Distribution of Archaeological Sites in the Santa Valley during the Preceramic (3000 - 1800 BC) and Formative (1800 - 350 BC) Periods


Source: Wilson, David J. (1988) Prehispanic Settlement Patterns in the Lower Santa Valley, Peru. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington D.C.
David Wilson spent a total of 9 months conducting systematic field survey of the Santa Valley during the years 1979 and 1980. Sites were recorded on aerial photos during the field survey, and then drawn onto a large sheet of Albanene tracing paper. Longitude/latitude information regarding the sites was not given in his book.

During the Preceramic Period (or Las Salinas Period in the local Santa chronology), sites are distributed throughout the valley, from the shore to inland. There is a cluster of 12 sites concentrated along the preceramic shoreline, which is demarcated by the dashed lines.

In the subsequent Formative Period (Cayhuamarca Period), almost all the sites are situated inland, forming distinct clusters of settlements in the mid-valley. Hilltop fortresses and citadels appear at this time.

I used ArcView to re-analyze Wilson's survey data from the Cayhuamarca Period.  The methodology and result of the analysis could be found here.