y:Ün:iv:es:ýXi A:ôf em:eS:g:n:

m:an:aðø and  j:òs:ð with the subjunctive. And  s:a

    In Hindi  m:an:aðø or  j:òs:ð with the subjunctive renders English as if  ( m:an:aðø is slightly more formal than  j:òs:ð ):

   1.  m:ØJ:ð Oðs:a l:g:t:a T:a j:òs:ð m:ØJ:ð )ðm: hað g:y:a hað.
       'It seemed to me as if I were in love.'

   2.  b:hÜ Es: t:rh hm:ari eS:kay:t: krt:i hò m:an:aðø hm: us:p:r b:_a z:Ølm: krt:ð haðø.
       'Daughter-in-law complains about us as if we were being terribly cruel to her.'

         Clauses beginning with  j:òs:ð or  m:an:aðø are often keyed to their main clause with  Oðs:a,  Oðs:ð or  Es: t:rh :

   3.  v:h m:ðri t:rf Oðs:ð dðK: rha T:a j:òs:ð m:òø us:ka dØSm:n: haðUø.
       'He was looking at me as if I were his enemy.'

         Clauses in  m:an:aðø or  j:òs:ð commonly occur in expressions of pretense:

   4.  m:t: edK:aAað j:òs:ð t:Ømhðø p:rix:a ki erz:lX p:r t:ajj:Øb: hað.
       'Don't pretend to be surprised at the examination results.'

   5.  v:h b:n: rhi hò m:an:aðø us:ð us: p:Ø,\: s:ð kaðI m:t:l:b: n: hað.
       'She's acting as if she had nothing to do with that man.'

         When such clauses refer to the past, the indicative is used:

   6.  m:an:aðø Aaj: S:Ø#v:ar hað !    m:an:aðø us: edn: t:Ømhari v:\:üg:aúY T:i !
       'As if today is Friday! As if that day were your birthday!'

    Like many relative clauses in  j:òs:ð, "as if" clauses in  j:òs:ð can be reduced to postpositional phrases :

   7a.  Aap: t:að Oðs:ð rht:ð hòø j:òs:ð kaðI CaðXð raj:a haðø.
   7b.  Aap: t:að eks:i CaðXð raj:a j:òs:ð rht:ð hòø.
       'You live like (as if you were ) a little king.'

         Postpositional  j:òs:ð can be further reduced to adjectival ( j:ò-)s:a :

   8a.  m:ðra CaðXð s:ð CaðXa kam: t:Ømhðø Oðs:a l:g:t:a hò j:òs:ð p:ha_ hað.
   8b.  m:ðra CaðXð s:ð CaðXa kam: t:Ømhðø p:ha_ j:ò) - s:a l:g:t:a hò.
       'The least little thing I ask you to do seems like a mountain to you.'

   m:an:aðø and  j:òs:ð can be used as independent hedges on a statement. As such they govern the indicative rather than the sunjunctive :

   9.  Aaj:kl: dØen:y:a j:òs:ð CaðXi hað rhi hò.
       'Nowadays the world is as if shrinking.'

   10. t:Øm: m:an:aðø ehndØst:an:i m:s:al:aðø kñ Aadi hað g:y:ð hað.
       'You've become as it were addicted to Indian spices.'

        s:a is used in a similar way with nouns, adjectives, adverbs, even verbs :

   11. m:riz: kñ m:aT:ð p:r ddü ki l:kirðø s:i edK:aI diø.
       'Something like lines of pain appeared on the patient's brow.'

   12. D:im:i s:i Aav:az: m:ðø v:h m:afiün: m:aúg:n:ð l:g:a.
       'In a somewhat faint voice he began to ask for morphine.'

  13. Ok j:v:an: s:i Aaòrt: uY K:_i hØI Aaòr us:n:ð m:ðri b:at: p:r z:b:rdst: Ot:raz: eky:a.
       A youngish woman got up and objected violently to what I'd said.'

   14. Ap:n:i b:at: Q:tm: krkñ m:ðri t:rf dðK:a Aaòr m:Øs:kra s:i di.
       'When she was finished she looked my way and, it seemed, smiled.'

         Notice that when  s:a is being used as a hedge it does not require the oblique form of noun which precedes. Compare :

  15. p:an:i m:ðø S:iS:ð s:i c:m:k T:i.          (postpositional  s:a )
       'The water had the gleam of a mirror.'

   16. p:an:i m:ðø S:iS:a s:a c:m:k rha T:a.       ( s:a as hedge)
       'In the water was shining something like a mirror.'

       With certain adjectives of degree  s:a intensifies rather than attenuates the meaning:

  17. t:Ømhðø Et:n:i s:i b:at:aðø p:r daðst:aðø s:ð y:Üú hi ec:` hað j:at:i hò.
       'You get annoyed with your friends over the least little things for no reason at all.'

  18. ehndØst:an: m:ðø Aam: l:aðg: Ap:n:ð kÙ¶:aðø ka z:ra s:a B:i Qy:al: n:hiø rK:t:ð.
       'In India ordinary people don't take care of their dogs at all.'

  19. m:ØJ:s:ð T:að_i s:i B:i em:c:ü b:rdaSt: n:hiø haðt:i.
       'I cannot stand even a little bit of (chili) pepper.'

         The particle  s:a may also be used adverbially:

  20. Pað_aðø kað p:kñ Aam:s:a dab: dðt:a T:a,  K:al: kað Aal:Üs:a Cil: dðt:a T:a . . .
       '(The doctor) would squeeze boils as if they were ripe mangos and peel off skin as if it were a potato's...'

       (from  km:l:ðSv:r 's  raj:a en:rb:øes:y:a,  p. 60)

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Keyed in by  ev:v:ðk Ag:rv:al: in Mar 2001. Posted 4 Apr 2001.