523: Regional Planning
Prof. Scott Campbell (home page) College of Architecture and Urban Planning University Of Michigan email@example.com office: 2225C A&AB (734) 763-2077 Office hours sign-up • class listserv: firstname.lastname@example.org
image source: NASA Earth Observatory
last modified: Sunday, August 16, 2015. (NOTE: please email me if you find broken links. Thank you.)
Summer 2015 note: Feel free to email me with any questions about the course. Students from other programs (such as architecture, SNRE, public policy, business, social work, etc.) are encouraged to participate.
of Weekly Readings (subject to additions/substitutions)
Location of readings: Books available electronically via ebrary are labeled. If source not listed, the reading is located in the ctools resources folder.
Central Questions for the Course include:
Sep 14: The Impulses for Regional Planning
Katz, Bruce, ed. 2000. Reflections on Regionalism. Washington, DC: Brookings. [ebrary link]
• Introduction: Bruce Katz
• Chapter 1: Henry R. Richmond, "Metropolitan Land-Use Reform: The Promise and Challenge of Majority Consensus"
• Chapter 3: David Rusk, "Growth Management: The Core Regional Issue"
Foster, Kathryn, 1997. "Regional Impulses," Journal of Urban Affairs 19 (4).
Briffault, Richard. 1999. "Localism and Regionalism," Columbia Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Working Paper Group, Paper Number 1.
Seltzer, Ethan, and Armando Carbonell. 2011. Regional planning in America : practice and prospect. Cambridge, Mass.: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. [ebrary]
Sep 16: Challenges and Opposition to Regional Planning
Paul Dimond, "Empowering Families to Vote with Their Feet," in Katz, Bruce, ed. 2000. Reflections on Regionalism. Washington, DC: Brookings. (Chapter 9) [ebrary]
john a. powell , "Addressing Regional Dilemmas for Minority Communities" in Katz, Bruce, ed. 2000. Reflections on Regionalism. Washington, DC: Brookings. (Chapter 8) [ebrary]
Tiebout, C. (1956), "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures", Journal of Political Economy 64 (5): 416–424
Frug, Gerald E. 2002. Beyond Regional Government. Harvard Law Review 115:1763.
[also read -- and add your contribution to -- this google doc collection of arguments for and against regional planning; use your UM login to access]
Sep 21: History of Regional Planning
Friedmann, John and Clyde Weaver. 1979. Territory and Function: The Evolution of Regional Planning. University of California Press. (Part I: Regionalism in America," pp. 21-86)
Robert Fishman , "The Death and Life of American Regional Planning", in Katz, Bruce, ed. 2000. Reflections on Regionalism. Washington, DC: Brookings. (Chapter 4) [ebrary]
Solof, Mark, 1998, "History of Metropolitan Planning Organizations," North Jersey North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority, Inc., Newark, NJ.
Popper, Frank. 1993. "Rethinking Regional Planning," Society, September/October, pp. 46-54.
Markusen, Ann. 1994. American Federalism and Regional Policy. International Regional Science Review 16 (1&2):3-15.
[see also the regional items in this planning history timeline]
Friedmann, John and Robin Bloch. 1990. "American exceptionalism in regional planning, 1933-2000," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 14 (4): 576-601.
Sep 23: Megaregions
Ross, Catherine L.(ed.). 2009. Megaregions : Planning for Global Competitiveness. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press. [Introduction, Chs. 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13] [ebrary]
Regional Plan Association. 2006. America 2050: A Prospectus. New York. see also these resources. and this megaregions home page.
The goal of this first assignment is to understand the definition and delineation of a "region." What differentiates a region from a city and from a state? How do ecologic, economic, administrative and social criteria lead to differing boundaries of a region?
The task: select a region (both US and international examples encouraged). (1) Briefly describe this region. (The most common region here may be a metropolitan area of one or more central cities and the hinterlands. But you might also try to map other kinds of regions, e.g., rural regions without central cities; polycentric regions; megaregions; cultural regions; etc.) (2) Then define the approximate boundaries of this region based on one or several different criteria: economic, ecological, and political-administrative (and optionally: statistically and/or socio-culturally). (3) Briefly explain the logic of your criteria. How do the boundaries vary depending on the criteria used? (4) Develop one or multiple maps to illustrate the various boundaries you have defined. (You can draw the maps by hand (and then digitally scan), use a computer program, create a collage, or any other combination of techniques to create your map.) We will review your representations in class. [look at the pdf file of the first day's class lecture -- in ctools -- for examples of regional mapping]
Format: pdf file (ideally landscape format to display in class via projector); include: your name; the name of your region; a brief caption that explains the boundaries and the logic/criteria of your regional boundaries (see above); your map.
What to turn in: Upload your pdf file to google drive folder "up523 Fall 2015 Regional Planning" [link to be added] (Only class members have access to this folder.)
Deadline: before the start of class on Sept 28.
Background readings and links:
Geddes, Robert . "Metropolis Unbound: The Sprawling American City and the search for Alternatives." The American Prospect, No. 35, November/December 1997, pp. 40-46.
Pastor, Manuel, Jr., Chris Benner, and Martha Matsuoka. 2009. This Could Be the Start of Something Big : How Social Movements for Regional Equity Are Reshaping Metropolitan America. Ithaca, NY, USA: Cornell University Press. (Chs. 1-2) [ebrary]
Metropolitan Council (Twin Cities) and its GIS
The Metropolitan Area Research Corporation (Myron Orfield)
Portland metropolitan government
regional councils of government (including SEMCOG, ABAG, etc.), the National Association of Regional Councils, and the Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations)
states as implicit regional planning agencies (e.g., the New Jersey State Plan).
federal policy as implicit regional planning (e.g., US Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of Transportation)
Isserman, Andrew M. 1993. Lost in Space? On the History, Status, and Future of Regional Science. Review of Regional Studies 23 (1):1-50.
see also readings on The Rise of "New Regionalism"
Wheeler, Stephen. 2002. The new regionalism: Key characteristics of an emerging movement. Journal of the American Planning Association 68, (3): 267.
Brenner, Neil. 2002. Decoding the newest "Metropolitan regionalism" in the USA: A critical overview. Cities: 3-21.
Jonas, Andrew E.G. 2012. Region and place: Regionalism in question. Progress in Human Geography 36(2) 263–272.
Wallis, Allan D. 2010, New Regionalism, in Encyclopedia of Urban Studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Storper, Michael. 1999. The resurgence of regional economics Ten years later. in Gertler, Meric S., and Trevor J. Barnes (eds). 1999. New Industrial Geography : Regions, Regulations and Institutions. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge. [Ch 2] [ebrary]
Sep 30: New York Region (part 1)
G. L. P., Regional Plan of New York and its Environs , Town Planning Review, 15-2 (1932-Nov.) p.123, (author, G. L. P.)
Benjamin, Gerald and Richard P. Nathan. 2001. Regionalism and Realism: A Study of Governments in the New York Metropolitan Area. Washington, DC: Brookings. selections from Chapters 1-6 [ebrary]
Oct 5: New York Region (part 2)
Benjamin, Gerald and Richard P. Nathan. 2001. Regionalism and Realism: A Study of Governments in the New York Metropolitan Area. Washington, DC: Brookings. selections from Chapters 7 - end
Regional Plan Association (RPA). A Region at Risk: (Summary)
The New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan: Executive Summary
Robert Yaro, "Growing and Governing Smart: A Case Study of the New York Region" in Katz, Bruce, ed. 2000. Reflections on Regionalism. Washington, DC: Brookings. [ebrary]
Mumford, Lewis. 1932. The Plan of New York. New Republic, 6/15/32, Vol. 71 Issue 915, p121-126.
Meyers, Andrew A. "Invisible Cities: Lewis Mumford, Thomas Adams, and the Invention of the Regional City, 1923-1929." Business and Economic History 27:2 (Winter 1998):292-317.
Regional Plan Association, 1968, The Second Regional Plan, a Draft for Discussion. (26 pages)
Tony Schuman and Elliott Sclar. 1998. New York: RACE, CLASS & SPACE: A Historical Comparison of the Three Regional Plans for New York. Planners Network online. [link]
Background readings and links:
Regional Plan Association • maps • publications • 1929 Plan (vol 1) (vol 2) • "The Region's Growth" (1967) • A Region at Risk: The Third Regional Plan (1996)
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey • history • facilities map
Hudson River greenway
New York Metropolitan Transportation Council and regional links
Museum of the City of New York
North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority Inc. • a history of MPOs (Metropolitan Planning Organizations) NJTPA Quarterly
State of New Jersey: Office of Smart Growth • maps
National Association of Regional Councils
Oct 12: The Rise of Chicago and the Region
Cronon, William. 1991. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York: W. W. Norton. [Ch 2, Rails and Water]
Lewis, Robert D. 2003. Chicago Made : Factory Networks in the Industrial Metropolis. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press. [Introduction, Chs. 1-2] [ebrary]
Hunt, D. Bradford, Jon B. DeVries. 2013. Planning Chicago. APA Press. [Ch.1, Introduction]
Commercial Club of Chicago, David Hudson Burnham, Edward H. Bennett, and Charles Moore. 1909. Plan of Chicago. Chicago,: The Commercial Club. [link] • alternative site: Plan of Chicago (1909) "The Burnham Plan"
Smith, Carl. 2006. Plan of Chicago : Daniel Burnham and the Remaking of the American City. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press. [Ch 9] [ebrary]
The Burnham Plan Centennial
Oct 14: Chicago (Part 2)
Bennett, Larry. 2010. Chicago Visions and Revisions : Third City : Chicago and American Urbanism. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 6: Chicago and American Urbanism) [ebrary]
The Metropolis Plan (2020) • Technical reports
CMAP: "Go To 2040" Plan • 2040 plan promotional video
Art Institute of Chicago: Chicago Looks Ahead: 100 Years of Planning, 1909–2009 • An Online Exhibition of the Plan of Chicago
Oct 91: No class (UM study break)
Background readings and links:
Chicago Imagebase including the animated 1850-1990 growth map • Chicago's Columbian Exposition of 1893 • City of Chicago (official site) • Chicago Historical Society • Chicago Board of Trade • Chicago Mercantile Exchange • Chronological history of Chicago (timeline) • Great Chicago Fire and The Web of Memory• Encyclopedia of Chicago • PBS American Experience Series: Chicago - City of the Century
Lewis, Robert. 2008. Chicago Made: Factory Networks in the Industrial Metropolis. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. [ebrary] (focuses on the metropolitan expansion of Chicago's rapid industrial growth)
Oct 26: Los Angeles
Fulton, William B. 2001. The Reluctant Metropolis: The Politics of Urban Growth in Los Angeles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. [Introduction, Ch 3]
Pastor, Manuel, J. Eugene Grigsby, and Marta Lopez-Garza. 2000. Regions That Work : How Cities and Suburbs Can Grow Together. Minneapolis, MN, USA: University of Minnesota Press. (Chs. 1-3) [ebrary]
Gottlieb, Robert. 2004. Next Los Angeles : The Struggle for a Livable City. Ewing, NJ, USA: University of California Press. [Chs 3, 5] [ebrary]
Gottlieb, Robert. 2007. Reinventing Los Angeles : Nature and Community in the Global City. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.[Chs 1,3] [ebrary]
Pastor, Manuel, Jr., Chris Benner, and Martha Matsuoka. 2009. This Could Be the Start of Something Big : How Social Movements for Regional Equity Are Reshaping Metropolitan America. Ithaca, NY, USA: Cornell University Press. (Ch. 4) [ebrary]
Oct 28: San Francisco Bay Area
Walker, Richard A. 2009. Country in the City : The Greening of the San Francisco Bay Area. Seattle, WA, USA: University of Washington Press.[Introduction, Chs. 1, 2, 5, 6, Conclusion] [ebrary]
Greenbelt Alliance, "At Risk: The Bay Area's Greenbelt" (in their reports section)
Nov 2: Portland (and the Urban Growth Boundary)
Ozawa, Connie P. 2004. Portland Edge : Challenges in Growing Communities. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press.[Introduction, Chs 1, 2, 8, 11] [ebrary]
Stephenson, R Bruce. 1999. A vision of green: Lewis Mumford's legacy in Portland, Oregon Journal of the American Planning Association; Summer; 65, 3.
Abbott, Carl;Margheim, Joy. 2008. Imagining Portland's Urban Growth Boundary: Planning Regulation as Cultural Icon. Journal of the American Planning Association; Spring; 74, 2;
Carl Abbott and Margery Post Abbott, A history of Metro,( May 1991) [link through the Metro site]
Metro (Portland regional government) • maps • mission • timeline/history • urban growth boundary (UGB) • UGB map
Background readings and links:
Travis, William R. 2007. New Geographies of the American West : Land Use and the Changing Patterns of Place. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.[ebrary]
Abbot, Carl. 2010. How Cities Won the West : Four Centuries of Urban Change in Western North America. Albuquerque, NM, USA: University of New Mexico Press.[ebrary]
Southern California Compass (public participation to shape the region's future growth)
Los Angeles Government Sources (CSUN Library)
Southern California Association of Governments • "Regional Comprehensive Plan" • "Global Gateway Regions" • Interactive Atlas
South Bay Cities Council of Governments • Westside Cities Council of Governments • Gateway Cities Council of Governments •
Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies (UCLA)
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority • rail map • bus map
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
South Coast Air Quality Management District
Response Paper 3 due Nov 9
Nov 9: Ecoregions
Sale, Kirkpatrick. 2001. "There's no place like home..." The Ecologist: 31 (2): 40-43.
Hiss, Tony. 1990. The Experience of Place: A new way of looking at and dealing with out radically changing cities and countryside. New York: Vintage. (Chapter 9, "Thinking Regionally," pp. 194-220.)
Thayer, Robert L. 2003. Life-Place : Bioregional Thought and Practice. Ewing, NJ, USA: University of California Press. (Ch. 7: Planning: Designing a Life-Place) [ebrary]
Anderson, Larry. 2002. Benton MacKaye : Conservationist, Planner, and Creator of the Appalachian Trail. Baltimore, MD, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Chs. 1, 8-11). [ebrary]
Nov 11: Designing the "The Regional City"
Calthorpe, Peter, and William Fulton. 2001. Regional City : New Urbanism and the End of Sprawl. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press. (Chs. 1, 3, Conclusion) [ebrary]
Erickson, Donna. 2006. MetroGreen : Connecting Open Space in North American Cities. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press (Ch. 1 Connected Open Space: The Metropolitan Scale) .[ebrary]
Hellmund, Paul Cawood, and Daniel Smith. 2006. Designing Greenways : Sustainable Landscapes for Nature and People. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press (Chs. 1, 2) .[ebrary]
Lindenmayer, David B., and Joem Fischer. 2006. Habitat Fragmentation and Landscape Change : An Ecological and Conservation Synthesis. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press. [ebrary]
Saunders, William. 2005. Sprawl and Suburbia : A Harvard Design Magazine Reader. Minneapolis, MN, USA: University of Minnesota Press. [ebrary]
Bailey, Robert G. 2002. Ecoregion-Based Design for Sustainability. Secaucus, NJ, USA: Springer. [ebrary]
Nov 16: Water: The River Basin as Region
Reisner, M. 1993. Cadillac desert: the American West and its disappearing water. revised ed. New York and London: Penguin Books. (Introduction & Ch. 1, pp. 1-51)
Annin, Peter. 2006. Great Lakes Water Wars. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press. (Ch. 1) [ebrary]
Mullin, Megan. 2009. Governing the Tap : Special District Governance and the New Local Politics of Water. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press. (Ch. 1) [ebrary]
Background readings and links: [links to be updated]
Fregonese Calthorpe Associates
the Planet Drum Foundation
the Sierra Club ecoregions
regional wildlife corridors (e.g., a GIS example from Montana and corridor design)
riverbasin-based identity (such as an envisioned Hudson River greenway from Manhattan to Albany)
greenbelts (e.g., the Greenbelt Alliance in San Francisco, Frankfurt, Vienna)
Campbell, Scott. 1992. "Integrating Economic and Environmental Planning: The Regional Perspective," pdf
the fall issue of Boom: A Journal of California is a special issue on California water, Owens Valley, Los Angeles, and the LA Aqueduct [link]
Etienne, Harley F., and Barbara Faga. 2014. Planning Atlanta. Chicago: American Planning Assoc., Planners Press
Basmajian, Carlton Wade. 2013. Atlanta unbound : enabling sprawl through policy and planning., Philadelphia: Temple University Press. [publisher's link to introduction]
Barrow, Heather B. 2004. "'The American Disease of Growth': Henry Ford and the Metropolitanization of Detroit, 1920 - 1940." In Manufacturing Suburbs : Building Work and Home on the Metropolitan Fringe, edited by Robert Lewis. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. [ebrary]
Sugrue, Thomas J. 1998. The Origins of the Urban Crisis. Princeton: Princeton Univ Press. [excerpt: chapter 5]
Galster, George. 2012. [Metropolitan Portraits] Driving Detroit: The Quest for Respect in the Motor City. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press. (Ch. 10. "What Drives Detroiters?" and Ch. 11. "From Motown to Mortropolis"; see also Ch. 2: "Sculpting Detroit: Polity and Economy Trump Geology") [ebrary]
Maynard, Micheline. 2004. The end of Detroit : how the Big Three lost their grip on the American car market. New York: Currency/Doubleday. [browse the book contents for one perspective on the US auto industry] [ebrary]
SEMCOG • Detroit Water and Sewerage Department •Detroit Metropolitan Area Regional Planning Commission papers (online historical copies) • a summary of the 1960s Doxiadis Associates plan for Detroit
Detroit Economic Growth Corporation • Detroit Regional Chamber • City of Detroit: Local Economic Development Division
Detroit Works Project • the Framework • The Economic Growth Element: The Equitable City
source: China Briefing, "Jing-Jin-Ji: The Biggest City in China You've Probably Never Heard Of" July 11, 2014.
This module addresses three themes: (A) the impact of globalization on metropolitan/regional development (including the rise of "global city-regions"); and (B) the role of regional planning outside the United States; (C) patterns of "new regionalism"
Nov 30: Globalization's Impact on Regional Planning and Development (including the rise of "global city-regions) in the US and Asia
Scott, Allen. 'Globalization and the Rise of City-Regions' GaWC Research Bulletin 26 (Z). html
Sugden, R. and J.R. Wilson. 'Globalisation, the New Economy and Regionalisation' GaWC Research Bulletin 70 (A) html
Scott, Allen J., John Agnew, Edward W. Soja, and Michael Storper. 1999. "Global City-Regions." (Conference Theme Paper). Global City-Regions Conference, UCLA.
Dec 2: European Integration and regional development
Klaus Kunzmann. 2006. The Europeanization of Spatial Planning, in Adams, Neil (Editor). Regional Development and Spatial Planning in an Enlarged European Union. Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Ashgate Publishing Group. (Chapter 3) [ebrary]
Taylor, P.J. 'Regionality within Globalization: What Does it Mean for Europe?'GaWC Research Bulletin 35 (Z) html
Krätke, S. The Metropolization of the European Urban and Regional System GaWC Research Bulletin 193 html
Albrechts, Louis, Patsy Healey, Klaus R Kunzmann. 2003. Strategic spatial planning and regional governance in Europe. Journal of the American Planning Association.Vol.69, Iss. 2 (Spring): 113 - 129
Faludi, Andrea, "The Megalopolis, the Blue Banana, and Global Economic Integration Zones in European Planning Thought," in Ross, Catherine L.(ed.). 2009. Megaregions : Planning for Global Competitiveness. Covelo, CA, USA: Island Press. [ebrary]
Amin, Ash and Nigel Thrift. 1999. Institutional issues for the European regions From markets and plans to socioeconomics and powers of association. in Gertler, Meric S., and Trevor J. Barnes (eds). 1999. New Industrial Geography : Regions, Regulations and Institutions. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge. [selected chapters] [ebrary]
Otgaar, Alexander, Leo Van Den Berg, and Jan Van Der Meer. 2008. Empowering Metropolitan Regions Through New Forms of Cooperation : Cross-Border and Cross-Sector Partnerships in European Regions. Abingdon, Oxon, , GBR: Ashgate Publishing Group.[selected chapters] [ebrary]
Bvrzel, Tanja. 2001. States and Regions in the European Union : Institutional Adaptation in Germany and Spain. West Nyack, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. [selected chapters] [ebrary]
Dec 7: Rise of Asian Megacities/Megaregions
Sassen, Saskia. 2009. The Global City Perspective: Theoretical Implications for Shanghai. in Shanghai Rising : State Power and Local Transformations in a Global Megacity. (Chen, Xiangming , editor). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. [Ch. 1] [ebrary]
[more readings to be added]
Scott, James W. 2009. Systemic Transformation and the Implementation of New Regionalist Paradigms: experiences of central Europe and la tin am erica, in Scott, James W. (Editor). De-Coding New Regionalism : Shifting Socio-Political Contexts in Central Europe and Latin America. Abingdon, Oxon, , GBR: Ashgate Publishing Group. [chapter 2] [ebrary]
Fujita, Masahisa, Paul Krugman, and Anthony J. Venables. 1999. Spatial Economy : Cities, Regions and International Trade. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press. [ebrary]
Knox, Paul L. 2008. Metroburbia, USA. New Brunswick, NJ, USA: Rutgers University Press. [ebrary]
New Regional Development Paradigms Vol. 2 : New Regions - Concepts, Issues & Practices. 2001. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press. [ebrary]
Mani, Devyani. 2001. New Regional Development Paradigms Vol. 3 : Decentralization, Governance & the New Planning for Local-Level Development. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press. [ebrary]
additional background readings
Storper, Michael. 1997. The Regional World: Territorial Development in a Global Economy. New York: Guilford Press. (excerpt: Chapter 8, "The Regional World: Territorial Development in a Global Economy", pp. 195-220).
Scott, Allen, ed. 2001. Global City-Regions: Trends Theory, Prospects. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. (introduction)
Stren, Richard. 2001. Local Governance and Social Diversity in the Developing World: New Challenges for Globalizing City-Regions. In Global City-Regions: Trends Theory, Prospects. edited by A. Scott. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Markusen, Ann and Karen Chapple. 2001. "High-Tech and I-Tech: How Metros Rank and Specialize" html | pdf
Arndt, Michael ; Thomas Gawron; Petra Jahnke. 2000. Regional policy through co-operation: From urban forum to urban network. Urban Studies; Vo. 37 (11): 1903 - 1923.
Two Dragon Heads : Contrasting Development Paths for Beijing and Shanghai. 2009. Herndon, VA, USA: World Bank Publications. [selected chapters] [ebrary]
This last session will provide an opportunity to link common themes from the presentations and develop a set of principles for good regional planning and governance.
TASK: Each student is to come to class with a one-page sheet (with enough copies for the class) of 5-7 lessons / principles about regional planning and development. (Format: a numbered list; each lesson / principle should be one or several sentences long.) If useful, you might also include a map, diagram, or illustration.