17: Rituals and Magic for the dead

Private portion of tomb

Daily life contents of tomb: tomb as home

Deir el Medina (Workers' village)

Deir el Medina (workers' village)

Funerary literature

Pyramid Texts
Initially for king, put in pyramids

Coffin Texts
Available to Elites
"Book of Two Ways"

"Book of the Dead" (modern title)
"(Book of) Coming forth by Day" (ancient title)

Development of funerary literature

Restricted to king wider availability
Pyramid texts Coffin Texts Book of the dead
beginning of notion of judgment of dead fully developed idea of judgment of dead

Royal tombs texts
(Book of Caverns, for example)

Ritual texts

Ritual of Embalming

Funeral procession

Bringing ritual items
dead man's colleagues
Mummy + mourner + priest
Bringing personal possessions
Hired mourners
Ceremony at tomb

Ceremonies at tomb: offerings, mourning

Opening of the mouth at the tomb

Ritual equipment for opening of the mouth
other ceremonies (anointing with oils)


Some specific amulets:
-Djed pillar
-Isis knot (tit, tyet)
Eye of Horus (wedjat, udjat eye)

Amulets in place on mummy

Magical bricks:
Shabti/mummy, djed, torch, Anubis

Burial chamber (Book of the Dead, Chapter 151)

Images of gods

Anubis, Isis & Nephthys, etc.

Osirian figures:

aka "grain mummies"
aka "Osiris beds"

Exam 2, March 25: No late exams!

Part 1: 5 multiple choice questions

Part 2: 8 Identifications

Part 3: Short essay

2 questions, pick one, answer in 1 page