18: Coffins, Exam Review


-Coffin as house for dead
-Coffin as microcosm (represents universe)
-Coffin as protective system

Later anthropoid coffins:
-Coffin as image of Osiris
-Coffin symbolizing unity of Osiris and Re

Pre-dynastic burials:
Body contracted (fetal position)
No coffin or short box coffin or other protective material

Dynastic burial:
Body full length

Coffin terminology:

Rectangular stone box

Rectangular box or anthropoid/mummiform

"Long" rectangular or box coffins/sarcophagi

Eyes of Horus (Wedjat eyes)

Coffin Texts

Offering formula

Anthropoid or mummiform coffins

"Rishi" (feathered) design

Royal coffins

Anatomy of a Coffin: Djehutymose in the Kelsey Museum


Priest of Horus of Edfu

c. 685-252 BCE

Exterior lid: Deceased as Osiris

Protective images and texts


Image of deceased as effective spirit

Idealized face

Not a portrait

Osiris features:

-green skin

-divine beard

Protective image of Nut over chest

Embalming scene: Anubis, mummy, ba, canopic jars

Protective images: gods

Isis over feet

Encircling snake: encircling as protection

Foot: Apis, ba

Interior lid: Deceased protected by sky-goddess Nut

Nut: swallows sun at dusk, gives birth to sun at dawn: Death and rebirth solar symbolism

Dress covered in stars

Coffin enlarged at shoulders to fit mummy

Texts from Book of the Dead

Interior bottom: Deceased protected by goddess of the West

Texts from Book of the Dead

Traces of pitch and oils from mummy

Exterior bottom: Elaborate Djed pillar (strengthens back of mummy)

More texts

Cartonnage coverings

Exam 2, Tuesday March 25: No late exams!


Part 1: 5 multiple choice questions

Part 2: 8 Identifications

Part 3: Short essay:
2 questions, pick one, answer in 1 page

Exam 2: Studying

Exam covers material since Exam 1

Review overhead terms on website
Review notes

Readings: Taylor pp. 7-243
NOTE: exam will not cover last chapter of book

Read and re-read readings.

Exam 2: Content

Factual material for multiple choice, IDs

Important stuff

Gods, Egyptian words, things, practices, rituals, texts, objects, concepts

Exam 2: Content

Essay: choices from these general areas:
-Physical and non-physical components of dead person
-Economic implications of Egyptian funerary practices and beliefs
-The Egyptian funeral: rituals, practices, objects
-The offering formula: what is it and what does it accomplish