y:Ün:iv:es:ýXi A:ôf em:eS:g:n:

Inclusive imperatives.

                   In Hindi, when speakers wish to include themselves in a suggestion or a command, they use the subjunctive:

 1.  c:l:að , Ab: hm: G:r c:l:ðø.
       'C'mon, let's go home now.'

 2.   hm: kaðI t:rqib: en:kal:ðø.
      'Let's think of a solution. '

Since the speaker is included, this mood is used in asking for assent, too:

 3.  y:haú s:ð eK:s:k j:aOû hm: ?
      'Shall we split this scene? '

 4.  Ab: T:að_a Aaram: kr l:ðø ?
      'Shall we rest up a bit?'

The passive is very frequently used in such inclusives:

 5.   c:l:að ,  y:ar ,  Aaj: rat: ep:Vc:r dðK:i j:aO ,   ep:Vc:r !
       'C'mon, good buddy, let's take in a show tonight!'

 6.   t:að m:ØÀi kað Aaj: n:I (aôk p:hn:aI j:aO ?
       'So shall we put Munni's new dress on (her) today?'

As an inclusive, this construction freely occurs with intransitives:

 7.  hm: y:haú b:òYðø.  y:haú b:òYa j:aO.
      'Let's sit here.'

 8.  hm: j:aOû Ab: ?    Ab: j:ay:a j:aO ?
      'Shall we go now?'

It is possible to use the subjunctive of the antitransitive in the same way:

 9.  c:l:að,  Ab: s:am:an: b:úD: j:aO.
      'C'mon, let's pack the stuff now.'

But without context or an indication like  c:l:að,  the subjunctive of the antitransitive can apply to any person:

 10. l:ari kb: t:k l:dð ?
       'When shall I (you, he, we, they, etc. ) load the truck?'

To exercise on the inclusive imperative.

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Keyed in by  ev:v:ðk Ag:rv:al: in Mar 2001.
Posted 12 Apr 2001.