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Notes for Robert Woodward Cushman

Marriage Notes for Robert Woodward Cushman and his first wife, Lucy Sprague

1826 Robert Woodward Cushman and Lucy Sprague, daughter of the Honorable Seth Sprague of Duxbury, were married on September 14. [1]

1827-1837 The Rev. Dr. Robert Woodward of Boston, by his first wife, Lucy Sprage, had children, [2]

Austin Sprague, b. at Duxbury 9 Sept. 1827. Prepared for College at the New Hampton Institution, N. H. Graduated at Brown University, Providence, R. I. Studied law with his uncle, Judge Sprague of Boston, and after having been the private secretary of President Fillmore at Washington, D. C, for about two years, commenced the practice of law at Medway.

Charles Melville Cushman, b. at Philadelphia, Pa., 1 Dec. 1829. Received his education partly at a private boarding school in Connecticut, and partly at the New Hampton Institute, and entered the mercantile business at Boston.

Emily Sprague Cushman, b. at Philadelphia, Pa., 23 June 1832.

Clara Woodward Cushman, b. at Philadelphia, Pa., 17 Dec. 1834.

Walter Stevens Cushman, b. at Philadelphia, Pa., 16 Dec. 1837.

1841 Robert Cushman was installed as the pastor of Bowdoin Square Baptist Church in Boston on July 8. [3]

Bowdoin Square Baptist Church

This edifice stands on the north side of Bowdoin square, beautifully opening to the view from all the streets which radiate from the square. It is 98 feet in length, inclusive of the tower, by 73 1-2 feet wide. Its front, with its tower and its six turrets, is of granite. The tower projects 10 feet from the main building; is 28 feet square and 110 feet hight. Its cost, including furniture and organ, was upwards of seventy thousand dollars.

This religious interest furnishes a remarkable example of christian enterprise and Divine favor. It was originated by a few individuals of different churches; the building was erected without a church ; and the church was organized without a pastor. Yet such has been its success that it is already nearly free from debt; and its income has risen to more than a thousand dollars a year beyond all its expenses.

R. W. Cushman, Pastor; installed July 8, 1841.

The Church was constituted Sept. 17, 1840, with 137 members. Present number, 346.

1841 Lucy Sprague Cushman died at Boston on November 9. [4]

Robert Woodward Cushman was a watchmaker & jeweler and then a clergyman & teacher. The Genealogy of the Cushmans includes a biography of Robert Woodward Cushman: [5]

His mother was the daughter of Rev. Sam. Woodward of Brunswick, ME. His father, who was a shipmaster, was lost in a hurricane at sea, when young Robert was only five years of age; and this sad event was followed, a few years later, by the death of his mother. Thus early left an orphan, the period of youth was passed in various mechanical employments, and in the possession of very limited means of education.

At the age of 14, unwilling to be longer dependent, and feeling that he must prepare for an honest living, he went, on the injudicious recommendation of a relative, into the interior, and into apprenticeship in the cabinet making business. He soon found it a bad more; for neither his physical nor mental organization seemed to be fitted for that occupation. He remained there two years and returned to his friends.

He next selected a more suitable and far more agreeable business,--that of watch-making and jewelry,--which would probably have been his employment through life, had not aspirations for a higher work induced him to commence a course of study. How mysterious and yet how grand are the ways of Providence! In the very boy, while busily engaged in learning to adjust the minute wheels of the watch, we find the germ of the future man, who is to be instrumental in bringing many into "the way of salvation."

At the age of 16, the influence of religious truth awakened him to a new life. Deeply impressed by the conviction that it was his duty to preach the Gospel, he at once carried his new formed resolution into effect,--going from house to house, exhorting the people to repent. The discouragements of friends and pecuniary want however repressed his youthful zeal and again induced him to resume a mechanical occupation. But so deep was the impression that a "dispensation of the Gospel" had been committed to him, that every leisure moment was devoted to study, and soon after a systematic course of preparation was commenced.

His academic studies were pursued, partly with the Rev. S. Glover, at Kingston, Plymouth Co MA, Plymouth Co MA, and partly at Lincoln Academy, New Castle, Me. He was graduated at Columbian College, D.C., under the celebrated Dr. Staughton, in 1826. He felt that injustice was done him at the time of his graduation, in the assignments of his class. But subsequently circumstances gave him an opportunity for a most noble revenge. It is a singular incident that the President should have been dependent upon him for his character, which the world is now reading from his monumental marble. At his death, a monument was erected to his memory by those who had been his students, and the inscription that was furnished by the subject of this article was selected from all that were presented by his admiring pupils throughout the country, and is now telling the story of his greatness to the thousands that, from all parts of the world, visit the beautiful "Laurel Hill Cemetery" on the banks of the Schuylkill.

In preparing for and pursuing his studies at College, he was subject to great trials and difficulties. He had not "friends and wealth to aid him," but supported himself by his own industry. By repairing watches, teaching school, acting the part of Tutor and serving as Proctor in College, preaching as a Missionary under burning summer suns, in vacations, in the South, and during term time, he was enabled to pay his college expenses. when he graduated, he had preached 273 sermons, partly in the stated supply of the pulpit, and partly in missionary services during vacations.

When he commenced a preparation for a professional life, although surrounded with difficulties and discouragements, he resolved that nothing should be wanting on his part to stand high as a scholar and a preacher--to be a useful and good man. He knew well that "what man had done he could do." With such determination, we can easily account for the distinguished ability and prominence of his subsequent life.

Of his college life, we adopt the language of another: "He was one of the first graduates of Columbian College. He took a high stand in his class, and was second to none in native talents and scholastic attainments. His power of independent thought and self-reliance united to his ardent devotion to study and untiring perseverance, gave promise, at the commencement of his course, of the eminence which he has since attained."

"He was noticed, while in college, for his strict conscientiousness and punctuality in the performance of every duty, both as a student and as a Christian, and for the propriety and manly dignity of his bearing. His piety, which was deep and ardent, manifested itself in active efforts to do good to those with whom, in the providence of God, he had been placed, and who came within the circle of his influence. He established a prayer meeting for the neighborhood, which was sustained by himself and his fellow-students as long as he remained in college, and was continued after he left. He visited often among the poor and afflicted, and being himself deeply alive to the blessings of kindness and sympathy, he was eminently fitted to impart to them kindly and spiritual consolation. The death of his intimate friend and roommate [Footnote: Ira D. Love of New York, a brother of Rev. Horace T. Love, late Missionary in Greece], which occurred during the last year of his course, was a deep affliction; and yet viewed in the light of a blessing, inasmuch as it had an effect to deepen the tone of his piety and greatly quicken his progress in the divine life."

At the time of his graduation he selected for the subject of his declamation, one of the most abstruse and difficult in the range of human learning. It was entitled "The Influence of Metaphysical Speculation on Force of Character." It is decidedly characteristic. …

In the month of August, 1826, Mr. C. was ordained at Poughkeepsie, N.Y., as pastor of the Baptist Church at that place, which he sustained on the small salary of four hundred dollars per annum.

Finding himself reduced to the alternative of either seeking a larger sphere, or resorting to some means, aside from his ministerial duties, for meeting the deficiency of support, he decided to relinquish the pastoral charge and for a season engage in teaching, without remitting pulpit duty, hoping, in the course of a few years, to supply himself with the means by which, on returning to the pastoral office, he might eke out a deficient salary.

The city of Philadelphia presented itself to him as the locality where, without taking a pastoral charge, he would never want an "open door" for the exercise of the ministry. With an intellect of the highest order, cultivated by years of severe literary training, he had now attained the stature of intellectual manhood, and was cordially welcomed as one of the happy company formerly under the instruction of Rev. Dr. Staughton of that city. In accordance with his purpose, his first object was to establish a "Young Ladies' Institute," of a high order. In the prosecution of this cherished purpose, continued with untiring perseverance, his labors were ultimately crowned with complete success, his school being second to none of its class in the city.

But, with all his talent as a teacher, and his success in that profession, his most judicious friends were of opinion that his qualifications for the pulpit were still greater.

With all the toils and cares of the seminary he was seldom silent on the Sabbath, and elicited from all sects admiration for his clear and impressive manner of exhibiting Divine truth. To all this it may be added that his pen was by no means idle. He was induced to assume the editorial management of a religious newspaper called the "Christian Gazette," which office he filled with distinguished ability.

This incident was connected with a series of endeavors on which he entered immediately on his settlement in Philadelphia, for bringing to a close a division which had unhappily existed for many years in the denomination in that region, and which had led to the establishment of party papers; the "Religious Narrator," the organ of one of the associations, and the "World," the organ of the other. Refusing to identify himself with either party, and cordially serving both, he had the happiness to see a reconciliation effected. The churches with which the difficulty originated, the associations into which it had spread, and the denomination at large, acquiesced in the merging of the papers above named in one, to be documented by him. This same difficulty extended through all the benevolent operations of the denomination, but was particularly prejudicial to its educational interests. He therefore could not refuse his service, although gratuitous and superadded to this already oppressive duties of the seminary and the ministry; and it is among the most gratifying recollections of his past life, that he was able to conduct that paper with impartiality, such as met the acceptance of all. Its circulation increased with great rapidity, and the extent to which its editorials were copied by the papers of the country, was gratifying evidence that the "Christian Gazette" was regarded with favor beyond the denomination to whose interests it was more especially dedicated. To be a peacemaker has always been his highest ambition, and he has often remarked, that "one of the happiest moments of his life was that in which, after a three days' debate in an educational convention, he had been enabled to unite the parties in a compromise, and was hailed by one of the most active as 'the Henry Clay of the denomination!'

The following interesting account of his residence in Philadelphia was communicated by Rev. J. H. Kennard of that city:

"The Rev. Robert W. Cushman, D. D., located in Philadelphia, in the year 1818. He received a very cordial welcome by all who had formerly known him as one of a happy company of young men, who were students under the beloved and distinguished Dr. Wm. Staughton, the successful instructor of many of the most talented and useful ministers in the Baptist denomination.

"With an intellect of the highest order cultivated by years of severe literary training, diligent reading and research, he had now attained the full stature of an intellectual man, and was thoroughly furnished unto every good work.

"Under a full conviction of the importance of female education, his first object was the establishment of a Young Ladies' Institute of a high order. In the prosecution of this cherished purpose, with patient toil, he was eminently successful. His school increased [Footnote: "The Institution increased slowly for the first two or three years. A sense of propriety held me back from soliciting patronage, and the first year of teaching brought me but $290; the second but little over $700; and the third but little over $1000. So that at the end of five years I had, as I have before said, only brought up the arrears of expenditure. The school at last come to have such a reputation that I had among my patrons not only all Protestant sects but Catholics, Jews, Infidels and stage actors; and pupils not only from all sections of our own country, but from the West Indies." --Extract from a letter of Rev. Dr. Cushman] both in the number of its pupils and in favor with the citizens of Philadelphia, and those interested in the cause of education at a distance also, until it became of an importance second to none in the city.

While thus successful as a teacher, he was not insensible to his solemn charge in the souls committed to his care, nor the importance of imparting religious truth and exerting a holy influence over their minds and hearts. This was done daily, and the desired result was attained. Many of the young ladies under his instruction, not only became qualified for an intelligent discharge of life's duties, and ornaments to the family circle, but also active and devoted Christians to bless their generation.

"In connection with this Institute [Ftn: Known as "Cushman's Collegiate Institution for Young Ladies"], was established a Literary and Missionary Society, embracing not only his pupils but also many other pious and active ladies of this city who esteemed it a high privilege to be thus associated for objects so praiseworthy.

"But with all his qualifications and success as a teacher, the prevailing opinion among his most judicious friends was, that his qualifications for the pulpit were still greater, and its claims to his talents and labors stronger than those of the school.

"Bro. Cushman loved the pulpit and amidst all his cares and toils of his Seminary he was seldom silent on the Sabbath. Churches of our own and of other evangelical denominations eagerly sought his service and were edified by his preaching. Destitute churches and those having disabled pastors shared much of his sympathy and his labors. As a preacher none could hear him without admiring his clear, chaste and impressive manner of exhibiting divine truth. In his preparation for the pulpit he was thorough, and in the delivery of his message, serious and impressive, ever holding his hearers in fixed attention.

"Kindred to this, the sweetest employment of his active life were his efforts in behalf of various benevolent societies, some of which were, at that period, new and in need of decided and influential friends. The cause of missions, at home and abroad--the circulation of the Scriptures--the education of young ministers of the gospel--African colonization--the Temperance reform, and the Publication of Religious books and tracts, all had his efficient support. On many a platform in Philadelphia has he for years boldly stood and successfully plead for these, and other objects of a similar character, in their several distinct organizations.

"Dr. C. was one of the few, that from the first, espoused and zealously advocated the 'American Baptist Publication Society,' which at that time was feeble and almost friendless. To his influence and efforts including his contribution to the number of its valuable publications, much of its present prosperity may be traced."

From the above it will appear that the period spent in Philadelphia, was to him, one of incessant toil. Few men had so great a diversity of labors, and fewer still have been so successful in every department.

The following extract is taken from a letter which was drawn forth by an editorial reference to some animadversion on his position, during the early part of his residence in Philadelphia, and will show the immense amount of intellectual labor he performed while living in that city:

"Since I have resided in this city (Philadelphia), which is now rather more than six years, I have preached once a Sabbath, on an average for nearly seven-eights of the time, in churches of seven different denominations--in town and country, in meeting houses and private houses, in school houses, college halls, and court houses, in log houses and in the open air; in prisons and asylums; to infant schools, apprentices associations, and to sailors on ship's deck. Besides being called on pretty frequently to deliver addresses in behalf of bible societies, tract societies, domestic and foreign mission societies, sunday schools, infant schools, maternal associations, and temperance societies. I have been engaged in the service of these different societies to the number of five or six, I believe, at the same time, either in their boards or secretary ship; and into whatever ship I enter--let who will get the helm I am pretty sure to get the laboring oar, because I have no pastoral charge."

In the year 1840, the Bowdoin Square Church, in Boston, was organized, composed principally of enterprising and intelligent members from other Baptist Societies in the city. A commodious edifice was erected in an attractive location, and a pastor with the requisite qualifications was then the object to be sought. Dr. Cushman received an affectionate and unanimous invitation to accept this office. Mindful of the obligations taken upon himself in early youth, he responded favorably to the call, relinquished the pleasant and lucrative position which he held in Philadelphia, and was installed 8 July 1841. The reputation for scholarship and pulpit eloquence which had preceded him, was fully sustained during his six years' residence in Boston. The evident blessing of Heaven attended his labors, and his resignation of the pastoral office was deeply regretted.

On leaving Boston, Dr. C. resided several years in Washington, D.C., where he established and successfully maintained a "French and English Protestant Female Seminary."

For a sketch of his life while in that city, we are indebted to an esteemed correspondent:

"In the winter of 1847 and 1848, Dr. Cushman went to the city of Washington to take charge of the E St. Church, during the absence of its pastor, Rev. G. W. Sampson, on a tour to the East. He filled the post with his well known dignity and ability, and it is not too much to say that the respectability of the Baptist denomination was enhanced by his connection with it. His elegant diction and beautiful elocution attracted many to the Church who had not before attended there; and his sound scriptural views of Christian doctrine, his valuable practical teachings and the predominance of Christ, crucified in all his discourses, rendered his preaching always profitable and instructive. There are many who will never forget the rich spiritual and intellectual treats he has given them from the pulpit, or the heart-felt Christian consolation he has afforded them in the time of sorrow and bereavement.

"During the period that Dr. Cushman officiated in the E St. Church, he was invited to deliver the Oration before the Alumni of his Alma Mater, at the annual commencement. His theme was, 'The Elements of Success in Life.' It was published at the request of the Institution, and was worthy of its author.

"After the return of Mr. Sampson to his pastoral charge, Dr. Cushman decided to remain in Washington in the capacity of a teacher, having in view the establishment of a Protestant school for young ladies, which should prevent the frequent accessions to Romanism resulting from the influence of Roman Catholic schools in the community. Twelve years of successful teaching in a young ladies' school in Philadelphia had eminently fitted him for the undertaking. His school was of a high order, and those who placed their daughters under his care gave flattering testimonials of his devotion to their interests. The result of his peculiar mode of instruction was seen in the expansion of mind and strength of moral and intellectual character in his pupils. A number of the young ladies who were inmates of his family became pious, and connected themselves with the Church; and their consistent life has since shown, not only the genuineness of their piety, but the faithfulness and force of his Christian instructions.

"Dr. Cushman was called to endure trials of a peculiarly perplexing and harassing nature, while in Washington,--trials which severely tested his Christian meekness and forbearance;--but the calm dignity and submission with which he bore them raised him in the estimation of his friends and made his Christian graces shine more brightly. As a proof of the estimation in which he was held in that city, his name was twice presented as candidate for the Chaplainry in Congress. But it was his friends alone who moved the measure. Dr. Cushman was, emphatically, no office-seeker. He voluntarily declined in favor of another clergyman of Washington, considering the dignity of his high calling as minister of our holy religion, greater honor than human governments have in their power to bestow. He never courted attention from 'the powers that be;' but conscious of his own rectitude and integrity of purpose, he quietly pursued the path duty had marked out for him.

"In 1848 the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him, without his knowledge or consent, by the 'Granville College,' Ohio. For reasons which it is not necessary to explain, he immediately declined the proffered honor, and has never used it.

"The removal of the pastor of E Street Church to another field of labor, in the autumn of 1850, left the pulpit again vacant. This vacancy existed two years, during a part of which time he supplied the pulpit, and as far as was consistent with his imperfect health and the exhausting labors of his school, performed the duties of pastor.
"In 1852 Dr. Cushman was re-called to the pastorate of the Bowdoin Square Church, Boston, over which he had previously been settled for a period of six years. The call was a pressing one, but though he loved the work of the ministry above everything else, he nevertheless decided not to accept, feeling assured that Providence had called him to the work in which he was engaged. He continued in Washington till the summer of 1853, when he removed to Boston to take charge of a young ladies' school in that city. His departure was sincerely regretted by his friends to whom he had so long ministered in holy things, and by the Christian public, by whom his influence had been felt as a man and a clergyman.

The following, taken from the Boston Journal of July 1853, shows, conclusively, the public appreciation of his abilities and services:

Rev. Dr. Cushman. -- We see by a card in the Washington Union, that Rev. R. W. Cushman, a Baptist clergyman, well known and respected in this city, has announced his intention to resign into other hands his Protestant French and English Boarding School. He will be succeeded by Rev. Stephen M. Myrick. Dr. Cushman has been successfully engaged in teaching at Washington, five years, and his institution has been entitled to and has received the confidence of the public. In the language of the editor of the Union, Dr. Cushman has won golden opinions by his efficient, enlightened, and faithful labors as an instructor of youth."

As a writer, his style is chaste, elegant and terse, and as a speaker he is eloquent and convincing. He has, therefore, been called upon to give sermons and addresses on public occasions, almost without number,--several of which have been published.

We are indebted to a friend and brother in the ministry of Dr. C. for the following pertinent and interesting remarks respecting him:

"Dr. C. is pre-eminently a good man. His most intimate acquaintances, while admiring his intellectual power and charmed with the brilliancy of his rhetoric which adorns his private conversation as well as his more public efforts, are still most deeply impressed with his conscientious fidelity to truth and duty. The love and fear of God are the prominent and controlling elements of his character. To a stranger he appears cold, and to the rude and intrusive he can wrap himself in an exterior absolutely freezing. But where his confidence is gained, he is warm-hearted, and open as a summer's day. He possesses, naturally, a feminine refinement of feeling, a keen sensitiveness which is liable to be frequently wounded by the collisions of a rough world. By many in the community he is misunderstood. A casual observer would describe him as proud, and give him but little credit as a follower of the meek and lowly Jesus. But the truth is, God made him upright. In this respect he remains unfallen. He has no assumed airs of humility. He never bows or cringes to conciliate human favor, nor indulge in religious cant to secure a reputation for piety. But he is an honest man, — honest in his Christian profession, — honest as a minister of Christ. No word escapes his lips, in private or public, designed for mere effect. But we will not indulge in these encomiums while he is yet living. Dr. Cushman is now in the meridian of life, — uniting the strength of manhood with the vigor and freshness of his early days. Long may he be spared as an honor to society and to the good name which in these brief sketches we wish to perpetuate and embalm.''

In his domestic relations, Dr. C. has been peculiarly fortunate; though in the providence of God he has been called to severe bereavement. Soon after he was graduated at college he m. 1st Lucy Sprague, dau. Hon. Seth Sprague of Duxbury, 14 Sept. 1826, by whom he had 5 chil. She d. at Boston 9 Nov. 1841, and he m. 2d Eliza, widow of Rev. Frederick William Miles of Frederickton, in the Province of New Brunswick, Oct., 1843, — a lady of distinguished intelligence and Christian virtues. Her maiden name was Delahoy, of French Huguenot descent; b. in London, England, 25 Aug. 1811. By her he had three chil., two of whom d. in infancy.

Such is a brief sketch of the life and character of one of the most distinguished of our name. Limited as we are by the design of this work to deeds and facts, we can only say, in conclusion, that in reviewing his course, from his Baccalaureate address, in 1826, through a period of almost thirty years, we find that industry, perseverance, perfect independence of mind and thought, a deep, practical piety, as shown in a life of intense labor, and a determination to do much for humanity in the highest walks of life and duty, are among the striking characteristics of his literary and religious life. Hence he has ever been an eminently good, useful and distinguished man.

Note. As Rev. Dr. Cushman is now in the " full tide of successful experiment," as the Principal of the "Mount Vernon Ladies' School, No. 6 Allslon street, Boston," it is proper that it should be noticed in this work.

For the purpose of showing his position and views relating to that school, we make an extract from a circular issued by him in 1853:

"Having been for six years a pastor in this city, he may suppose himself not altogether unknown. But never having been engaged in the education of youth here, it is proper for him to say that teaching has been the chief employment of his life. He was teacher of a school before he was of age; was engaged in teaching, part of the time, while in college; had been teaching for thirteen years in Philadelphia when he was called to the pastoral office in this city; and has been engaged in the same employment at Washington since his resignation at Bowdoin Square.

"In reference to a report which has been industriously circulated among the patrons of the school, that it is henceforth to be a sectarian institution, he begs leave to say that there is neither the purpose nor the danger of it. During the eighteen years that he has spent at the head of two female schools, in which he has educated the daughters of Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Methodists, Presbyterians, Quakers, Unitarians, Universalists, and even Catholics, Infidels and Jews; embracing all stations in life, from the highest offices in the government to managers and occupants of the stage, he knows not that the religious element of his instructions was ever objected to on the ground of its being sectarian. And he hopes to avoid cause for dissatisfaction here. The school will indeed be a Christian, and a Protestant school. In any narrower sense it will not be sectarian. But although, in the instruction which will be given, care will be taken to avoid occasion for uneasiness to parents of different persuasions, yet the supreme importance of man's spiritual interests will be ever recognized; and the affections and duties of piety will be held in view as opening the surest avenues to happiness on earth, and the only path to the bliss of heaven."

That school is now attended by a large number of pupils, and is one of the best ladies' schools in the country. As "order is heaven's first law" so he thinks it should have a predominating influence in all schools. And nowhere is it more perfectly carried into practice. From our own personal observation we can testify to that fact. Every thing literally moves on by clockwork, and if two minutes pass beyond the time appointed for the commencement or the close of any duty, it is a remissness which he cannot excuse in himself, nor easily permit in others under his direction. Although the school comprises in the range of its studies, as at present organized, no less than 20 classes, yet it is so classified that every pupil in it knows her duty for every hour of the week, and the moment for the commencement of every recitation. And although five recitations may all be going on at the same time in the establishment, the different branches of study are so arranged that no young lady by being in one recitation shall lose the opportunity of being present at any recitation belonging to the range of studies which she is pursuing. We can confidently recommend that school to the public as one of the most valuable and useful in the country. Long may he live, thus to benefit the world, by training the female mind in the path of duty and usefulness; and by such a mission of Christian labor, do what he can to fit the race for a higher civilization,—for happiness and Heaven.


[1] Henry Wyles Cushman, A Historical and Biographical Genealogy of the Cushmans: The Descendants of Robert Cushman, the Puritan, from the Year 1617 to 1855 (Little Brown, 1855), 401, [GoogleBooks].

[2] Henry Wyles Cushman, A Historical and Biographical Genealogy of the Cushmans: The Descendants of Robert Cushman, the Puritan, from the Year 1617 to 1855 (Little Brown, 1855), 579, [GoogleBooks].

[3] S. N. Dickinson, The Boston Almanac for the Year 1843 (Boston: Thomas Groom & Co., 1843), 123, [HathiTrust].

[4] Henry Wyles Cushman, A Historical and Biographical Genealogy of the Cushmans: The Descendants of Robert Cushman, the Puritan, from the Year 1617 to 1855 (Little Brown, 1855), 401, [GoogleBooks].

[5] Henry Wyles Cushman, A Historical and Biographical Genealogy of the Cushmans: The Descendants of Robert Cushman, the Puritan, from the Year 1617 to 1855 (Little Brown, 1855), 382-403, [GoogleBooks].