Methods: Prior to main study, a pilot study was conducted with 95 Kuwaiti girls at 10 year-old. In addition to questionnaires, body measurements and vital signs, an unstimulated saliva sample collected. Saliva samples were centrifuged and supernatants were collected and frozen until analysis. Luminex 100 was used to analyze salivary levels of insulin, leptin and myeloperoxidase (MPO) as the potential markers of metabolic syndrome.
Results: Salivary levels of insulin, leptin and myeloperoxidase were within our measurement capability. The mean salivary insulin, leptin and MPO levels were 2,120 ± 677 mg/dl, 4,535 ± 439 mg/dl, and 20,883 ± 8,635 mg/dl, respectively. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between salivary insulin and leptin levels (r=0.23; p=0.03). Most importantly, an acute phase enzyme, which was shown to be highly correlated with C-reactive protein and increased cardiovascular risk, was found in high levels in 25% of children and was significantly correlated with elevated blood pressure (r=0.26; p=0.01).
Conclusion: Salivary analysis by multiplex methods could be an important tool in evaluating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lipids and hormones that could be predictive of metabolic syndrome in children. An array of inflammatory analytes and hormones will be further evaluated in the larger study.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Children, Diabetes, Inflammatory mediators and Saliva
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