- Note on reading sources:
- The Urban Sociology Reader (edited by Lin and Mele, Routledge)
- Spaces of Capital (Harvey, Routledge)
- [if no source listed, then the reading can be found in Canvas]
16 - 23
Classic Readings in
Urban Theory: the German and Chicago Schools, plus other foundational
Sept. 16: German School [NOTE: earlier start time: 12:30 pm]
Engels, Friedrich. 1845. "The
Great Towns", in Condition
of the Working Class in England. (online reading)
Tonnies, Ferdinand. Community
and Society, in Lin and Mele (eds.), The Urban Sociology Reader (Routledge). [German original via Hathi Trust: Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft] see also this ebrary online version.
Simmel, Georg. The Metropolis and Mental Life, in The
Urban Sociology Reader. [also in Canvas]
Weber, Max. 1958. The City. Translated by D. M. a. G. Neuwirth. New
York: Free Press; 1st Collier Books edition. (chapter: "The Nature of Cities")
Frisby, David. 2001. Cityscapes of modernity : critical explorations. Cambridge
; Malden, MA: Polity Press in association with Blackwell. (Chapter 3: The City
Interpreted: Georg Simmel's Metropolis)
Benjamin, Walter. 1969. "The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility," in Illuminations. Edited and with an introduction by Hannah Arendt. Translated by Harry Zohn. New York,: Schocken Books. (originally published 1936).
Parker, Simon, Urban Theory and the Urban Experience: Encountering the City (Routledge). pp.
Sennett, R. (Ed.). (1969). Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. ("Introduction") [newly added to Canvas]
Georg Simmel Online (in German and English)
Berlin: Symphony of a Great City
(Berlin – Die Sinfonie der Grosstadt) [film via archive.org)
Benjamin, Walter. 1968. Illuminations. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt [no longer available via ebrary -- will look for alternative source]
Benjamin, Walter. The Arcades Project. [online via archive.org] [summary and full text of the Harvard University Press edition]
Coetzee, JM, 2001, The Marvels of Walter Benjamin, The New York Review of Books, JANUARY 11
Sept. 23: Chicago School (Park, Burgess, Wirth) and beyond [*NOTE: earlier start time: 12:30 pm]
Park, Robert, Human
Ecology, in The Urban Sociology Reader. [also in Canvas]
Burgess, Ernest, The
Growth Of The City: An Introduction To A Research Project, in The
Urban Sociology Reader. [also in ebrary as a chapter in Marzluff, John, (ed). Urban Ecology : An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature. Boston, MA, US: Springer, 2008, pp. 71-78. [ebrary link]
Wirth, Louis. 1938. Urbanism as a Way of Life,
in The Urban Sociology
Reader. [also in Canvas]
Gans, Herbert, Urbanism
and Suburbanism as Ways of Life: A Reevaluation of Definitions, in The
Urban Sociology Reader (first edition only).
Fischer, Claude, Theories
of Urbanism, in The Urban Sociology Reader.
Mumford, Lewis. 1937. What is a city? Architectural Record LXXXII (November).
Peter. "The Urban as an Ecological Community," in Social Theory and the Urban Question. London: Hutchinson & Co. 1981,
Parker, Simon, Urban Theory and the Urban Experience: Encountering
the City (Routledge). Ch. 3.
Lynch, Kevin. 1974. The Pattern of the Metropolis. In An urban world, edited
by C. Tilly. Boston,: Little Brown.
Claude S. Fischer. 1972. "Urbanism as a Way of Life": A Review and an Agenda. Sociological Methods & Research November 1: 187-242.
Fischer, Claude S. 1995 The Subcultural Theory of Urbanism: A Twentieth-Year Assessment. American Journal of Sociology 101: 543-77.
Park, Robert E. 1925. Suggestions for the Investigation of human Behavior
in the Urban Environment. In The City, edited by R. E. Park,
E. W. Burgess and R. D. MacKenzie. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Judd, Dennis R., Dick Simpson, and Janet L. Abu-Lughod (eds). 2011. The City Revisited: Urban Theory from Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York. Minneapolis, MN, USA: University of Minnesota Press. [ebrary] see, in particular, Ch. 3: Daphne Spain: "The Chicago of Jane Addams and Ernest Burgess: Same City, Different Visions" (pp. 51-62]
Low, Jacqueline, and Gary Bowden, eds. 2013. The Chicago School Diaspora : Epistemology and Substance. Montreal, CA: MQUP. see in particular, the first chapter: "Introduction: The Chicago School as Symbol and Enactment" [ebrary]
David Harvey and a Geographical View
Harvey, David. 2001. Spaces
of Capital: Towards a Critical Geography. Routledge.
Parker, Simon, Urban Theory and the Urban Experience: Encountering the City (Routledge).
Reading Marx’s Capital with David Harvey (with both video and audio links)
"A Brief History of Neoliberalism" (Audio of lecture by Harvey)
A 2004 Interview with David Harvey (audio, video, text)
Harvey, David. "Possible
Urban Worlds" (Fourth Megacities Lecture, 2000)
Harvey, David. Social Justice and the City (revised version). ebrary.
Harvey, David. 2007. Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford University Press. [ebrary]
background on von Thünen:
Johann-Heinrich von Thünen:
Balancing Land-Use Allocation with Transport Cost (by Scott Crosier)
(Resources) (Krumme, U. Washington)
David Harvey (cont.) and Manuel Castells
Harvey Chs. 12-18 (selections)
Castells: from "the Urban Question"
to the Internet
Castells, Manuel. 2002. The
Castells Reader on cities and social theory: Blackwell.
chapters: introduction; Chs. 1-2; 4; 6-9 (NOTE: reduce the number of chapters)
[note: you are also encouraged to read Ch. 5 on San Francisco and the conclusion)
with Manuel Castells, Institute of International Studies, UC Berkeley
(May 9, 2001)
Castells, Manuel. 2009. Power of Identity : Economy, Society, and Culture (2nd Edition). Wiley-Blackwell. [ebrary]
|Essay One due (Monday, Oct 10)
Henri Lefebvre and the Production
Lefebvre, Henri. 1991. The production
Oxford, UK ; Cambridge, Mass., USA: Blackwell. (Ch: "Plan of the Present
Lefebvre, Henri Interviews: Writings on Cities (No Salvation away from
the Centre? / The Urban in Question) 1996
Brenner, Neil. 2000. "The urban question as a scale question: reflections on Henri Lefebvre, urban theory and the politics of scale,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24, 2: 361-378 link
Brenner, N., & Elden, S. (2001). Henri Lefebvre in Contexts: An Introduction. Antipode, 33(5), 763-768. doi: 10.1111/1467-8330.00215
Elden, S. (2004). Understanding Henri Lefebvre : theory and the possible. London ; New York: Continuum. (Ch 5: "Space and History")
Elden, S. (2007). There is a politics of space because space is political: Henri Lefebvre and the production of space. Radical Philosophy Review, 10(2), 101-116.
Gottdiener, Mark. 1994. "Urban Ecology, Economics and Geography:
Spatial Analysis in Transition " in The social production of
urban space. 2nd ed. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Gottdiener, M. (1993). A Marx for Our Time: Henri Lefebvre and the Production of Space. Sociological Theory, 11(1), 129-134.
Simon, Urban Theory and the Urban Experience, pp.
see also these books in ebrary:
Lefebvre, Henri. 2010. Everyday Life in the Modern World (2nd Edition). London: Continuum International Publishing.
Lefebvre, Henri. 2009. State, Space, World : Selected Essays. (edited by Stuart Elden and Neil Brenner). University of Minnesota Press.
Shields, Rob. 1998. LeFebvre, Love, and Struggle : Spatial Dialectics. Routledge.
Stanek, Lukasz. 2011. Henri Lefebvre on Space : Architecture, Urban Research, and the Production of Theory. University of Minnesota Press.
Gardiner, Michael. 2000. Critiques of Everyday Life : Introduction. Routledge.
*Hubbard, Phil. 2006. The city, Key ideas in geography. London: Routledge. (Ch 3, "The Everyday City") [to be scanned and added]
OPTION: review the influences of Lefebvre on Soja's Postmodern Geographies: the Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory) google book version
Globalization, Global Cities (see class blog: "Visualizing the Global/National/Local")
John Friedmann, The World City Hypothesis, in The Urban Sociology
Saskia Sassen, Whose City Is It? Globalization and the Formation of New Claims ,
Urban Sociology Reader.
Michael Peter Smith, Power in Place: Retheorizing
the Local and the Global [link]
King, Anthony. 1995. Re-presenting
world Cities: cultural theory/social
practice, in Paul L., and Peter J. Taylor, eds. 1995. World Cities
in a World-System.
Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Peck, Jamie 2015. Cities beyond Compare? Regional Studies, 49(1), 160–182.
Roy, Ananya. 2015. "What is urban about critical urban theory?" Urban Geography.
Peter Hall, "Megacities,
world cities and global cities"
Dicken, Peter. 2004. Geographers and ‘globalization’: (yet)
another missed boat? Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 29 (1):5-26.J.V. Beaverstock, R.G. Smith and P.J. Taylor, "A
Roster of World Cities"
P. Hall, "Christaller
for a Global Age: Redrawing the Urban Hierarchy"
Sassen. The City: Between topographic representation and
spatialized power projects Art Journal. Summer
2001. Vol.60, Iss. 2; pg. 12.
Scott, A. J. (2008). Social economy of the metropolis : cognitive-cultural capitalism and the global resurgence of cities. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. (Ch: 7. "City-Regions: Economic Motors and Political Actors on the Global Stage") [ebrary] -- OR -- Scott, Allen, John Agnew, Edward J. Soja, and Michael Storper. 2001. "Global City-Regions," in Global
City-Regions: Trends Theory, Prospects. Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press (Scott, Allen, ed.).
Amin, Ash and Nigel Thrift. "Cities in a Distanciated Economy," in
Cities: Reimagining the Urban. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Inc.
2002, pp. Ch. 3: p.51 - p.77.
Brenda S. A. Yeoh and T. C. Chang. Globalizing Singapore: Debating Transnational Flows in the City. in The
Urban Sociology Reader.
McCann, E., & Ward, K. (2011). Mobile urbanism : cities and policymaking in the global age. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (Globalization and Community series) ("Introduction. Urban Assemblages: Territories, Relations, Practices, and Power") [ebrary]
Globalization and World Cities
Study Group and Network, Loughborough University, UK and their on-line
Jan Lin, Globalization and the Revalorizing of Ethnic
Places in Immigration Gateway Cities , in The Urban Sociology Reader.
and Jasmin Tahmaseb McConath, City Life: West African Communities in New
York, in The Urban Sociology Reader.
Saskia Sassen. 2000. The global city: Strategic site/new frontier American
Studies. Summer 2000.Vol.41, Iss. 2/3; pg. 79.
Sassen. 2000. New frontiers facing urban sociology at the
Millennium. The British Journal of Sociology. Andover: Jan/Mar 2000.Vol.51, Iss. 1; pg. 143
Michael. 1997. The Regional World: Territorial Development in a Global
Economy. New York: Guilford Press. (excerpt: Chapter 8, "The
Regional World: Territorial Development in a Global Economy", pp.
Waldinger, Roger. 1996. From Ellis Island to LAX: Immigrant prospects
in the American city. The International Migration
York: Winter 1996. Vol.30, Iss. 4; pp. 1078-86. pdf.
The Guardian: The rise of megacities – interactive [link]
The Geographic Imagination: Planetary Urbanization in Debate: Cities and Hinterlands, New and Old(Guests: Profs. Kim Kinder and Sarah Knuth)
This session examines recent debates on planetary urbanization within a much longer history of city-hinterland relations and their theorization. Geographers have explored relations between cities and the multi-scalar transformations of nature upon which they depend using a range of theoretical tools: classic notions of cities and their hinterlands; old and new thinking on cities' role in producing resource frontiers, peripheries, and territorial space; new adapted concepts such as the metabolic rift. We will survey these ideas theoretically and using examples of their concrete realization in particular places and times.
Brenner, Neil and Christian Schmid (2015) "Towards a New Epistemology of the Urban?" City 19.2-3: 151-182
Walker, Richard (2015) "Building a Better Theory of the Urban: A Response to 'Towards a New Epistemology of the Urban?'" City 19.2-3: 183-191
Shaw, Kate (2015) "Planetary Urbanisation: What does it Matter for Politics or Practice?" Planning Theory & Practice 16.4: 588-593
Cronon, William (1991) "Ch. 3: Pricing the Future: Grain," selection in Nature's Metropolis, pp. 97-132
Moore, Jason W. (2000) "Environmental Crises and the Metabolic Rift in World-Historical Perspective," Organization and Environment 13: 123-157
Knuth, Sarah (2016) "Seeing Green in San Francisco: City as Resource Frontier," Antipode 48.3: 626–644
Brechin, Gray (2006) "Preface," "Introduction," and "Ch.1: The Pyramid of Mining" In Imperial San Francisco: Urban Power, Earthly Ruin, pp. xxix-xxxiv, 1-13, 14-70
||Essay Two due Monday, Nov 7
|No class Nov 4: Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning (ACSP) Annual Conference (Portland OR)
Modernism, Modernization & Urban Development: International Perspectives
Holston, James. 1989. The Modernist City: An Anthropological Critique of Brasilia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Comments/links: pp. 41-58 (part of ch2); 74-98 (part of ch3]
alternate version: google book version (limited view)
(see also: Michael Kimmelman, 2005. The Last of the Moderns. The New York Times. May 15.)
Mitchell, Timothy. 2002. Rule of experts: Egypt, techno-politics, modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Comments/links: • ebrary viewer - full text (Chapter 3: The Character of Calculability, pp. 80-119).
Robinson, Jennifer. 2006. Ordinary cities: between modernity and development. London ; New York: Routledge. (Introduction, Chs. 1, 2, 4).
Scott, James. Seeing Like a State (Chapter 3. Authoritarian High Modernism; see also Ch. 2: Cities, People and Language). ebrary viewer - full text
Watson, Vanessa. 2002. The Usefulness of Normative Planning Theories in the Context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Planning Theory 1 (1):27-52.
Perlman, Janice E. 1976. The myth of marginality : urban poverty and politics in Rio de Janeiro. Berkeley: University of California Press. google book version
a selection from Anthony King, such as Spaces of Global Culture, etc.
First Nature, Second Nature -or- the Interaction of Cities and the Natural Environment -or- Urban Infrastructure and the Commodification of Natural Resources (see class blog: urbantheorynature.tumblr.com)
introduction: what is "nature"?
McHarg, Ian L. 1969. Design with nature. Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press. (excerpt: pp. 1-29)
Williams, Raymond. 1980. "Ideas of Nature," in Culture And Materialism: Selected Essays. London: Verso, pp. 67-85.
Cronon, William. 1995. The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature. in William Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, New York: W. W. Norton & Co, 69-90. [link]
water and the city:
Gandy, Matthew. 2002. Concrete and clay : reworking nature in New York City, Urban and industrial environments. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. (Chapter 1: "Water, Space and Power," pp. 19-75) [NOTE: electronic text also available online via UM Library's NetLibrary.] *do also read the very useful introduction.
Karvonen, A. (2011). Politics of urban runoff : nature, technology, and the sustainable city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. (Ch 1- The Dilemma of Water in the City). [ebrary]
Kaika, Maria, and Erik Swyngedouw. "Fetishizing the Modern City: The Phantasmagoria of Urban Technological Networks." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 24, No. 1, March 2000, pp. 120-138.
urban political ecology:
Loftus, Alex. 2014. Everyday Environmentalism : Creating an Urban Political Ecology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012. [ebrary] [chapters: Introduction: Emerging Moments in an Urban Political Ecology; ]
Nik Heynen, and Maria Kaika and Erik Swyngedouw. 2006. "Urban political ecology: politicizing the production of urban natures," in In the nature of cities : urban political ecology and the politics of urban metabolis. Routledge. (Ch. 1, pp. 1-20). [see also google books version]
Corner, James. 2006. Terra Fluxus, in Waldheim, Charles (ed.). Landscape Urbanism Reader. New York, US: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. [ebrary]
Waldheim, Charles. 2006. Landscape Urbanism, in Waldheim, Charles (ed.). Landscape Urbanism Reader. New York, US: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. [ebrary]
Smith, Neil (1990). Uneven Development: Nature, Capital and the Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell. [link] [also on canvas]
Moore, Steven A. (2001) Technology, Place, and the Nonmodern Thesis. Journal of Architectural Education 54(3), pp. 130–139.
Jennifer Wolch. 2007. Green Urban Worlds. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(2), pp. 373–384
Olwig, Kenneth R. "Landscape, Place and the State of Progress," in Progress: Geographical Essays, edited by Robert D. Sack Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2002, pp. 22-60.
Cronon, William. 1991. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. 1st ed. New York: W. W. Norton.[excerpt to be selected] -- or selection from
Beatley, Timothy. (1995) Planning and Sustainability: The Elements of a New (Improved?) Paradigm [link to be added]
Wheeler, Stephen M. (2002) The New Regionalism: Key Characteristics of an Emerging Movement.
Arsenault, Raymond. 1984. The End of the Long Hot Summer: The Air Conditioner and Southern Culture. The Journal of Southern History 50 (4):597-628.
Reisner, M. 1993. Cadillac desert: the American West and its disappearing water. revised ed. New York and London: Penguin Books. [chapter excerpts: "A Semidesert with a Desert Heart" and "A Country of Illusion," pp. 1-51.] (see also google book preview)
Monstadt, J. (2009). Conceptualizing the political ecology of urban infrastructures: insights from technology and urban studies. Environment and Planning A, 41(8), 1924-1942.
Robbins, P. (2011). Critical Introductions to Geography : Political Ecology (2nd Edition). Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons [ebrary]
William Rees and Mathis Wackernagel, "Urban Ecological Footprints: Why Cities Cannot Be Sustainable—And Why They Are A Key to Sustainability", in The Urban Sociology
Reader (2nd edition).
Angelo, H., & Wachsmuth, D. (2014). Urbanizing Urban Political Ecology: A Critique of Methodological Cityism. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. [added 11/12/2014]
|No class Nov 25: Thanksgiving holiday
Turning the Urban Base vs. Cultural Superstructure on its Head: Culture, Urban Politics and the Future
of Social Spaces
readings to be updated.
Sharon Zukin, Whose Culture? Whose City?, in The Urban Sociology
Reader (both 1st and 2nd editions).
Richard Florida, Cities
and the Creative Class, in The Urban Sociology Reader (both 1st and 2nd editions).
Teresa P. R. Caldeira,
Fortified Enclaves: The New Urban Segregation, in The Urban Sociology Reader (both 1st and 2nd editions).
S. E. Merry, Spatial Governmentality and the New Urban Social Order: Controlling Gender Violence through Law, in The Urban Sociology Reader (2nd edition).
Alejandro Portes and Robert D. Manning, The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and Empirical Examples, in The Urban Sociology Reader (2nd edition).
Michael Dear. 2002. Los Angeles and the Chicago School: Invitation to a Debate. City & Community 1(1):5-32, in The Urban Sociology Reader (both 1st and 2nd editions) [also in canvas].
Parker, Simon, Urban Theory and the Urban Experience: Encountering the
City (Routledge). Chs. 7-8.
optional, see also:
Soja, Edward W. 1999. In different spaces: The cultural turn in urban
and regional political economy. European Planning Studies. Abingdon: Feb 1999. Vol. 7,
Iss. 1; p. 65-75. pdf. (also canvas)
Gottdiener, Mark Hutchison, Ray. 2010. New Urban Sociology (4th Edition) . Boulder, CO: Westview Press. [ebrary]
Parker, Simon, Urban
Theory and the Urban Experience: Encountering the City (Routledge).
This last session will provide an opportunity to link common themes from the semester and articulate a set of core questions, principles and debates in urban theory.
TASK: Each student is to come to the session with a one-page handout (bring copies for everyone, please)
that articulates the student's understanding/conceptualization of urban theory. Format is flexible: you can combine text, keywords, questions, illustrations, diagrams, timelines, etc. Be ready to discuss and compare each student's contribution. Creativity and insightfulness welcomed. You might provide a conceptual map of urban theory.
|Essay Three due (Dec 19)
Additional readings may include: Richard Sennett, Neil Smith, Susan Fainstein, Kevin Lynch, Raymond Williams, Alfred Weber,
Losch, Christaller, von Thunen.
UP540 (Planning Theory)
Other Theory Readings of Interest (* indicates
a useful background book to consider reading this summer)
Bridge, Gary, and Sophie Watson. 2000. A companion to the city, Blackwell
companions to geography. Oxford ; Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers.
* Bridge, Gary, and Sophie Watson. 2002. The Blackwell city reader,
Blackwell readers in geography. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.
* Campbell, Scott, and Susan S. Fainstein. 2003. Readings
in Planning Theory. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Certeau, Michel de, Luce Giard, and Pierre Mayol. 1998. The practice of everyday
life. New rev. and augm. ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Cronon, William. 1991. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New
York: W. W. Norton.
Davis, Mike. 1990. City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. New
Davis, Mike. 1998. Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster.
New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt.
Dear, M. J., and J. Dallas Dishman. 2002. From Chicago to L.A. : making sense
of urban theory. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Dear, M. J. 2000. The postmodern urban condition. Oxford, UK ; Malden,
Fainstein, Susan S. 2001. The City Builders: Property Development in New
York and London, 1980-2000. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Press.
Harvey, David. 1996. Justice, Nature and the Geography of Differences. Oxford:
* Fainstein, Susan S., and Scott Campbell, eds.
2001. Readings in Urban Theory. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Fishman, Robert. 1982. Urban utopias in the twentieth century: Ebenezer
Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Le Corbusier MIT Press.
Frisby, David. 1986. Fragments of modernity : theories of modernity in the
work of Simmel, Kracauer, and Benjamin, Studies in contemporary German social
thought. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Frisby, David. 2001. Cityscapes of modernity : critical explorations. Cambridge
; Malden, MA: Polity Press in association with Blackwell.
* Hall, Peter. 2001. Cities of Tomorrow : An Intellectual
History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century. updated ed.
Giddens, Anthony. 1990. The consequences of modernity. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford
Gottdiener, Mark. 1985. The Social Production of Urban Space. Austin: University
of Texas Press.
Harvey, David. 1989. The Condition of Post-Modernity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hayden, Dolores. 2002. Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing,
and Family Life. W.W. Norton & Company
Hubbard, Phil, Rob Kitchin, and Gill Valentine (eds). 2004. Key thinkers on space and place. London; Thousand Oaks: Sage.
* Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of
Great American Cities. New York: Random House.
* Jacobs, Jane. 1969. The Economy of Cities. New York: Vintage Press.
Krugman, Paul. 1997. Development, Geography, and Economic Theory (Ohlin
Series). MIT Press.
Lefebvre, Henri. 1991. Critique of everyday life. London ; New York: Verso.
Lefebvre, Henri. 2003. The urban revolution. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
* Mumford, Lewis. 1961. The City in History.
New York, Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
Lerup, Lars. 2000. After the city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Sandercock, Leonie. 1998. Towards cosmopolis: planning for multicultural
cities. Chichester, New York: John Wiley.
Park, Robert Ezra. 1927. The city. Chicago, Ill.,: The University of Chicago
Rae, Douglas W. 2003. City : urbanism and its end, The Yale ISPS series. New
Haven: Yale University Press.
Rybczynski, Witold. 1995. City life : urban expectations in a new world. New
Sassen, Saskia, ed. 2002. Global Networks, Linked Cities. Routledge.
Saunders, Peter. 1986. Social Theory and the Urban Question. revised ed. New
York: Holmes and Meier.
Scott, Allen J., and Edward W. Soja, eds. 1996. The City: Los Angeles and Urban
Theory at the End of the Twentieth Century. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University
of California Press.
Scott, James C. 1998. Seeing Like a State : How Certain Schemes to Improve
the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Sennett, Richard. 1990. The conscience of the eye : the design and social life
of cities. New York: Knopf.
Short, John R. 2006. Urban theory : a critical assessment. Basingstoke [England] ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Simmel, Georg, and Kurt H. Wolff. 1950. The sociology of Georg Simmel. Glencoe,
Ill.: Free Press.
Smith, Neil. 1990. Uneven Development: Nature, Capital and the Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell.
Smith, Neil. 2003. American empire : Roosevelt's geographer and the prelude
to globalization, California studies in critical human geography ; 9. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Sorkin, Michael. 2002. Variations on a theme park: the new American city
and the end of public space. New York: Hill and Wang. 2nd ed.
Tilly, Charles, and Willem Pieter Blockmans. 1994. Cities and the rise of states
in Europe, A.D. 1000 to 1800. Boulder: Westview Press.
Tuan, Yi-fu. 1977. Space and place : the perspective of experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Ward, Stephen V. 1998. Selling Places : The Marketing and Promotion
of Towns and Cities, 1850-2000. Routledge.
Wirth, Louis. 1964. Louis Wirth on cities and social life; selected papers.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zukin, Sharon. 1995. The Culture of