WTC I/13 in F# major - Prelude

    from Siglind Bruhn
J.S. Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier
In-depth Analysis and Interpretation

I/13.1.1 The prelude type

This prelude is determined by two features, one rhythmic and the other thematic. The rhythmic pattern is introduced in bar 2 and continues, with only short interruptions, through the entire piece. Its significant trait is a syncopated right hand figure which omits the beats given by the left hand line; in other words a complementary rhythm.

The thematic material of this prelude is based on three components.

One is a six note broken-chord figure wound up by a repetition of the last note (see bar 1); this component is regularly followed by an imitation.
The second element is a figure in the above mentioned complementary rhythm (as introduced in bars 2/3).
The third component consists of a cadential bass matched by a rhythmically varied closing formula in the upper voice (first heard in bars 5m 6m).

These thematic components follow one another but never oppose each other contrapuntally, as would be the case in a motivically determined piece of this style. In fact, the second and third components are presented exclusively in homophonic settings. Only the first component contains a polyphonic element.

 

I/13.1.2 The overall design of the prelude

The first cadence concludes on the downbeat of bar 4. As can easily be seen from the continuing lines in both hands, this cadence does not indicate a structural break.

The subsequent harmonic progression ends on the middle beat of bar 6. It encompasses a modulation to the dominant key which is already approached from the first appearance of the B# in bar 4 onwards. This cadence is presented with an explicit cadential bass pattern and an embellished version of a typical closing formula in the upper voice (see U bars 5m 6m: ornamented of C# --- B#-C#). This close marks the end of the first section in this prelude.

The F#-major prelude contains six sections:

I

bars 1-6m

 

 

tonic to dominant

II

bars 6m-12d

modulation to the relative minor of the tonic

III bars 12-15m       modulation to the relative minor of the dominant
IV bars 15m-18m       modulation to the relative minor of the subdominant

V

bars 18m-24m

modulation back to the tonic

IV

bars 24m-30

 

VI tonic confirmed

As there are only three components of thematic material in this piece, several portions sound reminiscent of one another. Genuine analogies, however, do not occur.

 

I/13.1.3 Practical considerations for performers

The choice of tempo must be based on the understanding that the compound time signature does not designate the number of beats in a bar but only aims to facilitate reading. The pulse is in fact felt in 4/8 time, with continuous triplets inside each eighth-note. This eighth-note pulse should be moderately flowing.

There are two equally possible solutions for the corresponding articulation: under the assumption that the "flowing" quality prevails over the moderate mood, the non syncopated longer values (i.e. the dotted eighth-notes) would be taken gently non legato and all other notes quasi legato; by contrast, for performers who feel that this composition exudes calm beneath its ornate surface, the articulation would be mainly legato. (This second option has proved slightly more listener friendly.) Both options demand a precise distinction between those dotted eighth-notes which form part of the melodic bass line and others which belong to a cadential bass pattern. Also, careful phrasing, particularly within the complementary-rhythm pattern, is essential to assure that lines "breathe".*

* Observing these two requirements, we obtain the following bass line:

legato
non legato
legato


non legato
legato
legato
legato
legato
legato

non legato
legato
bars 1 3 (E#); phrasing before C#; legato bars 3-5 (C#-C#)
in the cadential pattern bars 5/6
bars 7-10 (E#); phrasing before D#; legato bars 10-11 (D#-D#)

(non legato also possible)
in the cadential pattern bars 11-12 (downbeat)
bars 12-14 (A#); non legato bars 14 (A#)-15
bars 16 (first half); non legato bars 16 (C#)-17
bars 19-20 (F#); phrasing before B
bars 20 (B)-21 (C#), phrasing,
bars 21 (D#)-22 (G#); legato bars 22 (F#)-23 (F#)
(non legato also possible)
in the cadential pattern bars 23 (A#)-24 (F#)
bars 24 (F#)-27 (tied C#); non legato up to the end.

In the right hand, phrasing only needs a mention within the complementary-rhythm passages. In fact, each subphrase within these passages ends with a momentary interruption of the syncopated rhythm, and is thus not too difficult to spot. On the other hand, since the final note of this pattern often overlaps with the beginning of a closing formula, no cut is possible between the two components.*

*Phrasing in the upper voice occurs as follows:
 
bar 4, after downbeat A#
bar 7, after middle beat F#
bar 10, after downbeat G#
bar 21, after middle beat F#
bar 29, after downbeat A#  

The prelude contains one regular ornament in connection with the first thematic component, the broken-chord figure which ends in a note repetition. This ornament is indicated by different symbols throughout the fugue; it might, however, be preferable to decide in favor of one version and retain this in all cases. Transferal of the trill to structurally analogous notes which appear unornamented is not appropriate in this piece since the notes to which this might apply (e.g. the downbeat of bar 2) are at the same time the beginning of the second thematic component.

At any rate, the trill is not a note filling one since its resolution does not fall on the strong beat but is always both delayed and approached indirectly.
Possible executions of this thematic ornament are:

as a mordent as indicated in bar 1;
in this case it includes four or (better) six notes whenever it begins on the upper neighbor note (as in all cases of note repetition), and five notes when it begins on the main note (as on the downbeat of bar 12)
as a compound ornament as indicated in bar 7;
in this case it comprises eight notes, commencing always on the upper note, describing a turn to the lower neighbor and back to the main note, and ending with two trill pairs.

The appropriate rhythmic position of this interrupted ornament is such that the point of interruption avoids any beat. Ex. 2 gives two possible solutions for each version:

 

I/13.1.4 What is happening in this prelude?

The initial section contains all three thematic components. The broken-chord figure begins in the upper voice and is imitated in the lower voice; the complementary-rhythm figure consists of two segments with overlapping phrase endings in the two parts (see the phrasing in U: after bar 4d, in L: after the third dotted eighth-note in bar 3; for more details see footnotes 1 and 2 above). The closing formula commences in the right hand part on the middle beat of bar 5, in the left hand part on the second dotted eighth-note of the same bar. The harmonic outline of this section describes a modulation from F# major to the dominant C# major.

In the second section, the three components appear with a different emphasis. The broken-chord figure is merely transposed; the complementary-rhythm figure is very much extended. Two descending subphrases in the upper voice (see bar 7 , after the middle beat, to bar 8 middle beat and bars 8 middle to 10 downbeat) are accompanied in the lower voice by a single unphrased descent (bar 7 middle beat to 10 downbeat), followed by an additional curve (bar 10). The closing formula, however, is only represented by its bass part (see bars 11/12 where the lower voice quotes the cadential steps) while the upper voice continues in the complementary-rhythm pattern. The harmonic progression leads from C# major to D# minor, the relative minor key.

The third section is considerably shorter but features all components in compressed versions. It commences on bar 12d with the broken-chord figure in the lower voice, imitated in the upper voice but returning once more to the bass (see bar 13, first half). The lower voice then gives way almost directly to an extended cadential pattern. In the upper voice, a little link (bars 13m-14d) precedes a very condensed complementary-rhythm figure (bar 14d-14m), followed then by the complete closing formula.

The structure of the fourth section is similar but even more compressed since the first component commences in the upper voice and thus does not "need" the extra imitation of the previous section (compare bars 12/13 with bars 15/16). Harmonically, these two sections lead from D# minor to A# minor (the relative minor to the dominant) and to G# minor (the relative minor to the subdominant) respectively.

The fifth section begins with an extended imitative pattern of the broken-chord figure which recalls the third section (see bars 18m-19d: U, 19-19m: L, 19m-20d: U, 20-20m: L inverted). This leads to an extended complementary-rhythm figure, with phrasing in U: bar 21 after the middle beat and, almost imperceptibly, bar 22 middle, and in L: bar 21 middle (separating the seventh interval)) and bar 22m. This segment is strongly reminiscent of the second section, especially in the ensuing cadential pattern in which the closing formula of the upper voice is omitted (compare bars23m-24m with bars 5m 6m). The fifth section returns to F# major, the home key of the prelude.

The final section confirms the home key. Here the broken-chord figure is stripped of both its ornament and its polyphonic reply. Instead, after a short quotation of the complementary-rhythm component, the broken-chord element is re-stated (L bar 26) and followed by a short dominant pedal with non thematic figures in the right hand part. The composition ends with the two subphrases of the complementary-rhythm figure over a non melodic bass and the original closing formula, completed in the upper voice by a very graceful, unaccented F#-major-chord descent.

 

WTC I/13 in F# major - Fugue

I/13.2.1 The subject

The subject of this fugue spans exactly two bars. It commences in bar 1 after a eighth-note rest and ends on the downbeat of bar 3. This downbeat marks the return to the tonic after the dominant seventh chord which was represented by B, G# and C# in the second half of bar 2.

The pitch outline in the subject is very symmetrical. The first and last intervals are skips while in between all notes follow each other in stepwise motion. The rhythmic pattern contains, in the subject itself, eighth-notes, sixteenth-notes, thirty-second-notes in the trill and its written-out suffix, and one quarter-note; counter-subjects and episode motives add several types of syncopation, so that the overall effect is one of considerable variety in note values. The way in which the various rhythmic values in the subject are introduced is interesting to observe. The initial eighth-notes give way first to sixteenth-notes and then to the thirty-second-notes of the trill. After this continuous acceleration, there is a sudden stop on the quarter-note (prolonged by the rest), before the initial eighth-notes are resumed.

This rest in the middle of the subject raises a question: does the halt in the sound flow signify an interruption of the tension, or is the tension carried through the silence? The harmonic development in the subject, as shall soon be seen, reaches its climax on the downbeat of bar 2. As mentioned above, this note also marks the center of the symmetry in the pitch and rhythmic patterns. One can therefore deduce that the comparatively long note value, enhanced by the ensuing rest, serves to sustain this climax before the stepwise descent which follows. The subject thus consists of a single indivisible phrase.

Although harmonizations of the subject occurring throughout the fugue feature a number of intricate (and varying) progressions, it can nevertheless be said that in its main steps, the harmonic background of the phrase is that of a simple cadential progression. The active step from the tonic to the subdominant (or its relative minor) takes place on the downbeat of bar 2, followed by the dominant chord in the second half of bar 2 and the tonic on the final note.

(ex. 3)

The climax of this subject, the D# at the beginning of bar 2, is supported in an ideal way by various features: (a) it represents both the subdominant harmony and a sudden rhythmic stop; (b) it is composed as a kind of axle in this very symmetrical layout the preceding pitches show a rising tendency (see the first skip C#-F# and the step from the trill C# to D#), while the ensuing ones are all falling (see the descent D#-C#-B-A#-G# and the final skip C#-A#).

 

I/13.2.2 The statements of the subject

The fugue contains eight statements of the subject.

1. bars 1-3 U   5. bars 15-17 M
2. bars 3-5 M   6. bars 20-22 L
3. bars 5-7 L   7. bars 28-30 M
4. bars 11-13 U   8. bars 31-33 U

(ex. 4)

The only variations in the subject occur at its beginning and end; both are very common modifications. The initial interval is adjusted in the answer of bar 3 but never again thereafter, and the final interval is on two occasions enlarged to a fifth to include a drop to the keynote (see bars 6/7 and bars 21/22). No stretto or parallel statements of the subject appear.

 

I/13.2.3 The counter-subjects

The F#-major fugue contains two counter-subjects of very different character and importance.

CS1

is introduced at the expected place, i.e. against the second subject statement (see U: bars 3 5). Among its two subphrases, the first commences with an ascending octave followed by a circling figure and comes to a halt on the syncopation; the second is an extended transposition of the first, beginning with a longer preparation and closing in an additional do-si-do (keynote / leading note / keynote) formula.
(Cf. bar 3 F#-E#-F#-G#-D#-E#-F#-G# with bars 3/4 D#-C#-D#-E#-B#...A#-B#-C#.)*

 

The climaxes in the two subphrases could fall either on the analogous syncopations (this results in a somewhat saucy expression) or in the bend before each of them (i.e. on E# and A# respectively, which underpins the tender note of the counter-subject). As the second subphrase is conceived as a descending sequence, it sounds generally softer than the first one.

Although CS1 is an almost constant companion to the subject, it undergoes significant modifications on its way through the fugue. Its initial interval, which was originally the very assertive octave leap, appears gradually smoothed away. Reduced first to a seventh (see bar 5: C#-B), then substituted by a three note figure which commences with a fifth (see bar 11: G#-C#-B), it is finally leveled to a stepwise figure (see bar 15: A#-G#-F#; similarly in bars 20 and 31). Together with the gradual retreat of the originally energetic beginning, CS1 also loses momentum at its end. In bars 11 13, the last syncopated figure is substituted by a quarter-note followed by an appoggiatura which resolves belatedly, after a tie suspension. In bars 15 17, the second subphrase turns into a cadential bass pattern (similarly in bars 31 33). In bars 20/21, only the first subphrase of CS1 appears, and in bars 28/29, this counter-subject is entirely missing.

The point at which one normally expects the second counter-subject to be introduced is against the third subject statement, in bars 5 7. The line presented here by the upper voice, however, reveals itself as a rhythmic parallel of the subject. It is therefore necessary to look further, to the ensuing entry of the subject in bars 12 13, in order to find the true second counter-subject.

CS2

begins belatedly half a bar after the subject (see L: bar 12). It is characterized by a rising scale interspersed by pairs of the repeated keynote. In keeping with this straight gesture in the ascent, the development of tension also depicts only a single direction: no subphrasing scans the continuous crescendo until the upper F#.

This counter-subject only accompanies the subject three times altogether; after its introduction it recurs in U: bars 20 22 and in U: bars 28 30.

-

Another line which accompanies the subject twice and might, at a first glance, appear as a counter-subject is that in U: bars 15 17 and in M: bars 31 33. Upon closer inspection one detects that its end is composed as a complement to the CS1 which has turned into a cadential bass, and is actually making up, in a somewhat free style, for the omitted final syncopated figure of the first counter-subject. This note group should therefore not be regarded as a new component of the primary material.

The following sketch shows the phrase structure and dynamic design in the primary material of this fugue.

(ex. 5)

 

I/13.2.4 The episodes

The F#-major fugue contains six subject-freepassages:

E1

bars 7-11m

E4

bars 22-28d

E2

bars 13m-15d

E5

bars 30-31m

E3

bars 17-20d

E6

bars 33m-35

The cadential close in bars 22 23d partitions E4, distinguishing between a very short segment E4a and a much longer E4b. The remaining episodes, none of which is further divided, fall into two groups. The material employed comprises both components of the subject and of the counter-subjects, as well as an independent episode motive.

The subject appears, complete or represented by a segment, in all six episodes.

a)   It is quoted most completely in E2 and E5. In the upper voice of E2, the following segments can be observed:
 
the first four notes are a transposition of the subject's head motive (compare bars 13/14: A#-D#-Cx-D# with bar 1: C#-F#-E#-F#);
 
the fourth note has the value of a quarter-note followed by a eighth-note rest, and is thus reminiscent of the climax in the subject (compare bar 14: D# + rest with the same in bar 2);
 
the ensuing six eighth-notes constitute a free inversion of the subject's second half (compare bars 14/15: E#-F#-G#-A#-F#-D# with bars 2/3: C#-B-A#-G#-C#-A#).
The middle voice in this episode sets out as an imitation, then omits the climax portion and joins the end of the upper voice figure in parallel thirds. E5 is a transposition of E2, with the upper and middle voices inverted; here the middle voice carries the more complete version of the subject and is thus leading, while the upper voice is second in importance. (Not easy to play!)
b)   Another quotation of subject material appears as a bracket around the first episode:
 
The head motive opens this episode in the lower voice, stating a re arrangement of the original pitches but retaining the eighth-note rhythm (compare bar 7: F#-E#-C#-F# with bar 1: C#-F#-E#-F#).
 
The middle voice concludes this episode with the second half of the subject, retained almost exactly in the shape of the original (compare M bars 10/11: G#-F#-E#-D#-D#-E# with bars 2/3: C#-B-A#-G#-C#-A#).
The opening segment in its particular re arrangement of pitches recurs twice in the fugue: at the beginning of E3 (where it is even sequenced; see L: bars 17/18) and at the beginning of E6 where it is taken up faithfully.
c)   Finally the head motive alone, in its original shape, reigns in the largest portion of E4 where it is presented first in an imitative texture of upper and middle voice (see bars 23/24), then in a pattern of descending sequences in the lower voice (see bars 26/27).

Mcs2 is a figure which is derived from CS2; it can also be found in all six episodes. However, while CS2 was characterized by a hidden two part structure consisting of a complete ascending scale over a repeated pedal, the episode figure mostly plays with two moving lines and creates distinct little gestures of varying length. Mcs2 occurs as follows:

in E1 see bar 7 U, bars 7/8 L, bar 8 M, bars 8m 10 L
(it is interesting to observe that Mcs2 actually appears earlier than the counter-subject from which it stems);
in E2 see bars 13/14 L;
in E3 see bar 17 M, bars 17/18 U, bars 18 20 L;
in E4 see bars 23 25m L, bars 25/26 M, bars 26/27 U, bar 28 L
(bar 28 L belongs to this episode in view of its material, although there is an overlap with the beginning of the next subject entry);
in E5 see bar 30 L;
in E6 see bars 33/34 U, bar 34 L, bars 34/35 M.

M1 is an independent episode motive which occurs only in E1, E3 and E6, and only ever in the upper voice. It is made up of an ascending fourth leap followed by syncopated notes in various guises which, more often than not, feature a descent. M1 is introduced in E1 (see bars 7/8 C#-F#-E#-D#-C#-B#); it is then sequenced freely in bar 8 (D#-G#...) to bar 10 (...B#) and again in bars 10/11 where the syncopations accommodate the do-si-do (keynote / leading note / keynote) closing formula. In its second version it reappears in E3 (see bars 18/19). Its shortened third version is taken up in E6 (see bars 34/35).

The two episodes which, as was mentioned above, appear corresponding due to their fairly complete quotation of the subject (E2 and E5), share a further feature: both of them are interwoven with their ensuing subject statement by an anticipation of the CS1 beginning. At the end of E2 (see L: bars 14m-15d), the note group from G# to G# anticipates the subsequent group from A# to A#; the same recurs at the end of E5 (compare L in the first half of bar 31, still part of the episode, with the note group in the second half of that bar, serving as the beginning of the first counter-subject).

Finally, cadential bass patterns can be observed at the ends of E1 and E6 respectively, as well as in E4a which is the only episode segment in this fugue clearly serving as nothing but a cadential close. While in E1 and E6 the formulas in appear embedded in episode material, E4a features none of the above mentioned components or motives. Instead, both the upper and the lower voices present obvious closing formulas, thus underpinning the determined concluding gesture of this bar.

As has certainly become obvious from the above analysis, several relationships exist between the episodes of this fugue.

E2 corresponds directly with E5;
E1

 

is related to E3 which is a shortened version, and to E6 which repeats its beginning literally (compare bars 33m 34m with bar 7);

E4b carries analogies within itself; the segment in bars 23 26 corresponds largely with that in bars 26 28.

The details which have been unraveled above allow discernment between three types of episodes:

One type, represented by E2 and E5, is very closely related to the primary material, not only because it quotes the largest portion of the subject, but also because it is intertwined with the ensuing subject statement through its CS1 anticipation. This type serves as a bridge.
Another type, represented by E1, E3 and E6, gains limited independence by using a distinct episode motive. In both E1 and E6, a cadential close is present, whereas this more definite ending is missing at the tail of E3. (It may not seem too far fetched to speculate that this missing close of E3 is made up for by E4a which, as was shown, presents an explicit cadential formula.) This episode type provides a color contrast to the primary material and conveys the impression of a structural closure.
The third type is represented only by the five bars of E4b. Utilizing only segments from subject and CS2 and carrying these through various harmonic steps, this episode seems purposefully to delay the ensuing subject statement. (It reminds one faintly of that episode portion in the C#-major fugue which served as something like the "development section" in the "sonata form" fugue. The reader may wish to refer to chapter WTC I/3.2.4. in volume I.) The message of this episode type is therefore neither bridging nor closing but delaying.

 

I/13.2.5 Character, tempo, articulation, ornament realization

The material of this fugue does not express only one character. In the subject, the first counter-subject, the episode figures derived from these and the independent episode motive M1, the complex rhythmic pattern and the overall stepwise motion clearly indicate a rather calm basic character. By contrast, the second counter-subject and the episode figure derived from it (Mcs2) feature simple rhythmic structure and a pitch pattern which consists exclusively of skips, thus designating a rather lively basic character. The conclusion to be drawn from these observations should accommodate both facts.

The tempo is moderately flowing; swift enough to convey liveliness in the sixteenth-notes of CS2, but moderate enough to convey calm in those of CS1. The articulation will have to take into account the two characters represented by the material. In the subject and the motives derived from it as well as in CS1 and M1, all notes are legato; in CS2 and Mcs2, all notes are quasi legato. (For the sound balance within these components it is of greatest importance that the frequent note repetitions do not cause a greater degree of detachment than the other intervals; any effect of slurring should be carefully avoided.) Non legato articulation is appropriate in the cadential bass notes of bars 11, 16, 22, 33 and 34 and in the octave jump of bar 25.

The relative tempo of the prelude to the fugue is ideally represented by the compound relationship of 3:2. This translates as follows:

three dotted eighth-notes equal two quarter-notes (half a bar)
in the prelude   in the fugue

Approximate metronome settings: prelude beats (dotted eighth-notes) = 96, fugue beats = 63.)

The composition contains two ornaments. One decorates the subject and has to be transferred to all subsequent subject entries (slight technical inconvenience is no excuse!); the difference of symbols in bars 1, 3 and 15 should probably not be read to indicate different executions. This trill is a note filling one. It begins on the main note since it is approached stepwise, moves in thirty-second-notes and ends with the suffix which, in all cases but one, is written out. The other ornament appears in the cadential bar of E4a. It is a mordent which commences on the upper neighbor note G# and then touches down on F# twice. Its shakes can be in thirty-second-notes or slightly faster.

 

I/13.2.6 The design of the fugue

As has been shown above, the fugue contains two explicit cadential formulas. One of them marks the end of the first episode. The other, following the sixth subject statement, was identified as the only subject-freesegment devoid of all the components which characterize the material of the other episodes; it is a typical cadential close.

While these cadential formulas already provide an important clue for the design of the fugue, earlier observations regarding the episodes and their role in the development of the composition also contribute to the understanding of structure. E2 and E5 were acknowledged as bridging episodes which each string together two statements belonging to the same section; E1 and E6 were found to exert concluding power, while E3 showed similar tendency but lacked a final closure (to be complemented by E4a). Finally, E4b was analyzed to be neither bridging nor concluding; one might therefore assume that its position is neither in the middle nor at the end of a section.

Having said all this, it is time to state one noteworthy analogy in the fugue. Three separate facts had already been recognized:

the correspondence of E2 and E5;
the relationship in material of E3 and E6;

the correspondence of the subject entries in bars 15 17 and 31 33; both are accompanied by a variant of CS1 in which the end appears substituted by a cadential bass pattern, and by a third voice which in its second half makes up for the abandoned tail of CS1, at least in its rhythmic idea.

To sum up:

bars 11m-18 correspond with bars 28-35
subject statement + CS2   subject statement + CS2
bridging episode   bridging episode
subject statement   subject statement
  with CS1 irregularity     with CS1 irregularity
E3   E6

The overall harmonic development in the fugue begins, after three statements in the realm of F# major, with a modulation to the dominant, leading to a close with a C#-major cadence at the end of the first episode. After an immediate return to the home key, the third episode modulates from C# major to the relative key which, after a subject entry in D# minor in bars 20-22, is confirmed in the cadential bar 22/23. E4b undertakes the return to the home key before the next subject entry. Thus all but one of the subject statements appear in F# major, either on its tonic or on its dominant.

These are the conclusions to be drawn from what was observed:

The first section encompasses three subject statements and one episode; the cadential formula at the end of E1 concludes this section.
The second episode contains two statements which appear strung together by the bridging E2, followed by the episode type which elsewhere in this fugue is concluding but here lacks the final cadential close. The ensuing statement appears thus almost as a redundant one, an impression which is enhanced by the fact that it is the only one in the minor mode. The cadential bar of E4a concludes this second section in bar 23d.
The third section begins with an opening ("delaying") episode, followed by the passage which was recognized as structurally analogous to the second section without its quasi redundant entry. In this section, the third subject statement is now completely stripped off.

For a sketch showing the design of the fugue in F# major, see ex. 6.

 

I/13.2.7 The development of tension

Within the first section, the tension is growing from the first to the second subject entry along with both the increase of voices and the emergence of the contrasting first counter-subject. However, from here to the third entry, there is almost no increase as the upper voice does not contribute independent material but runs a rhythmic parallel to the subject. The ensuing episode commences with a distinct color contrast. It then allows for a slight increase in tension as M1 comes in and is sequenced upwards, only to give way to the relaxing cadential close which ends both the episode and this section.

The beginning of the second section can be regarded as the climax not only of this section but of the entire fugue because the juxtaposition of the subject with its two counter-subjects creates the greatest degree of polyphonic contrast. The bridging episode sounds softer than the surrounding subject statements but not necessarily as different in color as E1 did. It is followed by an entry which makes no use of the newly introduced CS2 and thus sounds less assertive than the preceding one. The ensuing episode commences again with a color contrast and a slight increase in tension in connection with M1; its relaxation is interrupted by the quasi redundant entry which is the most subdued both in this section and in the fugue.

The third section sets off in an almost floating atmosphere. The remaining two entries and two episodes repeat the development of the second section, omitting, however, both the climax and the anticlimax; the first subject statement of this section is accompanied by CS2 but not CS1 and thus sounds less polyphonically thrilling, and the quasi redundant entry is completely dropped here.