GS525-1998: Tectonophysics -- Course Outline
Date |
Lecturer |
Topics, Background reading, Homework |
9/14-10/2 |
RVdV |
The three types of plate boundaries; Sea-floor spreading and divergent boundaries, how we measure spreading rates, what parameters are used as input, what evidence is important; Transform faults, seismic focal mechanisms; Convergent boundaries; Displacement vectors on a sphere, Euler poles; Geomagnetism and the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale; Paleomagnetism and apparent polar wander paths; Hot spots; Reference frameworks, true polar wander (TPW) Reading: Week 1: Fowler's Chapters 1, 2, 3; for Friday September 18 special reading Gordon (1995, Rev. Geophys. v. 100, 24,367-24,392) Weeks 2 and 3: Fowler's chapters 4, 5 Homework: Gravitational attraction and gravitational potential: a pointmass, a sphere, a hollow shell, an ellipsoidal figure (reference spheroid), a potato-shaped real earth, the geoid Moments of inertia and relationship to gravitational potential and TPW gravity anomalies, isostasy |
9/30-10/9 |
PvK |
Heat transport mechanisms: conduction, convection, and radiation. Generation of heat: accretion, radiogenic decay, tidal heating. Present day heat flow from the Earth (Pollack et al., 1993) Plate tectonics and mantle convection. Plumes, Richter rolls and other secondary (?) phenomena Thermal history of the Earth's interior. A planetary perspective: size matters. Reading : Fowler Chapter 7 (section 1 through 8); Pollack, H.N., S.J. Hurter, and J.R. Johnson, "Heat flow from the Earth's interior: analysis of the global data set." Rev. Geophys., 31, 267-280, 1993. |
10/12-10/30 |
LS |
Week 1 (2 lectures + 1 discussion section on stress/strain measurement) Tensors: Definitions/Notation, Principal Components Stress and Strain: Definitions, Math. and Intuitive Representation, Measurement in Geologic Context Mechanical Equilibrium: Derivation of Fundamental Equations Week 2 (2 lectures + 1 discussion section on global earth structure) Elasticity. Linear: Stress-Strain Relationship, The Elastic Wave Equation, Elasticity of Composites, Anisotropy and Anelasticity, Finite Strain, Reference Frames Global Earth Structure: Body Waves/Surface Waves/Free Oscillations, 1-D Models, Tomography Week 3 (2 lectures + 1* discussion section on rheological models) Fluid Mechanics: Material Derivative, Conservation Equations, Applications (Stokes, R-B linear stability problems) Rheology: Macroscopic Picture, Maxwell Relaxation Time, Non-Newtonian, Microscopic Picture: Defects and Dislocations, Dynamics |
11/2-11/13 |
BvdP |
Week 1 Brittle and Plastic Deformation: mechanics of faulting, microcracks, crystal plasticity, brittle-plastic transition Reading: from Scholz's "Mechanics of earthquakes and faulting", Chapter 4 Week 2 Geologic processes at plate boundaries: divergent, convergent, transform. Reading: Fowler's Chapters 8 and 9 |
11/16-12/2 |
CLB |
Week 1 (2 lectures + 1 discussion) Mantle Convection Fowler's (Chapter 7, section 7.8) Governing Equations, Relevant Parameter space for the Earth's mantle, Scales of mantle convection, Models of mantle convection (numerical and laboratory experiments) Discussion: focusing on current models of mantle convection and imaging from seismology Week 2 (2 lectures) Plate Tectonics and Mantle Convection Fowler's (Chapter 7 section 7.10) Plate Driving Mechanism: Traditional models of plate driving forces, "Fluid dynamical" models of plate driving forces, Balance of forces Plate motions and changes in plate motions: Dynamical consequences and causes Plate boundary and plate deformation: Intraplate stresses Week 3 (2 lectures + discussion) Dynamic topography and basin formation Fowler's (Chapter 5, section 5.7) Dynamic topography and the geoid: Present-day geoid and dynamic topography, Sea-level record and continental flooding, Impact on climatic events? Plate flexure and basin formation: Definitions and relevant equations, Definitions of the lithosphere (elastic, mechanical thermal, etc), Sediment loading Discussion on: comparing geological record and geophysical observations with dynamical models Geoid and tpw: flooding record on continents, plate motions |
12/7-12/11 |
BvdP |
Lithospheric processes: formation of continents, plate collision, delamination, etc. Reading: Fowler's Chapter 9. Burg and Ford's "Orogeny through time", Chapter 1. Capstone lecture: A definition of Tectonophysics. Evaluation, Exam |