Urban Planning 584: Economic Development Planning
College of Architecture + Urban Planning
University Of Michigan, Winter 2022
Tues/Thurs 2:30 - 4:00 pm.
Art&Architecture Building, Room 1360
modified: Wednesday, January 19, 2022

course overview
terms / concepts

Prof. Scott Campbell
(734) 763-2077
Office hours
office: 2352 Art & Architecture Bldg

student-created blogs:
arts & economic development

student-created maps:
boomtowns and shrinking cities
examples of TIFs, BIDs, EZs, and other place-based economic development strategies

quick links

Jan 6

growth, decline, gentrification
Jan 11 - 18

substance and image
Jan 20-27
values: equity, sustainable, resilient
Feb 1 - 8

Feb 10 - 24

tools, strategies, funding
Mar 10 - 22

new tech, new economies
Mar 24 - 31

Apr 19



    1. Marketing (Jan 27)    

2. Pandemic Local Economies (Mar 10)

3. Portrait (Apr 5-7)

4. One-pager (Apr 19)
Final Essay (Apr 25)

Schedule of Weekly Readings (please email me if you find any broken links, missing readings, etc.)

Jan 6: Course Introduction

[introductions of instructor and students; format and themes of course; short lecture on economic development planning; see also the link to course overview]

useful readings as an introduction to the field:
Blakely, Edward James, and Nancey Green Leigh. 2010. Planning local economic development: theory and practice. 5th ed. Los Angeles: Sage. [Chapters 1,3]

Galbraith, John Kenneth. "The Proper Purpose of Economic Development," in The Essential Galbraith . Boston: Mariner Books, 2001, pp. 109-117.

Rubin, Herbert J. "Shoot Anything That Flies; Claim Anything That Falls: Conversations With Economic Development Practitioners." Economic Development
, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1988, pp. 236-251.

Glaeser, Edward L. "Why Economists Still Like Cities." City Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1996, pp. 70-77.

-> In class discussion on characteristics of a strong versus vulnerable local economies. see class google folder


Growth, Development, Gentrification, Decline, CRISIS

Jan 11: Can Cities Grow Too Fast? Economic Development in Boomtowns and Rapidly Growing Megacities

Broadway, M. J. and D. D. Stull. 2006. Meat processing and Garden City, KS: boom and bust. Journal of Rural Studies 22: 55-66.

Brown, Chip. 2013. "North Dakota Went Boom," The New York Times. Jan 31. [link] [images + audio]
see also this BBC report on Williston, ND: Jude Sheerin and Anna Bressanin, "North Dakota oil boom: American Dream on ice," (BBC News).

Campanella, Thomas J. 2008. Concrete Dragon : China's Urban Revolution and What it Means for the World. New York, NY, USA: Princeton Architectural Press. (Introduction: "The Urbanism of Ambition" and Epilogue: "China Reinvents the City") [EBooks]

The Guardian: The rise of megacities – interactive [link] and Shanghai in pictures + "Walking Shanghai: from the 14th century to the future"

see also:
listen to this fascinating podcast: "Dollar Store Town: Inside the World's Biggest Wholesale Market" (http://99percentinvisible.org) about the International Trade Market (Futian market), Yiwu, China. (see also: Guillermo Ruiz-Stovel, 2010, The View from the Bottom: How Small Businessmen Learned to Love Yiwu).
Paul G. Lewis, and Max Neiman. American Governance and Public Policy: Custodians of Place : Governing the Growth and Development of Cities. Washington, DC, USA: Georgetown University Press, 2009. [EBooks] (Chapter 3 What Type of City to Be? Evaluating Different Kinds of Growth)
Krauss, Clifford. 2015. On to Plan B as Oil Work Stalls in Texas, The New York Times, Jan 19. [link]
Jasper, James M.. 2002. Restless Nation : Starting Over in America. University of Chicago Press. (Ch 4: "Boom Land") [EBooks]
Engelhardt, Carroll. 2007. Gateway to the Northern Plains : Railroads and the Birth of Fargo and Moorhead. University of Minnesota Press. [EBooks]
Friedmann, John. 2005. China's Urban Transition. University of Minnesota Press. [EBooks]
Yusuf, Shahid Saich, Anthony. 2008. China Urbanizes : Consequences, Strategies, and Policies. Herndon, VA: World Bank Publications. (esp. Chapter 5: Finance for Urban Centers)[EBooks]
Black, Brian . 2000. Petrolia : The Landscape of America's First Oil Boom. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.[EBooks]

[map of student examples of growing and shrinking cities, including entries from both this year's and past years' classes]

Jan 13: Shrinking Cities: Growing Too Slowly

Flammang, R. A. 1979. “Economic growth and economic development: Counterparts or competitors?” Economic Development and Cultural Change 28, 47-62

Alan Mallach (ed). Rebuilding America's Legacy Cities: New Directions for the Industrial Heartland. Center for Community Progress. (selected chapters: Introduction, Chs. 1, 3, 7, 10, 11.)

Dewar, M.E. and J.M. Thomas eds. 2013. The city after abandonment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. (Chapter 13. Planning for Better, Smaller Places After Population Loss: Lessons from Youngstown and Flint, by Margaret Dewar, Christina Kelly, and Hunter Morrison) [EBooks]

here is a link to a handout for small group (breakout room) work today: file name "URP584w22 Jan 13 Shrinking Cities scenario"

see also:
Center for Community Progress publications
Legacy Cities Partnership

Leaner, Greener Detroit:  A Report by the American Institute of Architects. Sustainable Design Assessment Team, Detroit, Michigan October 30-November 1, 2008. [link]
Bruce Katz and Jennifer Bradley.  2009.   The Detroit Project:  A plan for solving America’s greatest urban disaster.  The New Republic.   December 9.   [link]
Galster, George. 2012. Metropolitan Portraits : Driving Detroit : The Quest for Respect in the Motor City. Publisher: Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. (esp. chapter 9, "The Dynamics of Decay, Abandonment, and Bankruptcy") [EBooks]
Barrow, Heather B. 2004. "'The American Disease of Growth': Henry Ford and the Metropolitanization of Detroit, 1920 - 1940." In Manufacturing Suburbs : Building Work and Home on the Metropolitan Fringe, edited by Robert Lewis. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. [EBooks]
Sugrue, Thomas J. 1998. The Origins of the Urban Crisis. Princeton: Princeton Univ Press. [excerpt: chapter 5] [a copy also in Ebooks]
Martelle, Scott. 2012. Detroit : A Biography. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. [EBooks]
Herscher, Andrew. 2012. The Unreal Estate Guide to Detroit. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. [EBooks]


Jan 18: The Janus Face of Gentrification: causes and consequences

Marketplace, York & Fig: at the Intersection of Change [wonderful multimedia -- be sure to listen to the audio stories] [UPDATED LINK]

Schwarz, Benjamin. 2010. Gentrification and Its Discontents: Manhattan never was what we think it was. The Atlantic, May 11.

Hackworth, Jason, and Neil Smith. 2001. "The changing state of gentrification." Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie 92 (4):464-477.

Peter Moskowitz. 2015. The two Detroits: a city both collapsing and gentrifying at the same time. The Guardian. Feb 5. [link]

Jana Kasperkevicz. 2014. Study of poverty-ridden neighborhoods shows gentrification is not ruining enough of America. The Guardian. Dec 10. [link]

see also:
Freeman, Lance. 2006. There Goes the 'Hood : Views of Gentrification from the Ground Up. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Temple University Press. [EBooks]
Hector Tobar. 2015. Viva Gentrification! the New York Times, March 21. [link]
Casey Parks. 2015. Portland gentrification video: 'This is painful, but we can do something'. Oregon Live, March 17. [link] see also: Ifanyi Bell, The Air I Breathe: Growing up tolerated and underestimated in Portland (2014).
Brock Winstead. 2015. There Goes the Neighborhood, Again: A gentrifier digs deep into his new home's past in pursuit of its true historic owners. Slate, Feb 9. [link]
Lisa Bates. 2013. Gentrification and Displacement Study: implementing an equitable inclusive development strategy in the context of gentrification. Commissioned by City of Portland, Bureau of Planning and Sustainability. May 18. [link].
Jackelyn Hwang. 2016. Gentrification without Segregation: Race and Renewal in a Diversifying City. Harvard Joint Center for Housing Studies Working Paper, May. [link] (added Jan 18)
Ghertner, D. Asher. 2015. "Why gentrification theory fails in 'much of the world'." City 19 (4):552-563. (added Jan 26)

see (and contribute to) the class web page of gentrification examples


Jan 20: Place Marketing/Place Branding: Introduction, Concepts and the Politics of Selling Places

Ward, Stephen V. 1998. Selling Places : The Marketing and Promotion of Towns and Cities, 1850-2000. Routledge. [Ch. 9] [in Canvas; see also google books -- limited view]

see also:
Kavaratzis, M., & Ashworth, G. (2008). Place marketing: How did we get here and where are we going? Journal of Place Management and Development, 1(2), 150-165.
Eisenschitz, A. (2010). Neo-liberalism and the future of place marketing. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(2), 79-86.
John R. Mullin. "From Mill Town to Mill Town: The Transition of a New England Town from a Textile to a High Tech Economy"
Rennen, Ward. 2007. CityEvents : Place Selling in a Media Age. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. [EBooks]
Valerie Vande Panne. 2016. Welcome to the Multimillion-Dollar Business of Selling U.S. Cities. Next City. Nov. 28.
Berg, P. O., and Björner, E., eds. 2014. Branding Chinese Mega-Cities : Policies, Practices and Positioning. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. [EBooks]
Musterd, Sako, Kovács, Zoltán, and Kovcs, Zoltn, eds. 2013. Place-Making and Policies for Competitive Cities. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. [EBooks]
Broudehoux, Anne-Marie. 2004. The Making and Selling of Post-Mao Beijing. London: Taylor and Francis. [EBooks]


Jan 25: Local Economic Consequences of the Pandemic and Responses

[more readings to be posted]

Below is an initial list of specific readings and useful sources for information. Please select a subset of the articles or sites listed below and read or review. There is a huge amount of new information appearing daily, and it's hard to keep up with the data, stories, speculations. Your task: read a number of various sources so you can begin to develop answers to these questions: 1. How is the pandemic (and the resulting stay-at-home policies) affecting production, consumption, employment? 2. What sectors and occupations are hardest hit? 3. How does this crisis painfully reveal the interconnections between different sectors? 4. What policies are local, state and federal governments taking to mitigate the crisis? 5. What other policies might they pursue? 6. What can we learn from other countries and from past crises (e.g., the Great Depression, the financial crisis of 2008, etc.)? 7. Is the pandemic triggering new demographic shifts, especially in migration?

BREAKOUT ROOM TASK: (1) Identify a short list of the biggest post-pandemic challenges that local economic development that cities and neighborhoods will face. (2) Share and discuss ideas for your Assignment 2 projects ("Economic Development in (and after) a Pandemic: Case studies" -- due March 17)

Grabar, Henry. 2021. U-Hauls for the Creative Class: Where will Americans move if their jobs let them work anywhere? Slate, Jan 27, 2021.

Scipioni, Jade. 2021. The states Americans headed to the most in 2020, according to U-Haul. CNBC. Jan 25.

Nellie Bowles. 2021. They Can’t Leave the Bay Area Fast Enough. The New York Times. Jan 14.

St. Louis Fed. 2020. The “She-Cession” Persists, Especially for Women of Color. Dec 24.

Christopher de Bellaigue. 2020. The end of tourism? The Guardian. Jun 18.

Michael Pollan. 2021. The efficiency curse. We built a ‘better’ food system. The cost: It couldn’t handle a pandemic. The Washington Post. Feb 5.


Brookings page on Coronavirus [link]

Cleveland Fed: Covid page

Center for American Progress

US Chamber of Commerce

Economic Policy Institute page on Coronavirus [link]

Timothy Bartik, Senior economist, Upjohn Institute: his useful twitter feed on the crisis

MRSC: Coronavirus (COVID-19) Local Government Fiscal ImpactsSix Suggested Actions for Planners during the Extended COVID-19 Pandemic


Substance and Image

Jan 27: Place Marketing/Place Branding: Student Examples

Each of you is to locate an interesting example of place marketing and briefly present the image in class. Be ready to evaluate/critique the image and place it in context.

Task for class: By Tuesday evening, please find an example of "place marketing" / place branding. (print, web, video). Then do one of the following.
1. Create a slide of your image(s) and upload it to the class GOOGLE SLIDES file created for this task. (Note: if you find several compelling examples, it's ok to include several slides.)
2. If you want to instead show a dynamic web page that is better shown directly on a browser than via google slides, then create a slide in the above file with a link to the web page.

Be sure to include on the slide:

  • your name
  • the source of the images
  • and if not obvious from the slide itself, the location of the image

[for full instructions, see assignment page]


Squaring the Circle: Promoting Just, Sustainable, Resilient Cities

Feb 1: Unequal Cities: Poverty and Uneven Development -- or why, in an era of growing technological mobility, are a few cities winning most of the wealth (and the rest are struggling)?

Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom. Westminster, MD: Knopf. (Chapter 2: The Ends and Means of Development)

Krumholz, N., & Hexter, K. W. (Eds.). (2019). Advancing Equity Planning Now. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. (Please read the introduction -- but other chapters may be of interest as well: e.g., 1. Growth without Displacement 2. The Evolution of the Community Development Industry 3. Economic Diversity in Low-Status Communities). [available through UM Library's Project Muse]

Abel Valenzuela Jr.. 2006. Economic Development in Latino Communities: Incorporating Marginal and Immigrant Workers. in Paul Ong and Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris (eds.), Jobs and Economic Development in Minority Communities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. (Chapter 6) [EBooks]

Sutton, Stacey A. 2010. "Rethinking Commercial Revitalization: A Neighborhood Small Business Perspective." Economic Development Quarterly 24 (4)

see also:
Norman Krumholz, "Equitable approaches to local economic development," Policy Studies Journal, vol. 27, no. 1 (Spring 1999).
Soja, Edward W. 2010. Seeking Spatial Justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (Chapter 4: Seeking Spatial Justice in Los Angeles) [EBooks]
Economic Innovation Group. The 2018 Distressed Communities Index: An Analysis of Community Well-Being Across the United States. [link] [interactive map] (link updated)
RICHARD FLORIDA and ARIA BENDIX. 2016. Mapping the Most Distressed Communities in the U.S. The Atlantic Citylab. (Feb 26). [link]
Wainwright, The truth about property developers: how they are exploiting planning authorities and ruining our cities, the Guardian, 17 Sept 2014.
Emily Badger and Quoctrung Bui. 2019. What if Cities Are No Longer the Land of Opportunity for Low-Skilled Workers? The New York Times, Jan 11. [link]
Goldsmith, William W.. 2016. Saving Our Cities : A Progressive Plan to Transform Urban America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. [EBooks]


Feb 3: Sustainable Economic Development: An Oxymoron or Win-Win?

Tumber, C. (2013). Fields, Factories, and Workshops: Green Economic Development on the Smaller-Metro Scale. in S. M. Wachter & K. A. Zeuli (Eds.), The City in the Twenty-First Century : Revitalizing American Cities (pp. 224-241). Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press. [EBooks] see also this video lecture by Tumber, and her own full length book below)

Hess, D. J. (2012). Urban and Industrial Environments Series: Good Green Jobs in a Global Economy : Making and Keeping New Industries in the United States. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press. (Chapter 5: The Greening of Regional Industrial Clusters) [EBooks]

Campbell, Scott. 2016. The Planner's Triangle Revisited: Sustainability and the Evolution of a Planning Ideal That Can't Stand Still, Journal of the American Planning Association, 82-4, 388-397 

Agyeman, J. (2005). Sustainable Communities and the Challenge of Environmental Justice. New York, NY, USA: New York University Press (NYU Press). (Ch. 4 Just Sustainability in Practice, pp. 107-132). [EBooks]

Oden, M. D. (2010). Equity: The Forgotten E in Sustainable Development. In S. A. Moore (Ed.), Pragmatic sustainability : theoretical and practical tools (1st ed., pp. 31-49). London ; New York, NY: Routledge.

see also:
Agyeman, J., Bullard, R., & Evans, B. (Eds.). (2002). Just Sustainabilities : Development in an Unequal World. London, GBR: Earthscan. [EBooks]
Tumber, C. (2011). Small, Gritty, and Green : The Promise of America's Smaller Industrial Cities in a Low-Carbon World. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press. [EBooks]
Power, Thomas Michael. 1996. Lost Landscapes and Failed Economies: The Search for a Value of Place. Washington, D.C., Covelo, CA Island Press. (Ch. 1: "Thinking About the Local Economy" pp. 7-28; Ch. 3. "Demystifying Local Economic Change" pp. 57-88).
Hayward, Steven F. "A Sensible Environmentalism." Public Interest, Vol. 151, No. Spring, 2003, pp. 62-74.
Fitzgerald, Joan and Nancey Green Leigh. 2002. “Introduction” and “Redefining the Field of Local Economic Development.” In Economic Revitalization: Cases and Strategies for City and Suburb. London: Sage Publications.
Oden, Michael and Robert Young. 2014. Has Green Industry Development Died on the Vine?: Performance and Prospects for Green Industry Development, paper presented at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Annual Conference, Oct 30 – Nov 2, 2014, Philadelphia.
Douglas, Ian. 2013. Cities: An Environmental History. London, GBR: I.B. Tauris. (Ch 10. Urban Sustainability: Cities for Future Generations) [EBooks] - NOT currently available
G. Rendell. 2012. Sustainability's not a subject. Inside Higher Ed. January 31. [link]
Chapple, K. (2015). Planning sustainable cities and regions : towards more equitable development. London, New York: Routledge. [in Canvas]
Kian Goh (2020) Planning the Green New Deal- Climate Justice and the Politics of Sites and Scales, Journal of the American Planning Association, 86-2. [just added]


Feb 8: Resilient Cities / Fragile Cities

Resilience, like sustainability, has entered our vocabulary to describe a positive characteristic of a system (see this google ngram graphic of the two interrelated terms). Resilience is an appealing trait: the ability to recover from a shock (natural disaster, economic crisis, war, factory closing, pandemic, etc.). We explore the current focus on building resilient local & regional economies.

Foster, Kathryn. 2007. Snapping Back: What Makes Regions Resilient? National Civic Review.

Vale, Lawrence J., and Thomas J. Campanella. 2005. Resilient City: How Modern Cities Recover from Disaster. Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press. [selections: Introduction; Chs. 1, 3, 5, 9, Conclusion] [EBooks]

see also:

Texas as a recent case study of the challenges in making cities and regions resilient (in the face of hurricanes, cold weather-induced power outages, heatwaves, large population growth, inadequate investment in public infrastructure). a few articles: Through Chattering Teeth, Texans Criticize Extended Power Outages (NY Times 16Feb2021); A Glimpse of America’s Future: Climate Change Means Trouble for Power Grids (NY Times 16Feb2021);

Resilient Cities series. The Guardian,
100 Resilient Cities (Rockefeller Foundation)
Resilient Cities Network
Urban Resilience Research Network • story: "The Resilience Machine"
articles in Planning Theory & Practice (Vol. 13, No. 2) on resilience [link]


Sectors of the Post-Industrial City: Tourism, Arts and Sports

Feb 10: The Tourist City: Fragile Economic Strategy or Path to Growth?

Loukaitou-Sideris, A. and K. Soureli (2012). "Cultural Tourism as an Economic Development Strategy for Ethnic Neighborhoods." Economic Development Quarterly 26(1): 50-72.

Sandercock, Leonie and Kim Dovey. 2002. Pleasure, politics, and the "public interest": Melbourne's riverscape revitalization. Journal of the American Planning Association. Spring 2002; 68, pp 151-64.

Moehring, Eugene. 2002. Growth, Services, and the Political Economy of Gambling in Las Vegas, 1970– 2000, in Rothman, Hal and Mike Davis (eds). 2002. THE Grit Beneath the Glitter: Tales from the Real Las Vegas. University of California Press. (pp. 73-98) [EBooks]

OPTIONAL: see also these recent readings on the impact of COVID-19 on tourism:

UN World Tourism Organization: Secretary-General’s Policy Brief on Tourism and COVID-19.
World Economic Impact: COVID-19 could set the global tourism industry back 20 years
OECD: Rebuilding tourism for the future: COVID-19 policy responses and recovery
WTO: Tourism-dependent economies are among those harmed the most by the pandemic
Patrick McGeehan. 2020. Tourism, Engine for N.Y.C. Economy, May Not Fully Recover Until 2025. New York Times. Nov 16.
Amanda Rosa. 2020. What to Know About the Future of Tourism in N.Y.C.. New York Times. Nov 18.

other optional reading:

Hospers, Gert-Jan. 2010. 'Lynch's The Image of the City after 50 Years: City Marketing Lessons from an Urban Planning Classic', European Planning Studies, 18: 12, 2073 — 2081.Bickford-Smith, Vivian. 2009. Creating a City of the Tourist Imagination: The Case of Cape Town, `The Fairest Cape of Them All' Urban Studies 46: 1763
Russ Buettner and Charles V. Bagli. 2016. How Donald Trump Bankrupted His Atlantic City Casinos, but Still Earned Millions. The New York Times, June 11.
End of the Boardwalk empire? The rise and demise of Atlantic City, The Guardian, 4 Nov 2014.


Feb 15: Arts and Economic Development

Currid, Elizabeth. How Art and Culture Happen in New York: Implications for Urban Economic Development. Journal of the American Planning Association 73. 4 (Autumn 2007): 454-467.

Ann Markusen and Anne Gadwa. 2010. Arts and Culture in Urban or Regional Planning: A Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Planning Education and Research 29(3) 379–

Carl Grodach. 2011. Art Spaces in Community and Economic Development: Connections to Neighborhoods, Artists, and the Cultural Economy. Journal of Planning Education and Research. 31(1) 74–85.

Anne Gadwa Nicodemus. 2013. Artists and Gentrification: Sticky Myths, Slippery Realities. ( April 5). [link]

view and add to this class blog/web site [login info to be provided]

see also:
Cohen, Patricia. 2014. N.E.A. Funds Benefit Both Rich and Poor, Study Finds. The New York Times. Feb 4. [and a link to the study].

Rushton, Michael, ed. 2013. Creative Communities : Art Works in Economic Development. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press. [EBooks]

Throsby, David. 2010. The Economics of Cultural Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [EBooks]

COVID-19 RSFLG Data and Assessment Working Group. 2021. ANALYSIS: COVID-19’s Impacts on Arts and Culture. Argonne National Laboratory. Jan 4.

OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19). Culture shock: COVID-19 and the cultural and creative sectors. 7 September 2020


Feb 17: Sports as a Growth Sector?

Rosentraub, Mark and David Swindell. 2009. Of devils and details: bargaining for successful public/private partnerships between cities and sports teams. Public Administration Quarterly. Vol. 33(1), Spring.

Nelson, Arthur C. "Prosperity or Blight? A Question of Major League Stadia Locations." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 3, August 2001, pp. 255-265.

Baade, Robert A. The Impact of Sports Teams and Facilities on Neighborhood Economies: What is the Score? in Kern, William S. (editor), Economics of Sports. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. [EBooks]

TASK: view and add to this class blog/web site

see also:
Zimbalist, Andrew. 2010. Facility Finance: Measurement, Trends, and Analysis (Ch. 6). in Circling the Bases : Essays on the Challenges and Prospects of the Sports Industry. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. [EBooks]

Binyamin Appelbaum, 2014. Does Hosting the Olympics Actually Pay Off? The New York Times. August 5. [link]

Garofalo, Pat and Travis Waldron. 2012. If You Build It, They Might Not Come: The Risky Economics of Sports Stadiums. The Atlantic. Sept 7. [link]

Ken Belson. 2015. Albatross of Debt Weighs on Super Bowl City. The New York Times, Jan 25. [link]

David Uberti. 2014. How American sports franchises are selling their cities short. The Guardian. Sept 22. [link]

Long, Judith Grant. 2012. Public-Private Partnerships for Major League Sports Facilities. London: Taylor & Francis Group. [EBooks]

Propheter, Geoffrey and Megan E. Hatch. 2015. Evaluating Lease-Purchase Financing for Professional Sports Facilities, Urban Affairs Review 51(6), 905–925.


Tools, Strategies, Funding

Feb 22: Common Methods and Data Sources to Analyze Local Economies (including economic base and multipliers; industry versus occupation; location quotients; economic impact evaluation)

Davis, H. Craig “Economic Base Analysis” Regional Impact Analysis and Project Evaluation, Chapter 2 (also in Ebooks) [you might also tour some of the other chapters to get a sense of the range of methods and strategies to measure impact]

Isserman, Andrew M. 2000. Economic base studies for urban and regional planning. Pp. 174-193 In Rodwin and Sanyal, eds. The Profession of City Planning: Changes, Images, and Challenges, 1950-2000. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

Stevens, Benjamin and Lahr, Michael. 1988. “Regional Economic Multipliers: Definition, Measurement, and Application.” EDQ 2,1: 88-96.

Optional/background readings:

Tiebout, Charles M. "Exports and Regional Economic Growth." Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 64, No. 2, April 1956, pp. 160-164.

North, Douglass C. "Location Theory and Regional Economic Growth." Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 63, No. 3, June 1955, pp. 243-258.

Also: an overview of Assignment 3 (Local Economic Portraits), including sharing ideas for case studies.


Feb 24: Going Small/Going Local: the Local Investment/Buy Local Movement

Imbroscio, David L; Williamson, Thad; Alperovitz, Gar. 2003. Local policy responses to globalization: Place-based ownership models of economic enterprise. Policy Studies Journal. Feb.

Shuman, Michael H. 2007. The Small-Mart Revolution : How Local Businesses Are Beating the Global Competition (2nd Edition). San Francisco, CA, USA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. (Introduction and Part One) [EBooks]

David A. Fleming and Stephan J. Goetz. 2011. Does Local Firm Ownership Matter? Economic Development Quarterly, August. vol. 25, 3: pp. 277-281.

see also:
Brian Beckon, Amy Cortese, Janice Shade and Michael H. Shuman. 2020. Investment Funds A How-To Guide for Building Local Wealth, Equity, and Justice. A Publication of the National Coalition for Community Capital and The Solidago Foundation Community. [link]
https://community-wealth.org/Business Alliance for Local Living Economies (BALLE)
Institute for Local Self-Reliance
Slow Food USA Slow Food Huron Valley
Gottlieb, Robert Joshi, Anupama. 2010. Food Justice. MIT Press. [EBooks]
Hess, David J. 2009. Localist Movements in a Global Economy: Sustainability, Justice, and Urban Development in the United States. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [EBooks]
Civic Economics
"17 Reasons That Small Businesses In Detroit Are Thriving" (Huff Post 11/29/2013) • DEGC:Supporting Small Business Growth (including Motor City Match)•  "How Pop-Up Stores Are Spurring Innovation in Detroit" (NY Times 4/16/2014) • Deadline Detroit (2/5/2014): "Success Stories: Pop-Up Shops Grow Deeper Detroit Roots"
Ann Arbor Farmers Market


we might contrast to the case of Wal-Mart:

Emek Basker. 2007. The Causes and Consequences of Wal-Mart's Growth. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol 21(3). Summer, 177–198.

Simon Head, 2004. Inside the Leviathan. The New York Review of Books. Vol. 51 (20): Dec. 16
LA Times 2004 articles on Wal-Mart [a three-part series that won the Pulitzer Prize]

Hemphill, Thomas A. 2008. Demonising Wal-Mart: What Do the Facts Tell Us? The Journal of Corporate Citizenship; Autumn, 26-30.

Stone, Kenneth G. Impact of Walmart Stores on Iowa Communities: 1983- 1993, Economic Development Review, Vol. 13, #2 (Spring 1995), 60-69

see also:
Wal-Mart home pagecorporate page stores Global ResponsibilityUS Manufacturing
PBS Frontline: "Is Wal-Mart Good for America?" (detailed on-line resources; and watch the movie on-line).
Good Jobs First: Wal-Mart Subsidy Watch
ILSR, Wal-Mart stories
Bay Area Economic Forum, "Supercenters and the Transformation of the Bay Area Grocery Industry: Issues, Trends, and Impacts," (January 2004). pdf
Kaelberer, 2017, Wal-Mart Goes to Germany_ Culture, Institutions, and the Limits of Globalization. German Politics and Society, Issue 122 Vol. 35, No. 1 (Spring): 1–18

see also these books on Wal-Mart in [EBooks]]:
Mitchell, S. (2006). BigBox Swindle : The True Cost of MegaRetailers and the Fight for America's Independent Businesses. Boston, MA, USA: Beacon Press.
Roberts, B., & Berg, N. (2012). Walmart : Key Insights and Practical Lessons From the World's Largest Retailer. London, GBR: Kogan Page Ltd.
Moreton, B. (2009). To Serve God and Wal-Mart : The Making of Christian Free Enterprise. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press.
Rosen, M. (2009). Boom Town : How Wal-Mart Transformed an All-American Town into an International Community. Chicago, IL, USA: Chicago Review Press.


Mid-Winter Break: no classes Mar 1-5


Mar 8: NO Class (tentative)

instructor out of town at external review/university planning program

Mar 10: Economic Development in (and after) a Pandemic: Case studies

student presentations of Assignment 2

Mar 15: Funding Economic Development: Introduction and Tax Increment Financing

Stephen Malpezzi, "Local Economic Development and Its Finance: An Introduction,"in White, Sammis B., Richard D. Bingham, and Edward W. Hill, eds. 2003. Financing Economic Development in the 21st Century. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Biere, David and Carla Kayanan, Improving TIF Transparency and Accountability, Towards a Consolidated View of TIF Activities in Michigan, 2014.

Rachel Weber, "Tax Incremental Financing in Theory and Practice," in White, Sammis B., Richard D. Bingham, and Edward W. Hill, eds. 2003. Financing Economic Development in the 21st Century. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Steiner, Frederick and Kent Butler. "Economic and Real Estate Development," (Section on capital improvement, pp 401-2 and TIFs, pp. 403-5) in Planning and Urban Design Standards, Student Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007, pp. 401-2.

Blakely, Edward James, and Nancey Green Leigh. 2010. Planning local economic development: theory and practice. 5th ed. Los Angeles: Sage. [Ch. 5, 7]

New York Times: "United States of Subsidies" (Dec 2012). [link]

see also:

Callies, David, and Gowder, W. Andrew, Jr.. 2014. Tax Increment Financing. American Bar Association. Accessed January 29, 2018. [EBooks] (Part 1: useful overview; Part 2: case studies from California, Chicago, New Orleans, etc.)
Citizens Research Council of Michigan: Survey of Economic Development Programs in Michigan (Third Edition February 2016 Report 392). (see section on tax increment financing)
State Notes. Tax Increment Financing in Michigan (Winter 2016). By Drew Krogulecki
SEMCOG, Tax Increment Financing Authorities
Michigan Dept of Treasury: Tax Increment Financing
City of Chicago TIF Portal
White, Sammis B., Richard D. Bingham, and Edward W. Hill, eds. 2003. Financing Economic Development in the 21st Century. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. [google book view]
Cook County Clerk: TIF Districts information pageUnderstanding TIFs (6 minute video)
The TIF Illumination Project
Tanvi Misra. 2018. The Trouble With TIF: Cities love to use Tax Increment Financing to boost development. Should they? CityLab.
David Merriman.  Improving Tax Increment Financing (TIF) for Economic Development. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, September 2018. [link to free download]

Curious City: Untangling TIFs with Sharpies (WBEZ video)
Citizens Budget Committee: Tax Increment Financing: A Primer
CityLab University: Tax Increment Financing
Will Jason, Why Tax Increment Financing Often Fails and How Communities Can Do Better (Lincoln Institute of Land Policy)
Medill Reports Chicago. 2020. How Chicago’s controversial TIF program took over a third of the city (with a useful timeline of Chicago TIF history)


Mar 17: Funding Economic Development: Business Improvement Districts and Enterprise/Empowerment Zones

Mitchell, Jerry. "Business Improvement Districts and the 'New' Revitalization of Downtown." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 2, May 2001, pp. 115-123.

Boarnet, Marion G. "Enterprise Zones and Job Creation: Linking Evaluations and Practice." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2001, pp. 242-254.

Elvery, J. A. (2009). "The Impact of Enterprise Zones on Resident Employment." Economic Development Quarterly 23(1): 44-59.

Steiner, Frederick and Kent Butler. "Economic and Real Estate Development," (Section on financing) in Planning and Urban Design Standards, Student Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007, pp. 406-14.

Blakely, Edward James, and Nancey Green Leigh. 2010. Planning local economic development: theory and practice. 5th ed. Los Angeles: Sage. [Ch. 8, 9]

see also:
Main Street Business Improvement Zone (MSBIZ), Ann Arbor

Ann Arbor Downtown Development Authority

Sutton, S. A. (2010). "Rethinking Commercial Revitalization: A Neighborhood Small Business Perspective." Economic Development Quarterly 24(4): 352-371.

Hall, P. (1982). Enterprise zones: a justification. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 6(3), 416-421.

Anderson, John E. Wassmer, Robert W. 2000. Bidding for Business : The Efficacy of Local Economic Development Incentives in a Metropolitan Area. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. [EBooks] Chapter 1.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). 2015. Economic Zones in the ASEAN. Industrial Parks, Special Economic Zones, Eco Industrial Parks, Innovation Districts As Strategies For Industrial Competitiveness. prepared by UNIDO Country Office in Viet Nam. [link]

[map of student examples of local economic development policies] 


Mar 22: Community Benefits Agreements

Wolf-Powers, L. (2010). Community benefits agreements and local government: A review of recent evidence. Journal of the American Planning Association, 76(2), 141-159.

Leland, Saito, and Truong Jonathan. 2014. "The L.A. Live Community Benefits Agreement: Evaluating the Agreement Results and Shifting Political Power in the City." Urban Affairs Review 51 (2):263-289.

Been, V. (2010). Community benefits agreements: A new local government tool or another variation on the exactions theme? The University of Chicago Law Review, 77(1), 5-35.

Patterson, K. L., Ranahan, M., Silverman, R. M., & Yin, L. (2017). Community benefits agreements (CBAs): A typology for shrinking cities. The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 37(3), 231-247. 

Neil deMause. 2022. What Ever Happened to CBAs? The Rise and Fall of ‘Community Benefits Agreements’ in NYC. City Limits. [link]

see also:

Nadler, M. L. (2011). The constitutionality of community benefits agreements: Addressing the exactions problem. The Urban Lawyer, 43(2), 587-625. 

Musil, T. A., Dr. (2012). The sleeping giant: Community benefit agreements and urban development. The Urban Lawyer, 44(4), 827-831,833-851.

Nicholas J. Marantz (2015) What Do Community Benefits Agreements Deliver? Evidence From Los Angeles, Journal of the American Planning Association, 81:4, 251-267

Larissa Larsen. 2009. The Pursuit of Responsible Development: Addressing Anticipated Benefits and Unwanted Burdens through Community Benefit Agreements. CLOSUP Working Paper Series Number 9 February, University of Michigan. [link]

Baxamusa, Murtaza H. 2008. "Empowering Communities through Deliberation The Model of Community Benefits Agreements." Journal of Planning Education and Research 27 (3):261-276.

Lisa Berglund (2020) Early Lessons From Detroit’s Community Benefits Ordinance, Journal of the American Planning Association. [just added]

CERA: Community Empowerment Program • Good Jobs First and the California Partnership for Working Families: Community Benefits Agreements: Making Development Projects Accountable • Partnership for Working Families: Policy & Tools: Community Benefits Agreements and Policies In Effect • Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA): Community Benefits Agreement (CBA) •  LAX MASTER PLAN COMMUNITY BENEFITS AGREEMENT (CBA) 2007 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT •  Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis: Community benefits agreements: A tool for more equitable • development?

New Technologies, New Economies, New Regions

Mar 24: Silicon Valley: the Emergence of a High-Tech Region

Saxenian, AnnaLee. 1996. Regional Advantage : Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (read as much as necessary to gain a rich sense of her main arguments) [note: this book has limited access as an E-book via the UM Library. try this link; otherwise, it's a good, inexpensive book to have on your economic development bookshelf]

Markusen, Ann. 1999. Sticky places in slippery space: A typology of industrial districts. in Gertler, Meric S. Barnes, Trevor J. (eds.), Routledge Studies in the Modern World Economy : New Industrial Geography : Regions, Regulations and Institutions. Florence, KY: Routledge. (pp. 98-124) [EBooks]

Saxenian, AnnaLee; Sabel, Charles. 2008. Roepke Lecture in Economic Geography Venture Capital in the "Periphery": The New Argonauts, Global Search, and Local Institution Building. Economic Geography 84:4 (Oct.), 379-94.

see also:
O’Mara, Margaret Pugh. (2019). The Code: Silicon Valley and the remaking of America. New York: Penguin Press. [limited availability online via UM Library] (here is an ITIF podcast interview with O'Mara)
San Francisco Chronicle
, 2018. "Special Report: Future of Silicon Valley," [link to stories]
Karen Chapple, Ann Markusen, Greg Schrock, Daisaku Yamamoto and Pingkang Yu, 2004, Gauging Metropolitan "High-Tech" and "I-Tech" Activity, Economic Development Quarterly 18 (1): 10-29.
Saxenian, A. (1999). Silicon Valley's new immigrant entrepreneurs. San Francisco: Public Policy Institute of California.
Lécuyer, Christophe Brock, David C. Last, Jay T. 2010. Makers of the Microchip : A Documentary History of Fairchild Semiconductor. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Ch. 1 "Fairchild Semiconductor, Silicon Technology, and Military Computing", pp. 9-44) [EBooks]
Pellow, D. N., & Parks, L. S.-H. (2002). Silicon Valley of Dreams : Environmental Injustice, Immigrant Workers, and the High-Tech Global Economy. New York, NY, USA: New York University Press (NYU Press). [EBooks]
Neff, G. (2012). Acting With Technology : Venture Labor : Work and the Burden of Risk in Innovative Industries. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press. [EBooks]
Florida, Richard. 2002. Bohemia and economic geography. Journal of Economic Geography (2), 55-71.
Havlick, David and Scott Kirsch. A Production Utopia? RTP and the North Carolina Research Triangle Southeastern Geographer; Nov 2004; 44 (2): 263-277.
David E. Arnstein, Venture Capital, in White, Bingham, Hill (2003)
Business Angels, Adam Bock , in White, Bingham, Hill (2003)
Friend, Tad. 2015. Tomorrow's Advance Man: Marc Andreessen's plan to win the future. The New Yorker. May 18.

PBS "American Experience": Silicon Valley (link) (alt link)

David A. Laws. Exploring Silicon Valley’s High-Tech Heritage Trail. Medium. Jan 23, 2020.

Natalie Holmes. 2021. CalExodus: Are People Leaving California? Policy Brief. California Policy Lab. March 4. (addresses the question: are people fleeing the Bay Area during the pandemic?)

[link to in class task]


Mar 29: Beyond Silicon Valley: the Rise of High Tech Regions and the "Cluster" Strategy

Timothy Bresnahan, Alfonso Gambardella and AnnaLee Saxenian , ‘Old Economy’ Inputs for ‘New Economy’ Outcomes: Cluster Formation in the New Silicon Valleys, in Breschi, Stefano Malerba, Franco (eds.), Clusters, Networks, and Innovation. 2006. Oxford, GBR: Oxford University Press. (Chapter 5) [EBooks]

Robert D. Atkinson, Mark Muro and Jacob Whiton. 2019. THE CASE for GROWTH CENTERS: How to spread tech innovation across America. Brookings and Information Technology & Innovation Foundation (ITIF). [link]

Rohe, William M.. Metropolitan Portraits : Research Triangle : From Tobacco Road to Global Prominence. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. (Chapter 2: The Birth of the Research Triangle Metropolitan Area) [EBooks]

Lepore, J. (2014). The Disruption Machine: What the gospel of innovation gets wrong. The New Yorker, June 23.

E. Bergman and E. Feser. Industrial and Regional Clusters, chapters 3-4 [new link]

see also:
Doeringer and Terkla, "Business Strategy and Cross-Industry Clusters,"

Krugman, Paul. "Localization," in Geography and Trade. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press, 1991, pp. 35-67.

Lewis, Robert. 2008. Chicago Made: Factory Networks in the Industrial Metropolis. University of Chicago Press. (Chapter 8). [EBooks]

Harold, Wolman, and Hincapie Diana. 2014. "Clusters and Cluster-Based Development Policy." Economic Development Quarterly 29 (2):135-149.

O'Mara, Margaret Pugh. 2004. Cities of Knowledge : Cold War Science and the Search for the Next Silicon Valley. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [eBooks]


Mar 31: University Towns and Economic Development

Steven Mintz. 2022. The Revolution in Higher Education Is Already Underway. Higher Ed Gamma. Jan 12.

Perry, David C. and Wim Wiewel. 2006. University As Urban Developer: Case Studies and Analysis. Armonk, NY: Sharpe. [Chs. 1, 3, 16, 17] [EBooks]

Fischer, Karin, 2015, Why Universities Alone Aren't Going to Save Your Economy, The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 6.

Etienne, Harley. 2012. Pushing Back the Gates: Neighborhood Perspectives on University-Driven Revitalization in West Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. [introduction] [link via Project Muse - UM authentication required]

see also:

information on the UM North Campus Research Complex (NCRC)

Lane, Jason E., and Johnstone, D. Bruce, eds. Universities and Colleges As Economic Drivers. Albany, US: SUNY Press, 2014. [EBooks]

Michigan's University Research Corridor makes strong showing among eight leading U.S. research clusters [link] [new reading]

Anderson Economic Group, LLC. 2018. Empowering Michigan: 11th Edition of the Economic Impact Report of Michigan’s University Research Corridor. (Commissioned by Michigan's University Research Corridor: Michigan State University, University of Michigan, Wayne State University).

Martin Slagter. 2017. University of Michigan fills void Pfizer left in Ann Arbor a decade ago. MLive. Jan 29.

Chenmarch, David W. 2017. Where Halls of Ivy Meet Silicon Dreams, a New City Rises. The New York Times. March 22. [link]

Freedman, Josh. 2013. Why American Colleges Are Becoming a Force for Inequality. The Atlantic. May 16.

Marcus, Jon. 2017. Nationwide, state budget cuts disproportionately hit low-income, minority college students. PBS News Hour. January 3.

Siegfried, John J., Allen R. Sanderson, and Peter McHenry. 2007. "The economic impact of colleges and universities." Economics of Education Review 26 (5).

Michael Mitchell, Michael Leachman, and Kathleen Masterson. 2016. Funding Down, Tuition Up: State Cuts to Higher Education Threaten Quality and Affordability at Public Colleges. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. August 15.

Lee Gardner. 2018. How to Market a College in a Troubled Locale. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Jan 1. [link] (on Detroit)

Apr 5 - 7: Presentations of Assignment 3: Economic Portraits of a Small Urban Spaces

depending on class size, allow 10 - 12 minutes per presentation (including time for Q&A)

see assignment page for more instructions, and google doc page for schedule.


Apr 12: Infrastructure and Megaprojects as Economic Development

Altshuler, Alan A., and David E. Luberoff. 2003. Mega-Projects : The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment. Washington, DC, USA: Brookings Institution Press. [Chs. 1, 2, 3, 6, 8] [EBooks]

Flyvbjerg, B. and S. Buhl. 2002.. "Underestimating costs in public works projects: Error or lie?" Journal of the American Planning Association 68(3): 279-295.

see also:
Greiman, Virginia A.. Megaprojects : Lessons on Risk and Project Management from The Big Dig. Somerset, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2013. 2016. [EBooks]
Rephann, Terance; Isserman, Andrew. New highways as economic development tools: An evaluation using quasi-experimental matching methods. Regional Science and Urban Economics 24. 6 (Dec 1994): 723-751.
Banister, David and Joseph Berechman. 1999. Transport Investment and Economic Development. London: Routledge. [selections] [EBooks]
Flyvbjerg, B. (2014). What you should know about megaprojects and why: an overview. Project Management Journal, 45(2), 6–19. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmj.21409 [link]


Apr 14: Student-choice

I will survey students of ideas for this session, and then we will vote 1-2 weeks ahead of time.



Apr 19: Last Class -- Course Synthesis

This last session will provide an opportunity to reflect on the course, and develop a set of principles for good local economic development planning.

TASK: Each student is to prepare a concise, insightful distillation of what have been, for you, the most important or resonant (or disconcerting) lessons/principles/ideas/themes in your encounters with local economic development. I welcome a range of approaches and themes, and I encourage you to be rigorous and creative. One format option might be to develop 4-7 lessons / principles about local economic development planning.

You are to prepare several items:
(a) a brief (2 minute) oral presentation that concisely highlights your central points. For this presentation, prepare a slide to be shared with the class on this shared google slide file.
[NOTE:  one slide will do, but if you find it easier to present your materials on two slides, that is also an option.] Consider various formats, including diagrams, maps, tables, illustrations, a concept map, a flow chart, a numbered list.,a storyboard, a comic strip, a Socratic dialogue. Use supplementary text where appropriate to elaborate specific ideas/points.

(b) A one-page (single-spaced) narrative that concisely explores these ideas. [to be uploaded to Canvas]

see the assignment page.



Other suggested readings:
Edward W. Hill. Principles for rethinking the federal government's role in economic development. Economic Development Quarterly 11.n4 (Nov 1998): pp299(14).
Wolman, Harold, and David Spitzley. "The Politics of Local Economic Development." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 2, May 1996, pp. 115-150.
Mier, Robert. Metaphors of Economic Development, in Bingham, Richard D., and Robert Mier, eds. 1993. Theories of Local Economic Development. Newbury Park: Sage. (Chapter 14, pp. 284-304).
Fitzgerald, Joan and Nancey Green Leigh. 2002. “Introduction” and “Redefining the Field of Local Economic Development.” In Economic Revitalization: Cases and Strategies for City and Suburb. London: Sage Publications.
Don Peck. 2010. How a New Jobless Era Will Transform America. The Atlantic, March.
Sanders, Heywood T. 1998. Convention center follies. Public Interest; Summer ; 132 (pp. 58-72).
Sanders, Heywood T. 2014. Convention center follies politics, power, and public investment in American cities. 1st ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [link]
Judd, Dennis R., and Dick Simpson. 2003. "Reconstructing the local state: The role of external constituencies in building urban tourism." The American Behavioral Scientist 46 (8):1056-1069.
Rae, Douglas W. 2003. City: Urbanism and Its End. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press. [EBooks]