523: Regional Planning
Prof. Scott Campbell (home page) College of Architecture and Urban Planning University Of Michigan firstname.lastname@example.org office: 2225C A&AB (734) 763-2077 Office hours sign-up • class listserv: email@example.com
image source: NASA Earth Observatory
last modified: Monday, December 28, 2015. (NOTE: please email me if you find broken links. Thank you.)
of Weekly Readings (subject to additions/substitutions)
Location of readings: Books available electronically via ebrary are labeled. If source not listed, the reading is located in the ctools resources folder.
Central Questions for the Course include:
Sep 14: The Impulses for Regional Planning
Katz, Bruce, ed. 2000. Reflections on Regionalism. Washington, DC: Brookings. [ebrary link]
• Introduction: Bruce Katz
• Chapter 1: Henry R. Richmond, "Metropolitan Land-Use Reform: The Promise and Challenge of Majority Consensus"
• Chapter 3: David Rusk, "Growth Management: The Core Regional Issue"
Foster, Kathryn, 1997. "Regional Impulses," Journal of Urban Affairs 19 (4).
Briffault, Richard. 1999. "Localism and Regionalism," Columbia Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Working Paper Group, Paper Number 1.
Seltzer, Ethan, and Armando Carbonell. 2011. Regional planning in America : practice and prospect. Cambridge, Mass.: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. [ebrary]
Sep 16: Challenges and Opposition to Regional Planning
Paul Dimond, "Empowering Families to Vote with Their Feet," in Katz, Bruce, ed. 2000. Reflections on Regionalism. Washington, DC: Brookings. (Chapter 9) [ebrary]
john a. powell , "Addressing Regional Dilemmas for Minority Communities" in Katz, Bruce, ed. 2000. Reflections on Regionalism. Washington, DC: Brookings. (Chapter 8) [ebrary]
Tiebout, C. (1956), "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures", Journal of Political Economy 64 (5): 416–424
Frug, Gerald E. 2002. Beyond Regional Government. Harvard Law Review 115:1763.
[also read -- and add your contribution to -- this google doc collection of arguments for and against regional planning; use your UM login to access]
Sep 21: History of Regional Planning
Friedmann, John and Clyde Weaver. 1979. Territory and Function: The Evolution of Regional Planning. University of California Press. (Part I: Regionalism in America," pp. 21-86)
Robert Fishman , "The Death and Life of American Regional Planning", in Katz, Bruce, ed. 2000. Reflections on Regionalism. Washington, DC: Brookings. (Chapter 4) [ebrary]
Solof, Mark, 1998, "History of Metropolitan Planning Organizations," North Jersey North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority, Inc., Newark, NJ.
Popper, Frank. 1993. "Rethinking Regional Planning," Society, September/October, pp. 46-54.
Markusen, Ann. 1994. American Federalism and Regional Policy. International Regional Science Review 16 (1&2):3-15.
[see also the regional items in this planning history timeline]
Porter, Douglas R., and Allan D. Wallis. 2002. Exploring ad hoc regionalism. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
Friedmann, John and Robin Bloch. 1990. "American exceptionalism in regional planning, 1933-2000," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 14 (4): 576-601.
Sep 23: Megaregions
Ross, Catherine L.(ed.). 2009. Megaregions : Planning for Global Competitiveness. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press. [Introduction, Chs. 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13] [ebrary]
Regional Plan Association. 2006. America 2050: A Prospectus. New York. see also these resources. and this megaregions home page.
The goal of this first assignment is to understand the definition and delineation of a "region." What differentiates a region from a city and from a state? How do ecologic, economic, administrative and social criteria lead to differing boundaries of a region?
The task: select a region (both US and international examples encouraged). (1) Briefly describe this region. (The most common region here may be a metropolitan area of one or more central cities and the hinterlands. But you might also try to map other kinds of regions, e.g., rural regions without central cities; polycentric regions; megaregions; cultural regions; etc.) (2) Then define the approximate boundaries of this region based on one or several different criteria: economic, ecological, and political-administrative (and optionally: statistically and/or socio-culturally). (3) Briefly explain the logic of your criteria. How do the boundaries vary depending on the criteria used? (4) Develop one or multiple maps to illustrate the various boundaries you have defined. (You can draw the maps by hand (and then digitally scan), use a computer program, create a collage, or any other combination of techniques to create your map.) We will review your representations in class. [look at the pdf file of the first day's class lecture -- in ctools -- for examples of regional mapping]
Format: pdf file (ideally landscape format to display in class via projector); include: your name; the name of your region; a brief caption that explains the boundaries and the logic/criteria of your regional boundaries (see above); your map.
What to turn in: Upload your pdf file to google drive folder "up523 Fall 2015 Regional Planning" • Sept 28 Mapping Exercise
Please use the file name: [lastname],up523f15mapping
Deadline: before the start of class on Sept 28.
Background readings and links:
Geddes, Robert . "Metropolis Unbound: The Sprawling American City and the search for Alternatives." The American Prospect, No. 35, November/December 1997, pp. 40-46.
Pastor, Manuel, Jr., Chris Benner, and Martha Matsuoka. 2009. This Could Be the Start of Something Big : How Social Movements for Regional Equity Are Reshaping Metropolitan America. Ithaca, NY, USA: Cornell University Press. (Chs. 1-2) [ebrary]
Metropolitan Council (Twin Cities) and its GIS
The Metropolitan Area Research Corporation (Myron Orfield)
Portland metropolitan government
regional councils of government (including SEMCOG, ABAG, etc.), the National Association of Regional Councils, and the Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations)
states as implicit regional planning agencies (e.g., the New Jersey State Plan).
federal policy as implicit regional planning (e.g., US Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of Transportation)
Isserman, Andrew M. 1993. Lost in Space? On the History, Status, and Future of Regional Science. Review of Regional Studies 23 (1):1-50.
see also readings on The Rise of "New Regionalism"
Wheeler, Stephen. 2002. The new regionalism: Key characteristics of an emerging movement. Journal of the American Planning Association 68, (3): 267.
Brenner, Neil. 2002. Decoding the newest "Metropolitan regionalism" in the USA: A critical overview. Cities: 3-21.
Jonas, Andrew E.G. 2012. Region and place: Regionalism in question. Progress in Human Geography 36(2) 263–272.
Wallis, Allan D. 2010, New Regionalism, in Encyclopedia of Urban Studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Storper, Michael. 1999. The resurgence of regional economics Ten years later. in Gertler, Meric S., and Trevor J. Barnes (eds). 1999. New Industrial Geography : Regions, Regulations and Institutions. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge. [Ch 2] [ebrary]
Sep 30: New York Region (part 1)
G. L. P., Regional Plan of New York and its Environs , Town Planning Review, 15-2 (1932-Nov.) p.123, (author, G. L. P.)
Benjamin, Gerald and Richard P. Nathan. 2001. Regionalism and Realism: A Study of Governments in the New York Metropolitan Area. Washington, DC: Brookings. selections from Chapters 1-6 [ebrary]
Oct 5: New York Region (part 2)
Benjamin, Gerald and Richard P. Nathan. 2001. Regionalism and Realism: A Study of Governments in the New York Metropolitan Area. Washington, DC: Brookings. selections from Chapters 7 - end
Regional Plan Association (RPA). A Region at Risk: (Summary)
The New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan: Executive Summary
Robert Yaro, "Growing and Governing Smart: A Case Study of the New York Region" in Katz, Bruce, ed. 2000. Reflections on Regionalism. Washington, DC: Brookings. [ebrary]
(A) A leitmotif of this course is the advantages of regional coordination and planning to overcome myopic localism, fragmentation and inequality. Yet an apparent subcurrent of Benjamin and Nathan's analysis is the downside of regionalism, and the loss of important local activities when the scale of government gets too large (even when a city itself, such as New York, gets too large). In your essay, articulate and then critique the authors' view of regionalism vs. localism. How does regional governance in the New York region either respect and/or undermine positive local government and governance?
(B) Benjamin and Nathan (2001) note that "equity arguments to promote collaboration -- urging fairness between races and classes -- rarely work" [p. 30]. They go on to argue that "social equity is best advanced as a by-product of regional reform, not as its social focus" [p. 32]. In your essay, examine how the authors use the various case studies in the New York region to support this argument. Do you agree or disagree with their conclusion? Explain why.
(C) The Regional Plan Association has developed four plans for the New York region over the last 90 years, each one reflecting its era's distinctive planning traditions, ideologies and challenges to the region. Select at least two plans and use them as a framework to analyze how the New York region and approaches to regional development have changed over time.
(D) The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is a large and powerful organization that controls key infrastructure and properties at the regional scale. To what extent should it be considered a tacit regional planning authority (by another name)? Discuss to what extent the activities of the Port Authority constitute "regional planning" (which, in turn, requires you to provide a concise set of criteria of what you think regional planning is). Finally, is the PANYNJ a model of regional planning that should (or could) be reproduced in other parts of the US?
Mumford, Lewis. 1932. The Plan of New York. New Republic, 6/15/32, Vol. 71 Issue 915, p121-126.
Meyers, Andrew A. "Invisible Cities: Lewis Mumford, Thomas Adams, and the Invention of the Regional City, 1923-1929." Business and Economic History 27:2 (Winter 1998):292-317.
Regional Plan Association, 1968, The Second Regional Plan, a Draft for Discussion. (26 pages)
Tony Schuman and Elliott Sclar. 1998. New York: RACE, CLASS & SPACE: A Historical Comparison of the Three Regional Plans for New York. Planners Network online. [link]
Background readings [links updated Oct 5, 2015]:
Regional Plan Association • maps & publications • 1929 Plan (vol 1) (vol 2) • "The Region's Growth" (1967) • A Region at Risk: The Third Regional Plan (1996) • The Fourth Regional Plan
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey • history • facilities map
Hudson River greenway
New York Metropolitan Transportation Council and regional links
Museum of the City of New York
North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority Inc. • a history of MPOs (Metropolitan Planning Organizations) NJTPA Quarterly
State of New Jersey: Office for Planning Advocacy (formerly known as the Office of Smart Growth) • research and maps
National Association of Regional Councils
Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs)
Oct 12: The Rise of Chicago and the Region
Cronon, William. 1991. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York: W. W. Norton. [Ch 2, Rails and Water]
Lewis, Robert D. 2003. Chicago Made : Factory Networks in the Industrial Metropolis. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press. [Introduction, Chs. 1-2] [ebrary]
Hunt, D. Bradford, Jon B. DeVries. 2013. Planning Chicago. APA Press. [Ch.1, Introduction]
Commercial Club of Chicago, David Hudson Burnham, Edward H. Bennett, and Charles Moore. 1909. Plan of Chicago. Chicago,: The Commercial Club. [link] • alternative site: Plan of Chicago (1909) "The Burnham Plan" or via the Encyclopedia of Chicago site
Smith, Carl. 2006. Plan of Chicago : Daniel Burnham and the Remaking of the American City. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press. [Ch 9] [ebrary]
CHICAGO METROPOLIS 2020 Preparing Metropolitan Chicago for the 21st Century by Elmer W. Johnson (A project of The Commercial Club of Chicago in association with The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, January 1999)
Metropolis Strategies, Restoring Chicago's Momentum A Regional Agenda for Economic Growth (September 2011).
[see the complete list of publications]
Chicago 2040 Plan (CMAP) • 2040 plan promotional video
Art Institute of Chicago: Chicago Looks Ahead: 100 Years of Planning, 1909–2009 • An Online Exhibition of the Plan of Chicago
Bennett, Larry. 2010. Chicago Visions and Revisions : Third City : Chicago and American Urbanism. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 6: Chicago and American Urbanism) [my apologies: the publisher recently removed this title from ebrary]
Oct 91: No class (UM study break)
Answer ONE of the following questions:
2b. Chicago built and exploited new infrastructures (canals, rail, telegraph, etc.) to place itself at the center (or at least as the gateway) of a massive new economic network (of grain, lumber, meat, etc.). However, Chicago would later lose this advantage of centrality in the trading and processing of the Midwest's natural resources. That decline in Chicago's traditional economic activities might have led to an irreversible decline in the city's economic status. However, Chicago was eventually able (albeit with some painful adjustment and social inequality) to transition into a city with a remarkably diverse and vibrant post-industrial economy with global reach. How did Chicago's late 19th century history as a raw material hub shape its eventual rise as a late 20th century global city?
2c. The RPA created three regional plans for New York (1929, 1960s, 1996; and a fourth plan under development). Chicago has its classic 1909 Burnham plan, and subsequently plans for 2020 and 2040. Contrast each city-region's approach to regional planning (as expressed in their various plans). What differences do you see in the approach in New York vs. Chicago? (Given that each city-region has several regional plans, you certainly do not need to comprehensively examine all of the plans. Instead, pick at least one plan from each region for the comparison).
2d. Compare two or more of the Chicago plans (e.g., 1909, 2020, 2040), examining how differences in the plan reflect larger changes in either the Chicago region and/or in the approach to regional planning, such as regional governance, economics, land use, political culture, sense of place, environmentalism, multiculturalism, social justice, competition from other US and global cities, the perception of Chicago's strengths and vulnerabilities, the relationship between the city and the suburbs, etc.
Background readings and links:
Chicago Imagebase including the animated 1850-1990 growth map • Chicago's Columbian Exposition of 1893 • City of Chicago (official site) • Chicago Historical Society • Chicago Board of Trade • Chicago Mercantile Exchange • Chronological history of Chicago (timeline) • Great Chicago Fire and The Web of Memory• Encyclopedia of Chicago • PBS American Experience Series: Chicago - City of the Century
Lewis, Robert. 2008. Chicago Made: Factory Networks in the Industrial Metropolis. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. [ebrary] (focuses on the metropolitan expansion of Chicago's rapid industrial growth)
Oct 26: Los Angeles
Fulton, William B. 2001. The Reluctant Metropolis: The Politics of Urban Growth in Los Angeles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. [Introduction, Ch 3]
Pastor, Manuel, J. Eugene Grigsby, and Marta Lopez-Garza. 2000. Regions That Work : How Cities and Suburbs Can Grow Together. Minneapolis, MN, USA: University of Minnesota Press. (Chs. 1-3) [ebrary]
Gottlieb, Robert. 2004. Next Los Angeles : The Struggle for a Livable City. Ewing, NJ, USA: University of California Press. [Chs 3, 5] [ebrary]
Gottlieb, Robert. 2007. Reinventing Los Angeles : Nature and Community in the Global City. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.[Chs 1,3] [ebrary]
Pastor, Manuel, Jr., Chris Benner, and Martha Matsuoka. 2009. This Could Be the Start of Something Big : How Social Movements for Regional Equity Are Reshaping Metropolitan America. Ithaca, NY, USA: Cornell University Press. (Ch. 4) [ebrary]
Oct 28: San Francisco Bay Area
Walker, Richard A. 2009. Country in the City : The Greening of the San Francisco Bay Area. Seattle, WA, USA: University of Washington Press.[Introduction, Chs. 1, 2, 5, 6, Conclusion] [ebrary]
Greenbelt Alliance, "At Risk: The Bay Area's Greenbelt" (in their reports section)
Ross, Benjamin. Dead End : Suburban Sprawl and the Rebirth of American Urbanism. Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press, 2014. (Ch. 13: "Breaking New Ground", sections on Portland) [ebrary]
Abbott, Carl;Margheim, Joy. 2008. Imagining Portland's Urban Growth Boundary: Planning Regulation as Cultural Icon. Journal of the American Planning Association; Spring; 74, 2;
Carl Abbott and Margery Post Abbott, A history of Metro,( May 1991) [link through the Metro site]
Ozawa, Connie P. 2004. Portland Edge : Challenges in Growing Communities. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press.[Introduction, Chs 1, 2, 8, 11] [my apologies: this text was unexpectedly removed from the ebrary site] [limited google view]
Stephenson, R Bruce. 1999. A vision of green: Lewis Mumford's legacy in Portland, Oregon Journal of the American Planning Association; Summer; 65, 3.
Metro (Portland regional government) • maps • mission • urban growth boundary (UGB) • UGB map
National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, and Science and Technology for Sustainability Program. Pathways to Urban Sustainability : Perspective from Portland and the Pacific Northwest: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press, 2014. (Ch. 2: Sustainability in the region) [ebrary]
Montgomery, Carleton K., ed. Regional Planning for a Sustainable America : How Creative Programs Are Promoting Prosperity and Saving the Environment. Piscataway, NJ, USA: Rutgers University Press, 2011. [ebrary] (see Ch. 1: "Regional Growth Management in the Portland Metropolitan Area").
Seltzer, Ethan, and Carbonell, Armando, eds. Regional Planning in America : Practice and Prospect. Cambridge, MA, USA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2011. [ebrary] (esp. Chapter 7: "Regional Planning for Sustainability and Hegemony of Metropolitan Regionalism", sections on Portland).
Background readings and links:
Travis, William R. 2007. New Geographies of the American West : Land Use and the Changing Patterns of Place. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.[ebrary]
Abbot, Carl. 2010. How Cities Won the West : Four Centuries of Urban Change in Western North America. Albuquerque, NM, USA: University of New Mexico Press.[ebrary]
Southern California Compass (public participation to shape the region's future growth)
Los Angeles Government Sources (CSUN Library)
Southern California Association of Governments • "Regional Comprehensive Plan" • "Global Gateway Regions" • Interactive Atlas
South Bay Cities Council of Governments • Westside Cities Council of Governments • Gateway Cities Council of Governments •
Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies (UCLA)
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority • rail map • bus map
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
South Coast Air Quality Management District
Paper 3 due Nov 9
Answer ONE of the following questions:
(a) Can one speak of a "West Coast Regionalism"? Do the patterns and politics of regionalism along the Pacific Coast differ in substantive ways from the regionalism found in eastern and Midwestern metropolitan areas? If so, what might explain these differences?
(b) Pick two of the three West Coast metro areas (Los Angeles, San Francisco and/or Portland) and compare the central challenges and policies of regional planning and coordination. What factors might explain the critical similarities or differences?
(c) Compare Portland's Metro (and its urban growth boundary) and California's SB 375 implementation (either statewide or within one MPO) as two different efforts to reduce the environmental consequences of metropolitan sprawl.
(d) Portland has been celebrated as an unusually successful example of effective American regional planning. Can the Portland model be exported to other metro areas in the U.S.? Or does the Portland region have exceptional characteristics (size, geography, demographics, culture, politics, history, etc.) that make it a "one off" case?
Nov 9: Ecoregions
Seltzer, E., & Carbonell, A. (2011). Regional planning in America : practice and prospect. Cambridge, Mass.: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. (Chs 2, 6).[ebrary]
Sale, Kirkpatrick. 2001. "There's no place like home..." The Ecologist: 31 (2): 40-43.
Hiss, Tony. 1990. The Experience of Place: A new way of looking at and dealing with out radically changing cities and countryside. New York: Vintage. (Chapter 9, "Thinking Regionally," pp. 194-220.)
Thayer, Robert L. 2003. Life-Place : Bioregional Thought and Practice. Ewing, NJ, USA: University of California Press. (Ch. 7: Planning: Designing a Life-Place) [ebrary]
Anderson, Larry. 2002. Benton MacKaye : Conservationist, Planner, and Creator of the Appalachian Trail. Baltimore, MD, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Chs. 1, 8-11). [ebrary]
Bailey, Robert G.. Ecoregion-Based Design for Sustainability. Secaucus, NJ, USA: Springer, 2002. [ebrary]
Nov 11: Sprawl, Suburban Retrofitting and Designing the Region
Saunders, William. 2005. Sprawl and Suburbia : A Harvard Design Magazine Reader. Minneapolis, MN, USA: University of Minnesota Press, 2005. (selected chapters: 1. Ellen Dunham- Jones, Seventy- five Percent: The Next Big Architectural Project; 4. Matthew J. Kiefer, Suburbia and Its Discontents: Notes from the Sprawl Debate; 5. Alex Krieger, The Costs— and Benefits?— of Sprawl; 6. Ellen Dunham- Jones, Smart Growth in Atlanta: A Response to Krieger and Kiefer [ebrary]
Calthorpe, Peter. 2010. Urbanism in the Age of Climate Change. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press. (Ch. 5: The Urban Footprint and Ch. 8: Four American Futures) [ebrary]
Lindenmayer, David B., and Joem Fischer. 2006. Habitat Fragmentation and Landscape Change : An Ecological and Conservation Synthesis. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press. (Chapter 4: Approaches to Achieving Habitat Connectivity) [ebrary]
Hilty, Jodi A., Lidicker, William Z., and Merenlender, Adina M., eds. Corridor Ecology : The Science and Practice of Linking Landscapes for Biodiversity Conservation. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press, 2006. [ebrary]
Lang, Robert. Edgeless Cities : Exploring the Elusive Metropolis. Washington, DC, USA: Brookings Institution Press, 2003. [ebrary]
Hellmund, Paul Cawood, and Daniel Smith. 2006. Designing Greenways : Sustainable Landscapes for Nature and People. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press (Chs. 1, 2) .[ebrary] [no longer on ebrary]
Calthorpe, Peter, and William Fulton. 2001. Regional City : New Urbanism and the End of Sprawl. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press. (Chs. 1, 3, Conclusion) [ebrary] [no longer on ebrary]
Erickson, Donna. 2006. MetroGreen : Connecting Open Space in North American Cities. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press (Ch. 1 Connected Open Space: The Metropolitan Scale) .[ebrary]
Nov 16: Water: The River Basin as Region
Reisner, M. 1993. Cadillac desert: the American West and its disappearing water. revised ed. New York and London: Penguin Books. (Introduction & Ch. 1, pp. 1-51)
Mullin, Megan. 2009. Governing the Tap : Special District Governance and the New Local Politics of Water. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press. (Ch. 1) [ebrary]
Abbot, Carl. How Cities Won the West : Four Centuries of Urban Change in Western North America. Albuquerque, NM, USA: University of New Mexico Press, 2010. (Ch. 9: Water, Power, Progress). [ebrary]
Gottlieb, Robert. Reinventing Los Angeles : Nature and Community in the Global City. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 2007. (Ch. 3: Water for the City) [ebrary]
Summit, April. Contested Waters : An Environmental History of the Colorado River. Boulder, CO, USA: University Press of Colorado, 2013. [ebrary]
Aton, James M.. John Wesley Powell : His Life and Legacy. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: University of Utah Press, 2006. [ebrary]
Mulholland, Catherine. William Mulholland and the Rise of Los Angeles. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press, 2002. [ebrary]
Annin, Peter. 2006. Great Lakes Water Wars. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press. (Ch. 1) [ebrary] [no longer on ebrary]
Answer ONE of the following questions:
(a) Water, Regions and Sustainability: The path towards more sustainable communities arguably requires changes in ways that regions extract, use, distribute and conserve natural resources: air, land, energy, minerals, flora, fauna, water, etc. Examine the distinctiveness of water as a natural resource and the resulting form/dynamics of water resource policies and politics/conflicts. That is, how is water different from other natural resources, and what implications do these specific characteristics of water resources have on shaping a sustainable water resource strategy at the regional level?
(b) Benjamin and Nathan (2001) argued that equity arguments for regional planning rarely work. Can the same be said about environmental protection arguments? Consider the range of examples from this module's readings: to what extent have environmental concerns been effective in promoting regional planning and building powerful regional coalitions? And are all regional environmental arguments equally effective (or ineffective), or is there variation (e.g., habitat preservation vs. watershed protection vs. public health concerns vs. open space as amenity, etc.)?
(c) One argument made by some ecoregionalists is that a region should live within its means (e.g., minimize imports/exports of natural resources across regional boundaries). Examine the logic of this argument (made either implicitly or explicitly in the readings). How might this argument vary for different kinds of natural resources (e.g., water, energy, food)?
(d) The compact cities debate: The current state of thinking about the relationship between urban form and sustainability can be confusing. Are compact cities really more environmentally friendly? Referring to class readings (and, optionally, selected other readings), distill the central areas of agreement and controversy. What claims are best supported by the evidence, and what claims are the weakest? Explain the difference. (Where useful, distinguish between the different approaches used to evaluate the compact cities/sustainability relationship: e.g., before-after studies, large-scale statistical modeling, simulation, logic, ideology, the example of one or several case studies, etc.). In the end, under what circumstances should planners pursue the compact city as a path towards regional sustainability?
Background readings and links: [links to be updated]
Fregonese Calthorpe Associates
the Planet Drum Foundation
the Sierra Club ecoregions
regional wildlife corridors (e.g., a GIS example from Montana and corridor design)
riverbasin-based identity (such as an envisioned Hudson River greenway from Manhattan to Albany)
greenbelts (e.g., the Greenbelt Alliance in San Francisco, Frankfurt, Vienna)
Campbell, Scott. 1992. "Integrating Economic and Environmental Planning: The Regional Perspective," pdf
the fall issue of Boom: A Journal of California is a special issue on California water, Owens Valley, Los Angeles, and the LA Aqueduct [link]
Water Education Foundation: Where does my water come from?
The Nature Conservancy: Water Map
Montgomery, C. K. (Ed.) (2011). Regional Planning for a Sustainable America : How Creative Programs Are Promoting Prosperity and Saving the Environment. Piscataway, NJ, USA: Rutgers University Press. [ebrary]
Nov 23: Atlanta: the Medium-Size City at the Center of an Extra Large Region
Etienne, Harley F., and Barbara Faga. 2014. Planning Atlanta. Chicago: American Planning Assoc., Planners Press. [selected chapters in ctools: Ch. 14: Catherine Ross, "Regional Growth, Transportation, and Congestion: The Atlanta Problem,"Jennifer Clark, Ch. 20: "Rethinking Atlanta's Regional Resilience in an Age of Uncertainty: Still the Economic Engine of the South?"]
Basmajian, Carlton Wade. 2013. Atlanta unbound : enabling sprawl through policy and planning., Philadelphia: Temple University Press. [selected chapters: Ch 1: Introduction, publisher's link; Ch. 7: A Regional Story in ctools]
Atlanta Regional Commission: Plan 2040 • Framework Document [Note: the ARC is the 18-county MPO]
Georgia Tech, Center for Quality Growth and Regional Development (CQGRD)
Vollmer, Derek. 2011. Pathways to Urban Sustainability : Lessons from the Atlanta Metropolitan Region: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press. [ebrary]
Catherine L. Ross, Jason Barringer, and Adjo A. Amekudzi. 2009. Mobility in the Megaregion, in Ross, Catherine L.(ed.). 2009. Megaregions : Planning for Global Competitiveness. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press (Chapter 8, pp. 140-165). [ebrary]
Georgia Regional Transportation Authority (GRTA)
Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA)
Atlanta Beltline • overview
Barrow, Heather B. 2004. "'The American Disease of Growth': Henry Ford and the Metropolitanization of Detroit, 1920 - 1940." In Manufacturing Suburbs : Building Work and Home on the Metropolitan Fringe, edited by Robert Lewis. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. [ebrary]
Sugrue, Thomas J. 1998. The Origins of the Urban Crisis. Princeton: Princeton Univ Press. [excerpt: chapter 5]
Galster, George. 2012. [Metropolitan Portraits] Driving Detroit: The Quest for Respect in the Motor City. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press. (Ch. 10. "What Drives Detroiters?" and Ch. 11. "From Motown to Mortropolis"; see also Ch. 2: "Sculpting Detroit: Polity and Economy Trump Geology") [ebrary]
Maynard, Micheline. 2004. The end of Detroit : how the Big Three lost their grip on the American car market. New York: Currency/Doubleday. [browse the book contents for one perspective on the US auto industry] [ebrary]
"The Developing Urban Detroit Area" (on the Doxiadis 1965 plan) • Doxiadis Plans Detroit•
lecture by Prof. Robert Fishman, Detroit and the Acceleration of History
short news clip, "Regional Transit Authority of Southeast Michigan seeks public input for master transit plan"
SEMCOG • Detroit Water and Sewerage Department
Detroit Metropolitan Area Regional Planning Commission papers (online historical copies)
Detroit Economic Growth Corporation
Detroit Regional Chamber
Detroit Future City
Metro Matters (formerly the Michigan Suburban Alliance)
Regional Transit Authority of Southeast Michigan
Friends of the Detroit River
Huron-Clinton Metroparks • map
Moses: Metropolitan Organizing Strategy Enabling Strength
source: China Briefing, "Jing-Jin-Ji: The Biggest City in China You've Probably Never Heard Of" July 11, 2014.
This module addresses three themes: (A) the impact of globalization on metropolitan/regional development (including the rise of "global city-regions"); and (B) the role of regional planning outside the United States; (C) patterns of "new regionalism"
Nov 30: Globalization's Impact on Regional Planning and Development (including the rise of "global city-regions) in the US and Asia
Scott, Allen. 'Globalization and the Rise of City-Regions' GaWC Research Bulletin 26 (Z). html
Sugden, R. and J.R. Wilson. 'Globalisation, the New Economy and Regionalisation' GaWC Research Bulletin 70 (A) html
Scott, Allen J., John Agnew, Edward W. Soja, and Michael Storper. 1999. "Global City-Regions." (Conference Theme Paper). Global City-Regions Conference, UCLA.
Dec 2: European Integration and regional development
Klaus Kunzmann. 2006. The Europeanization of Spatial Planning, in Adams, Neil (Editor). Regional Development and Spatial Planning in an Enlarged European Union. Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Ashgate Publishing Group. (Chapter 3) [ebrary]
Taylor, P.J. 'Regionality within Globalization: What Does it Mean for Europe?'GaWC Research Bulletin 35 (Z) html
Krätke, S. The Metropolization of the European Urban and Regional System GaWC Research Bulletin 193 html
Albrechts, Louis, Patsy Healey, Klaus R Kunzmann. 2003. Strategic spatial planning and regional governance in Europe. Journal of the American Planning Association.Vol.69, Iss. 2 (Spring): 113 - 129
Faludi, Andrea, "The Megalopolis, the Blue Banana, and Global Economic Integration Zones in European Planning Thought," in Ross, Catherine L.(ed.). 2009. Megaregions : Planning for Global Competitiveness. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press. [ebrary]
Amin, Ash and Nigel Thrift. 1999. Institutional issues for the European regions From markets and plans to socioeconomics and powers of association. in Gertler, Meric S., and Trevor J. Barnes (eds). 1999. New Industrial Geography : Regions, Regulations and Institutions. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge. [selected chapters] [ebrary]
Otgaar, Alexander, Leo Van Den Berg, and Jan Van Der Meer. 2008. Empowering Metropolitan Regions Through New Forms of Cooperation : Cross-Border and Cross-Sector Partnerships in European Regions. Abingdon, Oxon, , GBR: Ashgate Publishing Group.[selected chapters] [ebrary]
Bvrzel, Tanja. 2001. States and Regions in the European Union : Institutional Adaptation in Germany and Spain. West Nyack, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. [selected chapters] [ebrary]
Dec 7: Rise of Asian Megacities/Megaregions
Sassen, Saskia. 2009. The Global City Perspective: Theoretical Implications for Shanghai. in Shanghai Rising : State Power and Local Transformations in a Global Megacity. (Chen, Xiangming , editor). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. [Ch. 1] [ebrary]
Yang, Jiawen. Spatial Planning in Asia: Planning and Developing Megacities and Megaregions, in Ross, Catherine L.(ed.). 2009. Megaregions : Planning for Global Competitiveness. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press. [ebrary]
Wong, C., Qian, H., & Zhou, K. (2008). In search of regional planning in china: The case of jiangsu and the yangtze delta. The Town Planning Review, 79(2), 295-329.
Xu, J. (2008). Governing city-regions in china: Theoretical issues and perspectives for regional strategic planning. The Town Planning Review, 79(2), 157-185.
Yeh, Anthony G.O., and Xu, Jiang. China's Pan-Pearl River Delta : Regional Cooperation and Development. Hong Kong, HKG: Hong Kong University Press, 2010. [ebrary]
Scott, James W. 2009. Systemic Transformation and the Implementation of New Regionalist Paradigms: experiences of central Europe and la tin am erica, in Scott, James W. (Editor). De-Coding New Regionalism : Shifting Socio-Political Contexts in Central Europe and Latin America. Abingdon, Oxon, , GBR: Ashgate Publishing Group. [chapter 2] [ebrary]
Fujita, Masahisa, Paul Krugman, and Anthony J. Venables. 1999. Spatial Economy : Cities, Regions and International Trade. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press. [ebrary]
Knox, Paul L. 2008. Metroburbia, USA. New Brunswick, NJ, USA: Rutgers University Press. [ebrary]
New Regional Development Paradigms Vol. 2 : New Regions - Concepts, Issues & Practices. 2001. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press. [ebrary]
Mani, Devyani. 2001. New Regional Development Paradigms Vol. 3 : Decentralization, Governance & the New Planning for Local-Level Development. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press. [ebrary]
Sassen, Saskia, Novel Spatial Formats: Megaregions and Global Intercity Geographies, in Ross, Catherine L.(ed.). 2009. Megaregions : Planning for Global Competitiveness. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press. [ebrary]
additional background readings
Storper, Michael. 1997. The Regional World: Territorial Development in a Global Economy. New York: Guilford Press. (excerpt: Chapter 8, "The Regional World: Territorial Development in a Global Economy", pp. 195-220).
Scott, Allen, ed. 2001. Global City-Regions: Trends Theory, Prospects. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. (introduction)
Stren, Richard. 2001. Local Governance and Social Diversity in the Developing World: New Challenges for Globalizing City-Regions. In Global City-Regions: Trends Theory, Prospects. edited by A. Scott. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Markusen, Ann and Karen Chapple. 2001. "High-Tech and I-Tech: How Metros Rank and Specialize" html | pdf
Arndt, Michael ; Thomas Gawron; Petra Jahnke. 2000. Regional policy through co-operation: From urban forum to urban network. Urban Studies; Vo. 37 (11): 1903 - 1923.
Two Dragon Heads : Contrasting Development Paths for Beijing and Shanghai. 2009. Herndon, VA, USA: World Bank Publications. [selected chapters] [ebrary]
Answer ONE of the following questions:
(a) This course has focused on examples of U.S. regional planning and metropolitan politics. As a result, readings have emphasized city-suburban inequality, especially along racial lines; the relative lack of formal, comprehensive regional planning institutions; the resistance of local home rule to regionalism; school funding gaps between city and suburb; the tensions between economic, environmental and social equity priorities in a region; and the importance of semi-autonomous regional authorities / special purpose districts. In a comparative international perspective, answer one of the following (interrelated) questions: (a) to what extent are these problems universal themes of regional planning or instead specific to the American context? (b) What kinds of regional development / regional planning issues arise that are NOT part of the prevailing regional planning discussions in the United States? (In answering the question, you may find it useful to use a specific example of regional planning/development outside the U.S.)
(b) Looking backwards, the industrial revolution fundamentally reconfigured the structure of metropolitan regions and the relationship between city and hinterland within the region. Looking forward, to what extent can one connect the current processes of globalization to the changing social, political, economic and/or physical structure of metropolitan regions? Discuss how regionalists can use concepts and insights from the globalization literature to understand the new American region and where it is headed in the future.
(c) Can you identity one or more models, ideas and/or institutions from international regional planning experiences that might be useful to apply to the American context? Explain why, and how such international practices might need to be adapted or altered to fit into the American context.
(d) A common refrain is that the relative lack of regional planning in the United States is an example of American exceptionalism. Referring to one or more countries outside the U.S., to what extent is this assertion true?
This last session will provide an opportunity to link common themes from the presentations and develop a set of principles for good regional planning and governance.
TASK: Each student is to come to class with a one-page sheet (with enough copies for the class) of 5-7 lessons / principles about regional planning and development. (Format: a numbered list; each lesson / principle should be one or several sentences long.) If useful, you might also include a map, diagram, or illustration.