Thomas J. Armstrong, Ph.D.
Armstrong T, Circulatory and Local Muscle Responses to Static Manual Work. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Michigan. 1976.
Armstrong T, Chaffin D. An investigation of the relationship between displacement of the finger and wrist joints and the extrinsic finger flexor tendons. J Biomech 11(3):119-128, 1978.
Armstrong T, Chaffin D, Foulke J. A methodology for documenting hand positions and forces during manual work. J Biomech 12(2):131-133, 1979.
Armstrong T, Chaffin D, Foulke J. A methodology for documenting hand positions and forces during manual work. J Biomech 12(2):131-133, 1979.
Armstrong T, Chaffin D, Foulke J. A method for measuring shapes of anatomical surfaces. J Biomech 12(5):397-399, June 1979.
Armstrong T, Chaffin D. Some biomechanical aspects of the carpal tunnel. J Biomech 12(7):567-570, July 1979.
Armstrong T, Chaffin D. Carpal tunnel syndrome and selected personal attributes. J Occ Med 21(7):481-486, July 1979.
Armstrong T, Chaffin D, Faulkner J, Herrin G, Smith R. Static work elements and selected circulatory responses. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 41(4)254-260, April 1980.
Castelli W, Evans FG, Diaz-Perez R, Armstrong T. Intraneural connective tissue proliferation of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. Arch Phys Med Rehab 61(9):418-422, 1980.
Rempel D, Dennerlein J, Mote CD, Jr., Armstrong T. A method of measuring fingertip loading during keyboard use. J Biomech 1994; 27:1101-4.
Boydstun L, Armstrong T, Bookstein F. A comparison of three-dimensional maximum reach estimation techniques. J Biomech 13(8):717-724, 1980.
Keyserling WM, Herrin G, Chaffin D, Armstrong T, Foss M. Establishing an industrial strength testing program. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 41(10):730-736, 1980.
Foulke J, Goldstein S, Armstrong T. An EMG pre-amplifier system for biomechanical studies. J Biomech 14(6):437-438, 1981.
Armstrong T, and R. Snyder. Human factors aspects of emergency egress from business jet. SAE Transactions 1981.
Marsh, J., R. Smith, A. Jacobson and Armstrong T. Health effects of exposure to steady magnetic fields. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 43(6):387-394, 1982.
Armstrong T, Foulke J, Joseph B, Goldstein S. Investigation of cumulative trauma disorders in a poultry processing plant. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 43(2):103-116, 1982.
Armstrong T. Mechanical considerations of skin in work. Am J Ind Med 8(4-5):463-472, 1985.
Radwin R, Armstrong T. Assessment of hand vibration exposure on an assembly line. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 46(4):211-219, 1985.
McKenzie F, Storment J, Van Hook P, Armstrong T. A program for control of repetitive trauma disorders associated with hand tool operations in a telecommunications manufacturing facility. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 46(11):674-678, 1985.
Fine L, Silverstein B, Armstrong T, and Anderson C. Detection of cumulative trauma disorders of the upper extremities in the workplace. J Occ Med 28(8):674-678, 1986.
Silverstein B, Fine L, Armstrong T. Hand wrist cumulative trauma disorders in industry. Brit J Indus Med 43(11):779-784, 1986.
Silverstein B, Fine L, Armstrong T. Carpal tunnel syndrome: causes and a preventive strategy. Sem Occup Med 1(2) : 213-221, 1986.
Armstrong T, Radwin R, Hansen D, Kennedy K. Repetitive trauma disorders: job evaluation and design. Human Factors 28(3):325-336, 1986.
Goldstein S, Armstrong T, Chaffin D, Matthews L. Analysis of cumulative strain in tendons and tendon sheaths. J Biomech 20(1):1-6, 1987.
Silverstein, T., L. Fine and Armstrong T. Occupational factors and carpal tunnel syndrome. Am J Ind Med 11(3):343-358, 1987.
Armstrong T, Fine L, Goldstein S, Lifshitz Y, Silverstein B. Ergonomics considerations in hand and wrist tendinitis. J Hand Surg 12A, No. 5, Part 2, 830-837, 1987.
Armstrong T, Fine L, Radwin R, Silverstein B. Ergonomics and the effects of vibration in hand intensive work. Scand J Work Environ Health 13(4):286-289, 1987.
Radwin, R., Armstrong T, and D. Chaffin. Power hand tool effects on grip exertions. Ergonomics 30(5):833-855, 1987.
Silverstein B, Armstrong T, Longmate A, Woody D. Can in-plant exercise control musculoskeletal symptoms? J Occ Med 30(12):922-927, 1988.
Buchholz B, Frederick L Armstrong T. An investigation of human palmar skin friction and the effects of materials, pinch force and moisture. Ergonomics 31(3):317-325, 1988.
Armstrong, T., L. Punnett and P. Ketner. Subjective worker assessments of hand tools used in automobile assembly. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 50(12):639-645, 1989.
Radwin R, VanBergeijk E, Armstrong T. Muscle response to pneumatic hand tool torque reaction forces. Ergonomics 32(6):655-674, 1989.
Radwin R, Armstrong T, Chaffin D, Langolf G, Albers J. Hand-arm frequency-weighted vibration effects on tactility. Int J Indus Ergon 6:75-82, 1990.
Ulin, S., Armstrong T, and R. Radwin. Use of computer aided drafting for analysis and control of posture in manual work. Appl Ergo 21(2):143-151, 1990.
Radwin R, Armstrong T, VanBergeijk E. Vibration exposure for selected power hand tools used in automobile assembly. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 51(9):510-518, 1990.
Ulin S, Ways C, Armstrong T, Snook S. Perceived exertion and discomfort versus work height with a pistol-shaped screwdriver. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 51(11):588-594, 1990.
Buchholz B, Armstrong T. An ellipsoidal representation of hand anthropometry. Human Factors 33(4):429-441, 1991.
Keyserling W, Armstrong T, Punnett L. Ergonomic job analysis: A structured approach for identifying risk factors associated with overexertion injuries and disorders. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 6(5):353-363, 1991.
Buchholz B, Armstrong T, Goldstein S. Anthropometric data for describing the kinematics of the human hand. Ergonomics 35(3):261-273, 1992.
Buchholz B, Armstrong T. A kinematic model of the human hand to evaluate its prehensile capabilities. J Biomech 25(2):149-162, 1992.
Ulin S, Snook S, Armstrong T, Herrin G. Preferred tool shapes for various horizontal and vertical work locations. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 7(5):327-337, 1992.
Ulin S, Armstrong T. A strategy for evaluating occupational risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders. J Occup Rehab 2(1):35-50, 1992.
Armstrong T, Buckle P, Fine L, Hagberg L, Jonsson B, Kilbom A, Kourinka I, Silverstein B, Sjogaard G, Viikari-Juntura E. A conceptual model for work-related neck and upper limb disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health 19(2):73-84, 1993.
Ulin S, Armstrong T, Snook S, Franzblau A. Effect of tool shape and work location on perceived exertion for work on horizontal surfaces. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 54(7):383-391, 1993.
Ulin S, Armstrong T, Snook S, Keyserling M. Perceived exertion and discomfort associated with driving screws at various work locations and at different work frequencies. Ergonomics 36(7):833-846, 1993.
Ulin S, Armstrong T, Snook S, Keyserling W. Examination of the effect of tool mass and work posture on ratings of perceived exertion for a screw driving task. Int J Indus Ergo 12:105-115, 1993.
Franzblau A, Flaschner D, Albers J, Blitz S, Werner R, Armstrong T. Medical screening of office workers for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. Arch Environ Hlth 48(3):164-170, 1993.
Armstrong T, Foulke J, MartinB, Gerson J, Rempel D. Investigation of applied forces in alphanumeric keyboard work. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 55(1):30-35, 1994.
Saldana N, Herrin G, Armstrong T. Automated assessment of musculoskeletal discomfort in the workforce: a tool for surveillance. Ergonomics 37(6):1097-1112, 1994.
Werner R, Albers J, Franzblau A, Armstrong T. The relationship between body mass index and the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & Nerve 17(6):632-636, 1994.
Rempel D, Dennerlein J, Mote CD, Armstrong T. A method of measuring finger tip loading during keyboard use. J Biomech 27(8):1101-1104, 1994.
Werner R, Bir C, Armstrong T. Reverse Phalen maneuver as an aide in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehab 75(7):783-786, 1994
Frederick L, Armstrong T. An investigation of friction and weight on pinch force. Ergonomics 38(12): 2447-2454, 1995.
Armstrong T. Control of upper limb cumulative trauma disorders. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 11(4):275-281, 1996.
Gerard M, Armstrong T, Foulke J, Martin B. Effects of stiffness on force and the development of fatigue while typing. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 57(9):849-854, 1996.
Martin B, Armstrong T, Foulke J, Natarajan S, Klinenberg E, Serna E,Rempel D. Keyboard reaction force and finger flexor electromyograms during computer keyboard work. Human Factors 38(4):654-664, 1996.
Kilbom A, Armstrong T, Buckle P, Fine L, Hagberg M, Haring-Sweeney M, Martin B, Punnett L, Silverstein B, Sjogaard G, Theorell T, Viikari-Juntura E. Musculoskeletal disorders: work-related risk factors and prevention. Int J Occup Environ Health 2(3):239-246, July 1996.
Armstrong T, et al. Letters to the Editor - Can some upper extremity disorders be defined as work-related? J Hand Surg 21A(4), 727-729, 1996.
Werner, R., Armstrong T, C. Bir and M. Aylard. Intracarpal canal pressures: the role of finger, hand, wrist and forearm position. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 12(1):44-51, 1997.
Werner R, Franzblau A, Albers J, Armstrong T. Use of screening nerve conduction for predicting future carpal tunnel syndrome. Occup Environ Med 54:96-100, 1997.
Werner R. Franzblau A, Albers J, Armstrong T. Influence of body mass index and work activity on the prevalence of median mononeuropathy at the wrist. Occup Environ Med 54:268-271, 1997.
Mansfield J, Armstrong T. Library of Congress workplace ergonomics program. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 58:138-144, 1997.
Latk W, Armstrong T, Foulke J, Herrin G, Rabourn R, Ulin S. Development and evaluation of an observational method for assessing repetition in hand tasks. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 58(4):278-285, 1997.
Franzblau A, RWerner R, Armstrong T, Salerno D. Test-retest reliability of an upper extremity discomfort questionnaire in industrial population. Scand J Work Env Health 23(4):299-307, 1997.
Rempel D, Serina E, Klinenberg E, Martin B, Armstrong T, Foulke J, Natarajan S. The effect of keyboard keyswitch make force on applied force and finger flexor muscle activity. Ergonomics 40(8):800-808, 1997.
Feuerstein M, Armstrong T, Hickey P, Lincoln A. Computer keyboard force and upper extremity symptoms. J Occ Env Med 39(12):1144-1153,1997.
Salerno D, Franzblau A, Werner R, Bromberg M, Armstrong T, Albers J. Median and ulnar nerve conduction studies among workers: normative values. Muscle & Nerve 21(8):999-1005, 1998.
Werner R, Franzblau A, Albers J, Armstrong T. Median mononeuropathy among active worker: are there differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic workers? Am J Ind Med 33(4):374-378, 1998.
Armstrong T, Bir C, Finsen L, Foulke J, Martin B, Sjogaard G. Muscle responses to simulated torque reactions of hand held power tools. Ergonomics 42(1):146-159, 1999.
Strasser P, Franzblau A, Armstrong T, Lusk S. Perceived psychological stress and upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. AAOHNJ 47(1):22-30, 1999.
Homan M, Franzblau A, Werner R, Albers J, Armstrong T, Bromberg M. Agreement between symptom surveys, physical examination procedures and electrodiagnostic findings for carpal tunnel syndrome. Scand J Work Env Hlth 25(2):115-124, 1999.
Gerard M, Armstrong T, Franzblau A, Martin B, Rempel D. The effects of keyswitch stiffness on typing force, finger electromyography, and subjective discomfort. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 60(6):762-769, 1999.
Latko, W., Armstrong T, A. Franzblau, S. Ulin, R. Werner and J. Albers. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between repetitive work and the prevalence of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. Am J Ind Med 36:248-259, 1999.
Salerno, D., R. Werner, J. Albers, M. Becker, Armstrong T, and A. Franzblau. Reliability of nerve conduction studies among active workers. Muscle & Nerve 22(10):1372-1379, 1999.
Tittiranonda P, Rempel D, Armstrong T, Burastero S. Workplace use of an adjustable keyboard: adjustment preferences and effect on wrist posture. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 60(3):340-348, 1999.
Tittiranonda P, Rempel D, Armstrong T, Burastero S. Effect of four computer keyboards in computer users with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Am J Ind Med 35(6):647-661, 1999.
Salerno D, Franzblau A, Werner R, Chung K, Schultz J, Becker M, Armstrong T. Reliability of physical examination of the upper extremity among keyboard operators. Am J Ind Med 37(4):423-430, 2000.
Armstrong T, Haig A, Franzblau A, Keyserling W, Levine S, Martin B, Ulin S, Werner R. Medical management and rehabilitation in the workplace: emerging issues. Editorial in special issue of J Occup Rehab 10(1):1-6, 2000.
Werner R, Gell N, Franzblau A, Armstrong T. Prolonged median sensory latency as a predictor of future carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & Nerve 24(11):1462-1467, 2001.
Salerno D, Franzblau A, Armstrong T, Werner R, Becker B. Test-retest reliability of the upper extremity questionnaire among keyboard operators. Am J Ind Med 40(6):655-666, 2001.
Armstrong T, Franzblau A, Haig A, Keyserling W, Levine S, Streilein K, Ulin S, Werner R. Developing ergonomic solutions for prevention of musculoskeletal disorder disability. Assistive Technology 13(2):78-87, 2001.
Gerard M, Armstrong T, Martin, B, Rempel D. The effects of work pace on within-participant and between-participant keying force, electromyography, and fatigue. Human Factors 44(1):51-61, 2002.
Gerard M, Armstrong T, Rempel D, Woolley C. Short term and long term effects of enhanced auditory feedback on typing force, EMG, and comfort while typing. Applied Ergonomics 33:129-138, 2002.
Armstrong T, Marshall M, Martin B, Foulke J, Grieshaber D, Malone G. Exposure to forceful exertions and vibration in a foundry. Int J Indus Ergo 30:163-179, 2002.
Homan M, and Armstrong T. Evaluation of three methodologies for assessing work activity during computer use. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 64(1):48-55, Jan-Feb 2003.
Marshall M, Armstrong T, Ebersole M. Verbal estimation of peak exertion intensity. Human Factors 46(4):697-710, 2004.
Marshall M, Armstrong T. Observational assessment of forceful exertion and the perceived force demands of daily activities. J Occup Rehab 14(4): 281-294, December 2004.
Keyserling W, Sudarsan S, Martin B, Haig A, Armstrong T. Effects of low back disability status on lower back discomfort during sustained and cyclical trunk flexion. Ergonomics 48(3):219-233, 2005.
Franzblau A, Armstrong T, Werner R, Ulin S. A cross-sectional assessment of the ACGIH TLV for hand activity level. J Occup Rehab 15(1):57-67, 2005.
Gell N, Werner R, Franzblau A, Ulin S, Armstrong T. A longitudinal study of industrial and clerical workers: incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome and assessment of risk factors. J Occup Rehab 15(1):47-55, 2005.
Werner R, Franzblau A, Gell N, Ulin S, Armstrong T. Predictors of upper extremity discomfort: a longitudinal study of industrial and clerical workers. J Occup Rehab 15(1): 27-35, 2005.
Werner R, Franzblau A, Gell N, Hartigan A, Ebersole M, Armstrong T. Predictors of persistent elbow tendonitis among auto assembly workers. J Occup Rehab 15(3): 393-400, 2005.
Werner R, Franzblau A, Gell N, Hartigan A, Ebersole M, Armstrong T. Incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome among automobile assembly workers and assessment of risk factors. J Occup Environ Med 47(10): 1044-50, 2005
Werner R, Franzblau A, Gell G, Hartigan A, Ebersole M, Armstrong T. Risk factors for visiting a medical department because of upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health 31(2): 132-7, 2005.
Werner, R., A. Franzblau, N. Gell, S. Ulin and Armstrong T. A longitudinal study of industrial and clerical workers: predictors of upper extremity tendonitis. J Occup Rehab 15(1): 37-46, 2005.
Womack S, Armstrong T. Use of a computerized decision support system for primary and secondary prevention of work-related MSD disability. J Occup Rehab 15(3): 313-28, 2005.
Fiorentini C, Mattioli S, Graziosi F, Bonfiglioli R, Armstrong T, Violante F. Occupational relevance of subclavian vein thrombosis in association with thoracic outlet syndrome. Scand J Rehabil Med 31(2): 160-163, 2005.
Ebersole M, Armstrong T. Analysis of an observational rating scale for repetition, posture, and force in selected manufacturing settings. Human Factors 48(3): 487-98, 2006.
Grieshaber D, Armstrong T. Insertion loads and forearm muscle activity during flexible hose insertion tasks. Human Factors 49(5): 786-796, 2007.
Seo N, Armstrong T, Ashton-Miller J, Chaffin D. The effect of torque direction and cylindrical handle diameter on the coupling between the hand and a cylindrical handle. J Biomech 40(14): 3236-43, 2007.
Seo N, Armstrong T, Chaffin D, Ashton-Miller J. Inward torque and high-friction handles can reduce required muscle efforts for torque generation. Human Factors 50(1): 37-48, 2008.
Seo N, Armstrong T, Ashton-Miller J, Chaffin D. Wrist strength is dependent on simultaneous power grip intensity. Ergonomics 51(10):1594-605, 2008.
Seo N, Armstrong T, Chaffin D, Ashton-Miller J. The effect of handle friction and inward or outward torque on maximum axial push force. Human Factors 50(2): 227-36, 2008.
Seo N, Armstrong T, (2008). Investigation of grip force, normal force, contact area, hand size, and handle size for cylindrical handles. Human Factors 50(5): 734-44.
Drinkaus P, Armstrong T, Foulke J. Investigation of flexible hose insertion forces and selected factors. Applied Ergonomics 40(1): 39-46, 2009.
Seo N, Armstrong T, Drinkaus P. A Comparison of Two Methods of Measuring Static Coefficient of Friction at Low Normal Forces: A Pilot Study. Ergonomics 52(1):121-135, 2009.
Drinkaus P, Armstrong T, Foulke J, Malone G. A standardized method for measuring the force required to join wire harnesses and sparkplugs. Applied Ergonomics (in press), 2009.
Greishhaber D, Armstrong T, Chaffin D, Keyserling W, Ashton-Miller J. The Effects of Insertion Method and Force on Hand Clearance Envelopes for Rubber Hose Insertion Tasks. Human Factors 51(2):152-163, 2009.
Young J, Woolley C, Armstrong T, Ashton-Miller J. Hand-Handhold Coupling: Effect of Handle Shape, Orientation, and Friction on Breakaway Strength. Human Factors 51(5):705-717, 2009.
Seo N, Armstrong T. Friction coefficients in a longitudinal direction between the finger pad and selected materials for different normal forces and curvatures. Ergonomics 52(5):609-616, 2009.
Seo N, Armstrong T. Biomechanical analysis for handle stability during maximum push and pull exertions. Ergonomics 52(12):1568-1575, 2009.
Drinkaus P, Armstrong T, Malone G. Investigation of selected hose fittings and insertion methods on hose insertion forces and efforts using dynamic tracking, electromyography and force measurements. Appl Ergo 40(1):39-46, 2009.
Seo N, Armstrong T, Young J. Effects of handle orientation, gloves, handle friction and elbow posture on maximum horizontal pull and push forces. Ergonomics 53(1):92-101, 2010.
Lau M, Armstrong T. The effect of viewing angle on wrist posture estimation from photographic images using novice rater. Appl Ergo (in press) 2011
Armstrong T, Best C, Bae S, Choi J, Grieshaber D, Park D, Woolley C, Zhou W. Development of a Kinematic Hand Model for Study and Design of Hose Installation. International Journal of Human Factors Modeling and Simulation (in press) 2011.
Bae S, Armstrong T. A Finger Motion Model for Reach and Grasp. Int J Indus Ergon 41(1):79-89, 2011
Most Abstracts can be obtained at: