University of Michigan 
UP504 •
Common Terms and Concepts used in Urban Planning Methods


aggregation vs. disaggregation 
ANOVA 
asymptote 
basic vs. applied research 
basic/nonbasic employment 
beta weights 
bias 
binomial distribution 
bivariate 
calibration and prediction 
case study research 
causation 
census 
Central Limit Theorem 
chisquare 
cluster analysis 
clustered vs. stratified sampling 
coefficient and constant of regression 
cohort data 
cohort survival method 
compound growth 
concept vs. measure 
confidence interval 
constant vs. current dollars 
control variable 
correlation 
correlation coefficients 
costbenefit analysis (including giving value to nonpriced items; e.g., cultural and environmental resources) 
critical path and slack time 
critical region 
crosstabulations 
descriptive vs. inferential statistics 
dichotomous variables 
difference of means test 
difference of proportions test 
discount rate and interest rate 
dummy variable 
ecological fallacy 
economic base multiplier 
empirical 
employment impact estimation 
establishment vs. household 
establishment vs. industry 
experimental method 
explanatory variable 
exploratory research 
extrapolation 
Fscore 
factor 
factor analysis 
falsification 
forecasting 
generalization (statistical vs. analytical) 
gravity models 
Heisenberg Principle 
homoscedasticity vs. heteroscedasticity 
hypothesis (null hypothesis and research hypothesis) 
hypothesis testing 
indicator 
inductive vs. deductive 
industry vs. occupation 
inferential statistics 
inputoutput analysis 
intermediate vs. final demand 
interpolation 
level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval variables) 
life tables 
"linear" and nonlinear relationships 
linear vs. exponential model 
location quotients 
logistic curve 
logistic model 
logs and exponents 
longitudinal vs. crosssectional data 
matrix 
mean, median, mode 
measurement error 
measures of association 
method vs. methodology 
migration (direct and indirect measures) 
multicollinearity 
multiplier 
multivariate 
mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories 
necessary vs. sufficient 
net present value (NPV) 
normal curve 
normative (vs. positive) statements 
null hypothesis 
outlier 
panel data 
paradigm 
parameter 
parametric vs. nonparametric 
partial correlation 
path analysis 
population 
prediction 
primary vs. secondary data 
probability 
program evaluation 
qualitative research 
quasiexperimental 
questionnaire design (open vs. closedended) 
Rsquare 
random sampling 
random vs. systematic error 
regression analysis (bivariate and multiple) 
regression coefficients 
reliability 
replication 
risk assessment (risk vs. uncertainty) 
sample size 
sampling 
sampling distribution 
sampling frame vs. sample 
scatterplot/scattergram 
scientific method 
shiftshare analysis 
SIC codes 
simple random sampling 
simulation modeling 
spurious vs. intervening relationships 
standard deviation 
standard error 
standard score 
statistical significance 
strength of the relationship 
structure vs. agency 
symmetrical vs. asymmetrical relationship between variables 
systematic random sampling 
t vs. z distribution 
tscore 
test of significance 
trend analysis 
U.S. Census geography 
unit of analysis 
univariate 
validity 
variable 
variance 
variation 

