6), (December), pp. 557-572. See hat algebra, magnification effect.

Jones, Ronald W. 1971. "A Three-Factor Model in Theory, Trade, and History," in Bhagwati, et al., eds., Trade, Balance of Payments, and Growth: Essays in Honor of C. P. Kindleberger, Amsterdam: North-Holland. See Ricardo-Viner Model, Jones model.

Jones, Ronald W. 1977. "'Two-ness' in Trade Theory: Costs and Benefits," Special Papers in International Economics No. 12, International Finance Section, Princeton University, (April). See two-ness.

Jones, Ronald W. and Henryk Kierzkowski. 1986. "Neighborhood Production Structures, with an Application to the Theory of International Trade," Oxford Economic Papers 38(1), (March), pp. 59-76. See neighborhood production structure.

Jones, Ronald W. and Henryk Kierzkowski. 1990. "The Role of Services in Production and International Trade: A Theoretical Framework," in Ronald W. Jones and Anne O. Krueger, eds., The Political Economy of International Trade: Essays in Honor of Robert E. Baldwin, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, pp. 31-48. See fragmentation.

Jones, R.W. and J. Scheinkman. 1977. "The Relevance of the Two-Sector Production Model in Trade Theory," Journal of Political Economy 85(5), (October), pp. 909-936. See two-ness.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1939. "Welfare Propositions of Economics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility," Economic Journal 49(195), (September), pp. 549-552. See Kaldor-Hicks Criterion.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1957. "A Model of Economic Growth," Economic Journal 67(268), (December), pp. 591-624. See stylized fact.

Katrak, Homi. 1977. "Multinational Monopolies and Commercial Policy," Oxford Economic Papers 29(2), (July), pp. 283-291. See strategic trade policy argument for a tariff.

Kemp, Murray C. 1960. "The Mill-Bastable Infant-Industry Dogma," Journal of Political Economy 68(1), (February), pp. 65-67. See infant industry protection.

Kemp, Murray C. and Henry Wan, Jr. 1976. "An Elementary Proposition Concerning the Formation of Customs Unions," Journal of International Economics 6(1), (February), pp. 95-97. See Kemp-Wan Theorem.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1929a. "The German Transfer Problem," Economic Journal 39(153), (March), pp. 1-7". See transfer problem.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1929b. "The Reparations Problem: A Discussion. II. A Rejoinder," Economic Journal 39(154), (June), pp. 179-182". See transfer problem.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1929c. "Mr. Keynes' Views on the Transfer Problem. III. A Reply," The Economic Journal 39(155), (September), pp. 404-408". See transfer problem.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1936. The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, London: MacMillan. See Keynesian and liquidity trap.

Kim, Chang-Jin and Charles R. Nelson. 1999. "Has the U.S. Economy Become More Stable? A Bayesian Approach Based on a Markov-Switching Model of the Business Cycle," Review of Economics and Statistics, 81(4), (November), pp. 608-616. See Great Moderation.

Kindleberger, Charles P. 1973. The World in Depression, Berkeley: Univerisity of California Press. See Kindleberger spiral.

Kondratieff, Nikolai Dmyitriyevich. 1926. "The Long Waves in Economic Life"; translated into English and reprinted in Review of Economics and Statistics 17(6), (November) 1935, pp. 105-115. See Kondratieff cycle.

Kornai, Janos. 1979. "Resource-Constrained versus Demand-Constrained Systems," Econometrica 47(4), (July), pp. 801-819. See soft budget constraint.

Krasker,William S. 1980. "The 'Peso Problem' in Testing the Efficiency of Forward Exchange Markets," Journal of Monetary Economics 6(2), (April), pp. 269-276. See peso problem.

Kravis, Irving B. 1956. "'Availability' and Other Influences on the Commodity Composition of Trade," Journal of Political Economy 64(2), (April), pp. 143-155. See availability theory.

Kravis, Irving B. 1970. "Trade as a Handmaiden of Growth: Similarities between the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries," Economic Journal 80(320), (December), pp. 850-872. See handmaiden of growth.

Kravis, Irving B. and Robert E. Lipsey. 1983. "Toward an Explanation of National Price Levels," Princeton Studies in International Finance 52 (November). See Kravis-Lipsey-Bhagwati effect.

Kravis, Irving B. Alan Heston, and Robert Summers. 1978. "Toward an Explanation of National Price Levels," International Comparisons of Real Product and Purchasing Power, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. See Penn effect.

Krueger, Anne O. 1974. "The Political Economy of the Rent Seeking Society," American Economic Review 64(3), (June), pp. 291-303. See rent seeking.

Krueger, Anne O. 2001. "Free Trade Agreements as Protectionist Devices: Rules of Origin," James R. Melvin, James Moore, and Raymond Riezman, editors, Trade, Theory and Econometrics: Essays in Honor of John S. Chipman, London: Routledge. See exported protection.

Krugman, Paul R. 1979a. "Increasing Returns, Monopolistic Competition, and International Trade," Journal of International Economics 9(4), (November), pp. 469-479. See new trade theory.

Krugman, Paul R. 1979b. "A Model of Balance-of-Payments Crises," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 11(3), pp. 311-325. See canonical model of currency crises.

Krugman, Paul R. 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review 70(5), (December), pp. 950-959. See home market effect.

Krugman, Paul R. 1986. "A 'Technology Gap' Model of International Trade," in K. Jungenfelt and D. Hague, eds., Structural Adjustment in Advanced Economies London: Macmillan; reprinted in Krugman (1990). See technology gap model.

Krugman, Paul R. 1987. "Pricing to Market When the Exchange Rate Changes," in Sven W. Arndt and J. David Richardson, Real-Financial Linkages Among Open Economics, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 49-70. See pricing to market.

Krugman, Paul R. 1989. "Differences in Income Elasticities and Trends in Real Exchange Rates," European Economic Review 33(5), (May) pp. 1031-1046. See 45-degree rule and Thirlwall's Law.

Krugman, Paul R. 1990. Rethinking International Trade, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See Krugman (1986).

Krugman, Paul R. 1991a. Geography and Trade, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See new economic geography, Krugman specialization index, and locational Gini index.

Krugman, Paul R. 1991b. "The Move Toward Free Trade Zones," in Policy Implications of Trade and Currency Zones, symposium sponsored by The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, August 22-24. See GATT-Think.

Krugman, Paul R. 1991c. "Target Zones and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(3), (August), pp. 669-682. See target zone.

Krugman, Paul R. 1994. "Does Third World Growth Hurt First World Prosperity?" Harvard Business Review 72, (July), pp. 113-121. See slicing up the value chain.

Krugman, Paul R. 1997. "Currency Crises," unpublished document, available at It is undated, but reference to the Asian Crisis "on July 2 of this year" indicates its date. See Canonical Model Of Currency Crises.

Krugman, Paul R. 2009. "Chinese New Year," Op Ed column in New York Times, December 31. See Thank-you note.

Krugman, Paul R. and Maurice Obstfeld. 1991. International Economics, New York: Addison Wesley. See standard trade model.

Kuznets, Simon. 1955. "Economic Growth and Income Inequality," American Economic Review 45(1), (March), pp. 1-28. See Kuznets Curve.

Lafay, Gerard. 1992. "The Measurement of Revealed Comparative Advantages," in M.G. Dagenais and P.A. Muet eds., International Trade Modeling, London: Chapman and Hill, pp. 209-234. See Lafay Index.

Laursen, Svend and Lloyd A. Metzler. 1950. "Flexible Exchange Rates and the Theory of Employment," Review of Economics and Statistics 32(4), (November), pp. 281-299. See Harberger-Laursen-Metzler Effect.

Leamer, Edward E. 1984. Sources of International Comparative Advantage: Theory and Evidence, Boston: MIT Press. See Endowments Paradox.

Leamer, Edward E. 1987. "Paths of Development in the Three-Factor n-Good General Equilibrium Model," Journal of Political Economy 95(5), (October), pp. 961-999. See Leamer triangle .

Leamer, Edward E. 1996. "The Effects of Trade in Services, Technology Transfer and Delocalisation on Local and Global Income Inequality," Asia-Pacific Economic Review 2(1), (April), pp. 44-60. See delocalization.

Leibenstein, Harvey. 1966. "Allocative Efficiency vs. 'X-Efficiency'," American Economic Review 56(3), (June), pp. 392-415. See X-efficiency.

Leontief, Wassily. 1933. "The Use of Indifference Curves in the Analysis of Foreign Trade," Quarterly Journal of Economics 57(3), (May), pp. 493-503. See community indifference curve.

Leontief, Wassily. 1954. "Domestic Production and Foreign Trade: The American Capital Position Reexamined," Economia Internatiozionale 7, (February), pp. 3-32. See input-output table, Leontief Paradox.

Lerner, Abba P. 1936. "The Symmetry between Import and Export Taxes," Economica 3(11), (August), pp. 306-313. See Lerner Symmetry Theorem, offer curve.

Lerner, Abba P. 1944. The Economics of Control: Principles of Welfare Economics, New York: Macmillan Co. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Lerner, Abba P. 1952. "Factor Prices and International Trade," Economica n.s. 19(73), (February). See Lerner Diagram.

Linder, Staffan Burenstam. 1961. An Essay on Trade and Transformation, New York: Wiley and Sons. See Linder hypothesis and home market effect.

Linnemann, Hans. 1966. An Econometric Study of International Trade Flows, Amsterdam: North-Holland. See gravity model.

Lipsey, R.G. 1962. Review of N. Kaldor, Essays on Value and Distribution and Essays on Economic Stability and Growth, 1960, Economic Journal 72(287), September, pp. 685-687. See stylized fact.

Lipsey, R.G. and Kelvin Lancaster. 1956. "The General Theory of Second Best," Review of Economic Studies 24, pp. 11-32. See second best and second-best argument for protection.

List, Friedrich. 1841. The National System of Political Economy. See infant industry protection.

Little, I. M. D. 1949a. "The Foundations of Welfare Economics," Oxford Economic Papers NS 1(2), June, pp 227-246. See Kaldor-Hicks criterion.

Little, I. M. D. 1949b. "Welfare and Tariffs," Review of Economic Studies 16(2), 1949-1950, pp. 65-70. See Kaldor-Hicks criterion.

Little, I. M. D. and J. A. Mirrlees 1974. Project Appraisal and Planning for Developing Countries London: Heinemann Educational. See LMST method.

Lucas, Robert E. 1976. "Econometric Policy Evaluation: A Critique," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 1, pp. 19-46. See Lucas critique .

Machlup, Fritz. 1939-40. "The Theory of Foreign Exchanges," Economica N.S. 6(24), November pp. 375-397 and 7(25) February, pp. 23-49. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Machlup, Fritz. 1950. "Elasticity Pessimism in International Trade," Economia Internazionale 3, (Feb), pp. 118-141. See elasticity pessimism.

Magee, Stephen P. 1973. "Currency Contracts, Pass-Through, and Devaluation," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1973(1), pp. 303-325. See J-curve.

Magnusson, Lars, ed. 1995. Mercantilism: Critical Concepts in the History of Economics, Volume IV: The Eighteenth Century, London: Routledge. See Most Favored Nation.

Marshall, Alfred. 1890. Principles of Economics, London: Macmillan and Co. See Marshallian externality and terms of trade.

Marshall, Alfred. 1923. Money, Credit and Commerce, London: Macmillan and Co. See terms of trade, Marshall-Lerner condition, offer curve.

Maskus, Keith E. and Mohan Penubarti. 1995. "How Trade-Related Are Intellectual Property Rights?" Journal of International Economics 39, (November), pp. 227-248. See Maskus curve.

Mayer, Wolfgang. 1974. "Short-Run and Long-Run Equilibrium for a Small Open Economy," Journal of Political Economy 82(5), (Sep.-Oct.), pp. 955-967. See Ricardo-Viner Model.

McCallum, John. 1995. "National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns" American Economic Review 85(3), June, pp. 614-623. See border puzzle.

McConnell, Margaret M. and Gabriel Perez-Quiros. 2000. "Output Fluctuations in the United States: What Has Changed Since the Early 1980s?" American Economic Review 90(5), December, pp. 1464-1476. See Great Moderation.

McKenzie, Lionel W. 1955. "Equality of Factor Prices in World Trade," Econometrica 23(3), July, pp. 239-257. See diversification cone.

Meade, James Edward. 1952. A Geometry of International Trade, London: Allen and Unwin. See Meade geometry and trade indifference curve.

Meade, James Edward. 1955a. The Theory of Customs Unions, Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co. See Meade Index.

Meade, James Edward. 1955b. Trade and Welfare London: Oxford University Press. See second-best argument for protection.

Melitz, Marc J. 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica 71(6), (November), pp. 1695-1725. See Melitz model.

Melvin, James R. 1968. "Production and Trade with Two Factors and Three Goods," American Economic Review 58(5), (December), pp. 1249-1268. See Melvin indeterminacy.

Mendel, Noah. 2009. "When Did the Great Depression Receive Its Name? (And Who Named It?)," HNN History News Network, (February 15), See depression.

Metzler, Lloyd. 1948. A Survey of Contemporary Economics Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin. See Bickerdike-Robinson-Metzler Condition.

Metzler, Lloyd. 1949. "Tariffs, International Demand, and Domestic Prices," Journal of Political Economy 57(4), (August), pp. 345-351. See Metzler paradox.

Metzler, Lloyd. 1960. "The Process of International Adjustment under Conditions of Full Employment: A Keynesian View," paper read before the Econometric Society, December; reprinted in Richard E. Caves and Harry G. Johnson, eds., Readings in International Economics Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1968. See Metzler diagram.

Michealy, Michael. 1958. "Concentration of Exports and Imports: An International Comparison," Economic Journal 68(272), (December), pp. 722-736. See concentration.

Mill, James. 1821. Elements of Political Economy, London: Henry G. Bohn. See immiserizing growth.

Mill, John Stuart. 1848. Principles of Political Economy and Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy, 7th edition, London: Longmans, Green & Co. with introduction by W. J. Ashley. See infant industry protection and vent for surplus.

Mill, John Stuart. 1874. Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy, 2nd edition, London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer. Preface to 1st edition says these essays had been written in 1829 and 1830. See vent for surplus.

Moghadam, Reza, Ranjit Teja, and Pelin Berkmen. 2014. "Euro Area -- 'Deflation' Versus 'Lowflation'," iMFdirect, March 4, 2014, online. See lowflation.

Minhas, Bagicha S. 1962. "The Homohypallagic Production Function, Factor-Intensity Reversals, and the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem," Journal of Political Economy 70(2), (April), pp. 138-156. See homohypallagic, CES function.

Mukerji, V. 1963. "A Generalized S.M.A.C. Function with Constant Ratios of Elasticity of Substitution ," Review of Economic Studies 30(3), (October), pp. 233-236. See SMAC function.

Mundell, Robert A. 1960. "The Pure Theory of International Trade," American Economic Review 50(1), (March), pp. 67-110. See Cournot's law.

Mundell, Robert A. 1961. "A Theory of Optimum Currency Areas," American Economic Review 51(4), (September), pp. 657-665. See currency area and optimal currency area, .

Mundell, Robert A. 1962. "The Appropriate Use of Monetary and Fiscal Policy under Fixed Exchange Rates," IMF Staff Papers 9(1), (March), pp. 70-79. See assignment problem and Mundell-Fleming Model.

Mundell, Robert A. 1963. "Capital Mobility and Stabilization Policy under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates," Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 29(4), (November), pp. 475-485. See Mundell-Fleming Model.

Mussa, Michael. 1974. "Tariffs and the Distribution of Income: The Importance of Factor Specificity, Substitutability, and Intensity in the Short and Long Run," Journal of Political Economy 82(6), (Nov.-Dec.), pp. 1191-1203. See Ricardo-Viner Model.

Mussa, Michael. 1979. "The Two-Sector Model in Terms of Its Dual: A Geometric Exposition," Journal of International Economics 9(4), (November), pp. 513-526. See Mussa diagram.

Mussa, Michael. 1986. "Nominal exchange regimes and the behavior of real exchange rates: evidence and implications," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 25, (Autumn), pp. 117-214. See Mussa puzzle.

Myint, Hla. 1958. "The 'Classical Theory' of International Trade and the Underdeveloped Countries," Economic Journal 68(270), (June), pp. 317-337. See vent for surplus.

Neary, Peter. 1978. "Short-Run Capital Specificity and the Pure Theory of International Trade," Economic Journal 88(351), (September), pp. 488-510. See Ricardo-Viner Model.

Neary, Peter. 2004. "Monopolistic Competition and International Trade Theory," in Steven Brakman and Ben J. Heijdra, eds., The Monopolistic Competition Revolution in Retrospect, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 159-184. See Dixit-Stiglitz utility.

Ng, Francis. 2002. "Trade Indicators and Indices," Appendix B of Bernard Hoekman, Aaditya Mattoo, and Philip English, eds., Development, Trade, and the WTO: A Handbook Washington, DC: World Bank. See Hirschman index.

Novy, Dennnis. 2013. "International trade without CES: Estimating translog gravity," Journal of International Economics 89(2), March, pp. 271-282. See translog gravity.

Obstfeld, Maurice. 1980. "Intermediate Imports, the Terms of Trade, and the Dynamics of the Exchange Rate and Current Account,” Journal of International Economics 10, pp. 461-480. See terms of trade.See terms of trade, Up or Down.

Obstfeld, Maurice. 2012. "Does the Current Account Still Matter?," Richard T. Ely Lecture, American Economic Review 102(3), (May), pp. 1-23. See balance of trade.

Obstfeld, Maurice and Kenneth Rogoff. 1996. Foundations of International Macroeconoics, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See terms of trade, Up or Down.

Obstfeld, Maurice and Kenneth Rogoff. 2001."The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?." in Bernanke and Rogoff, eds., NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15. See home bias in trade, home bias in equities, international consumption correlations puzzle, exchange rate disconnect puzzle.

Ohlin, Bertil. 1929a. "The Reparations Problem: A Discussion; Transfer Difficulties, Real and Imagined," Economic Journal 39(154), pp. 172-183. See transfer problem.

Ohlin, Bertil. 1929b. "Mr. Keynes' Views on the Transfer Problem. II. A Rejoinder from Professor Ohlin," Economic Journal 39(155), pp. 400-404". See transfer problem.

Ohlin, Bertil. 1933. Interregional and International Trade, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. See Heckscher-Ohlin Model, Ohlin definition and price definition.

Ohyama, Michihiro. 1972. "Trade and Welfare in General Equilibrium," Keio Economic Studies 9, pp. 37-73. See revealed preference.

O'Neill, Jim. 2001. "Building Better Global Economic BRICs," Global Economics Paper No. 66, Goldman Sachs, November 30. See BRICs.

Pareto, Vilfredo. 1906. Manual of Political Economy, published in Italian in 1906; French translation 1909; English translation 1971. See Edgeworth-Bowley box.

Pearce, Ivor F. 1952. "The Factor Price Equalization Myth," Review of Economic Studies 19(2), pp. 111-120. See Lerner-Pearce Diagram.

Phillips, A. W. 1958. "The Relationship between Unemployment and the Rate of Change of Money Wages in the United Kingdom 1861-1957," Economica 25(100), (November), pp. 283-299. See Phillips curve.

Pigou, Arthur Cecil 1920. The Economics of Welfare, London: Macmillan and Co. See pigouvian.

Pigou, Arthur Cecil 1928. A Study in Public Finance, London: Macmillan and Co. See human capital.

Polak, J. J. 1947. "Exchange Depreciation and International Monetary Stability," Review of Economics and Statistics, 29, August. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Porter, Gareth. 1999. "Trade Competition and Pollution Standards: 'Race to the Bottom' or 'Stuck at the Bottom'," Journal of Environment & Development 8(2), June, pp. 133-151. See stuck at the bottom.

Porter, Michael E. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations, New York: Free Press. See Porter's Diamond and value chain.

Porter, Michael E. 1991. "America's Green Strategy." Scientific American, 264(4), April, p. 168. See Porter hypothesis.

Posner, M. P. 1961. "International Trade and Technical Change," Oxford Economic Papers 13(3) (October), pp. 323-341. See technology gap model.

Posner, Michael. V. 1972. "The World Monetary System: A Minimal Reform Program," Essays in International Finance 96, (October), International Finance Section, Princeton University. See J-curve.

Pöyhönen, Pentti. 1963. "A Tentative Model for the Volume of Trade Between Countries," Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 90 (1), pp. 93-99. See gravity model.

Prebisch, Raúl. 1950. "The Economic Development of Latin America and its Principal Problems". See Prebisch-Singer hypothesis.

Preston, Samuel H. 1975. "The Changing Relation between Mortality and Level of Economic Development," Population Studies 29(2), (July), pp. 231-248. See Preston Curve.

Price, W. H. 1905. "The Origin of the Phrase 'Balance of Trade'," Quarterly Journal of Economics 20(1), (November), pp. 157-167. See balance of trade.

Pulliainen, Kyosti. 1963. "A World Trade Study: An Econometric Model of the Pattern of the Commodity Flows in International Trade in 1948-1960," Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift 16, pp. 78-91. See gravity model.

Quah, Danny T. 1996. "Twin Peaks: Growth and Convergence in Models of Distribution Dynamics," Economic Journal 106, (July), pp. 1045-1055. See twin peaks.

Ramo, Joshua Cooper. 2004. The Beijing Consensus, The Foreign Policy Center, May. See Beijing consensus.

Reilly, W.J. 1929. "Method for the Study of Retail Relationships," University of Texas Bulletin, No. 2944. See gravity model.

Ricardo, David. 1817. On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, London: J. Murray. See law of comparative advantage.

Ricardo, David. 1951-1973. The Works and Correspondence of David Ricardo, edited by Piero Sraffa and M. Dobbs, Vols. I-XI, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. See comparative advantage.

Richardson, Martin. 1995. "Tariff Revenue Competition in a Free Trade Area," European Economic Review 39(7) (August), pp. 1429-1437. See internal trade deflection.

Robbins, Lionel. 1934. The Great Depression. See depression.

Robertson, Dennis H. 1938. "The Future of International Trade," Economic Journal 48(189), (March), pp. 1-14. See engine of growth.

Robinson, Joan. 1932. The Economics of Imperfect Competition, London: Macmillan. See monopsony.

Robinson, Joan. 1937. Essays in the Theory of Employment, London: Macmillan Co. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Robinson, Joan. 1947. Essays in the Theory of Employment, 2nd edition, Oxford: Basil Blackwell. See Bickerdike-Robinson-Metzler Condition.

Rodrik, Dani. 2007. "The inescapable trilemma of the world economy," Dani Rodrik's weblog, June 27, 2007. See trilemma of the world economy.

Rodrik, Dani, Arvind Subramanian, and Francesco Trebbi. 2004. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth 9(2), (June). See Washington Consensus Mark 2.

Rogoff, Kenneth. 1996. "The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Economic Literature 34(2), (June) pp. 647-688. See purchasing power parity puzzle.

Rose, Andrew K. 2000. "One Money, One Market: Estimating the Effect of Common Currencies on Trade," Economic Policy, 30, pp. 9-45. See Rose effect.

Rosenbluth, Gideon. 1955. "Measures of Concentration," in NBER, Business Concentration and Price Policy Princeton, pp. 57-95. See Hirschman index.

Roy, A. 1951. "Some thoughts on the distribution of earnings," Oxford Economic Papers 3, pp. 135-146. See Ricardo-Roy Model.

Ruffin, Roy J. 2002. "David Ricardo's Discovery of Comparative Advantage," History of Political Economy 34(4), pp. 727-748. See comparative advantage.

Ruggie, John Gerard. 1982. "International regimes, transactions, and change: embedded liberalism in the postwar economic order," International Organization 36(2), Spring, pp. 379-415. See embedded liberalism.

Ruhl, Kim J. 2008. "The International Elasticity Puzzle," working paper, March. See international elasticity puzzle.

Rybczynski, T.M. 1955. "Factor Endowments and Relative Commodity Prices," Economica 22(88), (November), pp. 336-341. See Rybczynski Theorem.

Salant, Stephen and Dale Henderson. 1978. "Market anticipation of government policy and the price of gold," Journal of Political Economy 86, pp. 627-648. See Canonical model of currency crises.

Salter, W. E. G. 1959. "Internal and External Balance: The Role of Price and Expenditure Effects," Economic Record 35(71), August, pp. 226-238. See dependent economy model.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1939. Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 5, pp. 195-205. See gains from trade theorem and revealed preference.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1947. Foundations of Economic Analysis Harvard University Press. See Le Châtelier Principle.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1948. "International Trade and the Equalisation of Factor Prices," Economic Journal 58(230), (June), pp. 163-184. See factor price equalization and Heckscher-Ohlin Model.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1949. "International Factor-Price Equalisation Once Again," Economic Journal 59(234), (June), pp. 181-197. See factor price equalization and Heckscher-Ohlin Model.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1952. "The Transfer Problem and Transport Costs: The Terms of Trade When Impediments are Absent," Economic Journal 62(246), June, pp. 278-304. See deadweight loss.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1953. "Prices of Factors and Goods in General Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies 21(1), (October), pp. 1-20. See Heckscher-Ohlin Model and reciprocity conditions.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1954. "The Transfer Problem and Transport Costs, II: Analysis of Effects of Trade Impediments," Economic Journal 64(254), (June), pp. 264-289. See iceberg transport costs.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1960. "Harold Hotelling as Mathematical Economist," American Statistician 14(3), June, pp. 21-25. See deadweight loss.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1962. "The Gains from International Trade Once Again," Economic Journal 72(288), (December), pp. 820-829. See gains from trade theorem and utility possibility frontier.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1964. "Theoretical Notes on Trade Problems," Review of Economics and Statistics 46(2), (May), pp. 145-154. See Balassa-Samuelson Effect.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1971. "Ohlin Was Right," Swedish Journal of Economic 73(4), (December), pp. 365-384. See Ricardo-Viner Model, Jones-Samuelson model.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1981. "Bergsonian Welfare Economics," in S. Rosefielde, ed., Economic Welfare and the Economics of Soviet Socialism: Essays in Honor of Abram Bergson, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 223-266. See Bergsonian social welfare function.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1994. "Facets of Balassa-Samuelson Thirty Years Later," Review of International Economics 2(3), (October), pp. 201-226. See Penn effect.

Sanyal, Kalyan K. and Ronald W. Jones. 1982. "The Theory of Trade in Middle Products," American Economic Review 72(1), (March), pp. 16-31. See middle product.

Sato, Kazuo. 1976. "The Ideal Log-Change Index Number," Review of Economics and Statistics 58(2), pp. 223-28. See Sato-Vartia index, Sato-Vartia weights.

Say, Jean-Baptiste. 1803. A Treatise on Political Economy or the Production, Distribution, and Consumption of Wealth. See infant industry protection.

Scitovszky, Tibor de. 1941. "A Note on Welfare Propositions in Economics," Review of Economic Studies 9(1), (November), pp. 77-88. See Kaldor-Hicks criterion.

Scitovszky, Tibor de. 1942. "A Reconsideration of the Theory of Tariffs," Review of Economic Studies 9(2), (Summer), pp. 89-110. See Scitovszky indifference curve.

Shephard, Ronald. 1953. Theory of Cost and Production Functions, New York: Princeton University Press. See Shephard's lemma.

Shibata, H. 1967. "The Theory of Economic Unions: A Comparative Analysis of Customs Unions, Free Trade Areas, and Tax Unions," in C. S. Shoup, ed., Fiscal Harmonization in Common Markets, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 145-264. See trade deflection.

Shirotori, Miho, Bolormaa Tumurchudur, and Olivier Cadot. 2010. "Revealed Factor Intensity Indices at the Product Level," Study Series No. 44, Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities, UNCTAD See revealed factor intensity.

Shortt, Adam. 1906. "The Anti-Dumping Feature of the Canadian Tariff," Quarterly Journal of Economics 20(2), February, pp. 250-258. See dumping, anti-dumping.

Siegel, Jeremy J. 1972. "Risk, Interest Rates and the Forward Exchange," Quarterly Journal of Economics 86(2), (May), pp. 303-309. See Siegel's paradox.

Singer, H.W. 1950. "U.S. Foreign Investment in Underdeveloped Areas: The Distribution of Gains Between Investing and Borrowing Countries," American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings 40, (May), pp. 473-485. See Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis.

Slemrod, Joel, Carl Hansen, and Roger Procter. 1997. "The Seesaw Principle in International Tax Policy," Journal of Public Economics 65, (August), pp. 163-176. See seesaw principle.

Smith, Adam 1776. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. See division of labor and vent for surplus.

Solow, Robert M. 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," Quarterly Journal of Economics 70(1), (February), pp. 65-94. See neoclassical growth model.

Solow, Robert M. 1957. "Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function," Review of Economics and Statistics 39(3), (August), pp. 312-320. See Solow residual.

Soros, George. 1998. The Crisis of Global Capitalism: Open Society Endangered, New York: Public Affairs. See market fundamentalism.

Spence, Michael. 1976. "Product Selection, Fixed Costs, and Monopolistic Competition," Review of Economic Studies 43(2), (June), pp. 217-235. See Spence-Dixit-Stiglitz.

Squire, Lyn and Herman van der Tak. 1975. Economic Analysis of Projects Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. See LMST method.

Stackelberg, Heinrich Freiherr von. 1934. Marktform und Gleichgewicht (Market Structure and Equilibrium). See Stackelberg equilibrium.

Starrett, David. 1978. "Market Allocations of Location Choice in a Model with Free Mobility," Journal of Economic Theory 17(1), (February), pp. 21-37. See Starrett's Impossibility Theorem.

Stewart, J. 1947. "Empirical Mathematical Rules Concerning the Distribution and Equilibrium of Population," Geographical Review 37, pp. 461-485. See gravity model.

Stock, James H. and Mark W. Watson. 2003. "Has the Business Cycle Changed and Why?," NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2002, 17, (January), pp. 159-218. See Great Moderation.

Stolper, Wolfgang and Paul A. Samuelson. 1941. "Protection and Real Wages," Review of Economic Studies 9(1), (November), pp. 58-73. See Stolper-Samuelson Theorem, Edgeworth-Bowley box.

Stone, Richard. 1954. "Linear Expenditure Systems and Demand Analysis: An Application to the Pattern of British Demand," Economic Journal 64(255), (September), pp. 511-527. See Stone-Geary function.

Suganami, H. 1978. "A Note on the Origin of the Word 'International'," British Journal of International Studies 4(3), (October), 1978, pp. 226-232. See international.

Sumner, William Graham. 1885. Protectionism: The -Ism which Teaches that Waste Makes Wealth, New York: Henry Holt & Co. See infant industry protection.

Swan, Trevor W. 1955. "Long-Run Problems of the Balance of Payments," written but unpublished in 1955, later published in Arndt and Corden, eds., The Australian Economy 1963. See Swan diagram.

Swan, Trevor W. 1956. "Economic Growth and Capital Accumulation," Economic Record 32(2), (November), pp. 334-61. See neoclassical growth model.

Tarascio, Vincent J. 1972. "A Correction: On the Geneology of the So-Called Edgeworth-Bowley Diagram," Western Economic Journal 10, (June), pp. 193-197. See Edgeworth-Bowley box.

Taussig, Frank William. 1883. Protection to young industries as applied in the United States. A study in economic history,Cambridge: Moses King, Publisher. See infant industry protection.

Taussig, Frank William. 1927. International Trade, New York: Macmillan Co. See barter terms of trade, net barter terms of trade, gross barter terms of trade, and their origin.

Thirlwall, A. P. 1979. "The Balance of Payments Constraint as an Explanation of International Growth Rate Differences," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review 128 (March), pp. 45-53. See Thirlwall's law.

Tinbergen, Jan. 1962. Shaping the World Economy: Suggestions for an International Economic Policy, New York: Twentieth Century Fund. See gravity model.

Tobin, James. 1969. "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking 1(1), (February), pp. 15-29. See Tobin's Q.

Tobin, James. 1978. "A Proposal for International Monetary Reform," Eastern Economic Journal 4(3/4), (Jul-Oct), pp. 153-159. See Tobin tax.

Torrens, Robert. 1815. Essay on the External Corn Trade, London: J. Hatchard. See comparative advantage.

Travis, William Penfield. 1964. The Theory of Trade and Protection, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. See Integrated World Economy.

Trefler, Daniel. 1995. "The Case of the Missing Trade and Other Mysteries," American Economic Review 85(5), (December), pp. 1029-1046. See endowments paradox, home bias, and mystery of the missing trade.

Tullock, Gordon. 1989. The Economics of Special Privilege and Rent Seeking Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. See Harberger triangle.

Tyszynski, H. 1951. "World Trade in Manufactured Commodities, 1899-1950," Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies 19(3), (September), pp. 272-304. See constant market share analysis.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 2004. São Paulo Consensus, TD/410, June 25. See policy space.

Vanek, Jaroslav. 1965. General Equilibrium of International Discrimination: The Case of Customs Unions, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. See Meade Index.

Vanek, Jaroslav. 1968. "The Factor Proportions Theory: The n-Factor Case," Kyklos 21(4), (October), pp. 749-756. See Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek Theorem.

Vartia, Yrjö O. 1976. "Ideal Log-Change Index Numbers," Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 3(3), pp. 121-126. See Sato-Vartia index, Sato-Vartia weights.

Venables, Anthony J. 1985. "Trade and Trade Policy with Imperfect Competition: The Case of Identical Products and Free Entry," Journal of International Economics 19(1/2), (August), pp. 1-19. See delocation.

Venables, Anthony J. 1987. "Trade and Trade Policy with Differentiated Products: A Chamberlinian-Ricardian Model," Economic Journal 97(387), (September), pp. 700-717. See delocation.

Vernon, Raymond. 1966. "International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle," Quarterly Journal of Economics 80(2), (May), pp. 190-207. See product cycle.

Vernon, Raymond. 1971. Sovereignty at Bay: The Multinational Spread of US Enterprises, New York: Basic Books. See OBM.

Viner, Jacob. 1923. Dumping: A Problem in International Trade, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. See dumping, export dumping, reverse dumping.

Viner, Jacob. 1937. Studies in the Theory of International Trade, New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers. See single factoral terms of trade, double factoral terms of trade, and their origins; also 18th century rule and price-specie flow mechanism.

Viner, Jacob. 1950. The Customs Union Issue, New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. See trade creation and trade diversion.

Vogel, D. 1995. Trading up: Consumer and environmental regulation in a global economy, London: Harvard University Press. See California effect.

Vousden, Neil. 1991. The Economics of Trade Protection, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. See Harberger triangle.

Waelbroeck, J. 1965. "On the Structure of International Trade Interdependence," Cahiers Economiques de Bruxelles, pp. 495-511. See gravity model.

Watkins, Melville H. 1963. "A Staple Theory of Economic Growth," Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 29(2), (May), pp. 141-158. See staple theory of economic growth.

Williams, John H. 1929. "The Theory of International Trade Reconsidered," Economic Journal 39, (June), pp. 195-209. See vent for surplus.

Williamson, Jeffrey G. 1990. "The Impact of the Corn Laws Just Prior to Repeal," Explorations in Economic History 27(2), April, pp. 123-156. See Harberger triangle.

Williamson, John H. 1990. "What Washington Means by Policy Reform," in John Williamson, ed., Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. See Washington Consensus.

Wilson, Charles. 1980. "On the General Structure of Ricardian Models with a Continuum of Goods: Applications to Growth, Tariff Theory, and Technical Change," Econometrica 48(7), (November), pp. 1675-1702. See continuum of goods.

Wonnacott, P. and M. Lutz. 1989. "Is There a Case for Free Trade Areas," in J. Schott, ed., Free Trade Areas and U.S. Trade Policy, Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. See natural trading partners.

World Bank. 1985. The World Bank Atlas 1985, Washington, DC: The World Bank. See Atlas method.

Zipf, George K. 1946. "The P1P2/D Hypothesis: The Case of Railway Express," Journal of Psychology, 22, pp. 3-8. See gravity model.

Zipf, George K. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort, Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley. See Zipf's law.