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Archbishop Makarios IIIArchbishop Makarios IIITicker tape parade for Archbishop Makarios III on Broadway, New York

Archbishop Makarios III


Archbiship of Cyprus

First president of independant Cyprus

For most of the 50s, Makarios III was a major supporter for the Greek movement of enosis. He was a signer on behalf of the Greek-Cypriot community for the Zürich Agreement. After being elected president of the newly independent state of Cyprus, Makarios III tempered his pro-Greek sentiments and realized the necessity for creating a less ethnically-orientated government structure, where essentially Turkish- and Greek-Cypriots operated paralleled but separate courts and layers of government. As such, he proposed 13 amendments to the Cypriot constitution (created by the Zürich and London Agreements). Lack of interest and cooperation amongst the Turkish-Cypriots led to him giving up this policy. The Greek-Cypriot population was as a result displeased with Turkish advances leading to the Greek Cypriot National Guard, assisted by mainland Greek officers, to stage a failed coup. Makarios III fled to Malta. The Turkish state soon invaded Cyprus, with Makarios III returning to Cyprus in December 1974.

"Makarios III." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 4 Nov. 2008  <http://search.eb.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/eb/article-9050223>.

Library of Congress photograph Full resolution

Alexandros Papagos

Alexandros Papagos

December 9 1883 - October 4 1955

In 1952 Papagos became premier of Greece. He met with Makarios III in 1954 leading to the Greek support of enosis for Cyprus.

"Papagos, Alexandros." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 4 Nov. 2008  <http://search.eb.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/eb/article-9058314>.

Georgios Grivas

Georgios Grivas

May 23 1898 - January 27, 1974

His guerilla warfare against the British helped lead to the British granting independence to Cyprus. He was foundational in created the EOKA and was a supporter of enosis. At first a colleague with Makarios III, the changing stance of Makarios III led to animosity between the two.

"Grivas, Georgios." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 4 Nov. 2008  <http://search.eb.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/eb/article-9038162>.

Dr. Fazıl Küçük

Dr. Fazıl Küçük

1906 - January 15, 1984

I am a Vice-President elected by the Turks of Cyprus and I shall continue to perform my duties towards them. It is out of the question to collaborate any longer with a Government responsible−...

(Source: Special News Bulletin, 5.1.1964 (issued by the Turkish Cypriot leadership). Information take from Hellenic Resources Network

By 1943, Küçük's interests with the Turkish-Cypriots was solidified when he partly founded Kıbrıs Adası; Türk Azınlık Kurumu (Association of the Turkish Minority of the Island of Cyprus, KATAK). He left this group after disagreements and created the Kıbrıs Türk Milli Birlik Partisi (Turkish Cypriot National Union Party). He was the representative for Turkish-Cypriot interests during the Zürich Agreement. He is then elected vice-president of Cyprus on December 3, 1959. After Greek-Cypriot moves to modify the constitution, Küçük becomes firmly and staunchly supportive of only Turkish-Cypriot interests and partition of the island. He is eventually replaced by Rauf Denktaş in 1973.

Rauf Raif Denktaş

Rauf Raif Denktaş

January 27, 1924 - present

First president and founder of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Henry L. Hopkinson
Henry L. Hopkinson (1954 Minister of State or the Colonies)
Anthony Eden
Anthony Eden (British Foreign Minister 1940s - "Cyprus Problem")
James William Fulbright
James William Fulbright (1964 May 6 Political Cartoon)
Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Bishop Leontios of Paphos
Bishop Leontios of Paphos (June 1947 Elected archbishop for Greek-Cypriot demands)
Makarios II
Makarios II succeeded Leontios
Chief Justice Edward Jackson
Chief Justice Edward Jackson opposed full self-government (May 1948)
Prime Minister Sophocles Venizelos
Prime Minister Sophocles Venizelos

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