Why did the Nakba Occur things that Led up to it? By: Ali Thabet

Part I:

Arab Israeli War 1948:  After UN Patition Plan Israel declares Nation and next day the war starts:
1947- britian turns mandate to UN.
May 15, 1948, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq attack  ties this in to Nakba
3 phases Israel extened borders: 1949 armistance sighned, Israel with/78% of Mandate rather then 56%. 
Backround: The War of 1947-48 is referred to as the al-naaba(disaster) by the Palestinians.  The new Jewish state increased its territory by roughly one-third as a result of the fighting, and no distinction was made between the land that they had been granted by the UN partition Resolution of 1947 and the war.  the UN set up a team lead by Count folke Benadotte to modify the 1947 Partition Resolution.  They proposed ini modifyin ght 1947 partionon by redrawing the boundries between Jewihs and Arab Palestine.  Palestine is attached to Trans-Jordan( Name of Jordan at that time).  The arabs opposed to unite with trans-Jordan and rejected to recognize a Jewish state. 

Part II: 

The Arab community thought that the Partition Resolution was unfair.  The Arabs thought that the UN probably exceeded its leal competance in adopting a resolution.  They also believe that it is illegal for Israel to exercise sovereignty overthose refugees of Palestine which UN allocated to the proposed Arab state. Also the makeup of the UN was unfair because at that time it had few African and Asian members.  It was dominated by the U.S. and European Powers.  Finally, the Arabs beleieves that there was a Western motivation for establishing Israel because the Arabs thought this creation helped to solve the west countries conscience for teh treatment of Jews during World War II by payn its own debt to the Jews.  Arabs point out international law for thier cause and state: a "conquerer" does not in any way accquire soveirgn rights in teh occupoed territory but exercises a temporary right of administration on a trustice basis.

The Israel resoponse to this is that it was acting with the consent of teh U.N. Assembly.  1949-armistice agreeement Arab achnoleged the rights in areas of each party to the conflict.  Lines cannot be modified where you have a permenant peace agreement.  Also since the Partition and plan where prevoked by Arab rejection and armed agression from entering into legal opperation, (thus) could not carry any legal efforts binding upon Israel.  Israel would have followed if it had not been prevented from taking into effect!

Causes of the Palestinian Exodus:
Hundreds of thousands Palestinians left thier homes during and immediately after teh 1947-48 war.  The reasons why the left and what should be done are different from both the Arab and Israeli side.

the Arabs believe that they were threatened by thier life and were affraid that they would get massacred.  An event that is highly mentioned is the Deir Yassin village.  This village massacred 254 defenseless civilians and many bodies were thrown into wells.  The arabs believe that the Israeli motivation was to initate a fear among the Palestinian population.  The arabs believe that this is not an isolated incident.  It serves as a larger pattern of events that the Hagana (Israeli army) was doing.  The Arabs believed that Deir Yassin was an act of revenge of an earlier massacre of Jews in Haifa.  At Nasr al-Din, Irregular Jewish Soldiers entered the village and destroyed 45 houses and killed 7 (citation).  The Arabs also believe that the Hagana officials ordered the attack of Deir Yassin.  the arabs believe that psychological warfare was involved.  There believed that Isreal actions were deliberate zionist efforts to drive Arabs out.  Arabs cited Plan D as a strategy of total war.  Some objectives included Luanching pre-planned counter-attacks on ememy-bases in teh heart of his territory whereever it is, including outside Palestine, occupying important high-ground positions within the Jewish state and within thier territores.  Also occupying and controllign the enemy's bases in rural adn urban areas.  The Arabs respond to the examples of Israels few instinces of claiming the Arabs to stay are not indicative of Zionist policy elsewhere.  They generalize Haifa without citing the cases elsewhere. 

The Israeli take on Deir Yassin is that they have a couple.  They state that they were met with rebels and asked them to leave the area prior to coming in with the army through a megaphone system.  This village was one of several that avoided cooperation due to Israeli intelligence.  Israeli's defense of Plan D stated that it is not a political blue print for the expulstion of Palestinians.  It is a military consideration and military ends.  Also since securing the interior of the Jewish state was the # 1 priority and this meant depoppulation and destruction of villages that were hostile.  When Israeli government heard the news of the atrocities, think they were false or initiated.  They state that most actions that included violence was from local commanders acting on thier own initiation.  This was more common among the Arabs.  Most that were telling the stories about these massacres where  among Arabs and the stories have been exaggerated.  The arabs also did acts of hostility and were wihtout fault in teh eyes of the Israelis.  The example the Israeli's bring is the ambush of a convoy full of Dr, Nurses, teachers were killed by Arabs.  They believe the Arab Propaganda spread the Arab atrocity stories.  They believe the radio stations aim was to create hatred towards Jews.  They are even examples of Jews trying to persuade Palestinians to stay.  The decleration of Independance of Isreal calls for Arabs to stay.  In the city of Haifa, Jewish workers council tell Arabs not to flee. 

Part III:

After 1948, Gaza was given to Egypt and Egypt established Gaza as a nominal Palestinian Arab government led by Arab Higher commitee.  The West Bank was controlled by trans-Jordan and was considered an extention by transJordan.  

Initial solutions to the refugee Problem From the Israeli Side:
Solutions proposed by the Israelis:
1) Compostated of lost of property.
2) Lived in Arab lands replaced jewish Population
3) In compatibabel with Jewish state creation.  It did not fit with Jewish as being the majority state if Pals return the jewish population will be the minority. 

The three main reasons Israelis provided to explain the jewish immigration to Israel were:
1) Refugees result from war resolved with the countries to which displaced population had fled
2) Refugee status was maintained by the government taht they fled to.  Denied citizenship to keep palestine idea alive
3) Religous, linguistic, and cultural affinities between palestininas adn other Arabs were such taht palestininas can be absorbed easily by neighbooring states.

Resource(from my discussion): Mark Tessler. "The Palestinian Disaster and Basic Issues after 1948," in A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Universoty Press, 1994, pp. 273-335.