Methods: In this study, a total of 252 patients (140 female, 112 male) from a dental school were enrolled. Selection criteria included at least 10 remaining teeth, general health and an age between 30-82 years (mean age: 52.8 years). The dental examination included: number of missing teeth, endodontic treatment, type of restorations, caries frequency, oral hygiene (API) and periodontal disease (SBI, probing depth). Further, dental panoramic radiographs (OPTG) were taken. The dental examination was carried out only after the positive consent of the regional ethic commission. The patients answered a questionnaire on their education level, household income and BMI. For statistical analysis the Mann-Whitney-U-Test and the Kruskal-Wallis-Test were carried out.
Results: Patients with a low education level showed a poor oral hygiene (p<0.0018), high probing depth (p<0.0001) and more missing teeth (p< 0001). The choice of restoration material was not influenced by the social status. Gender specific differences could only be found for amalgam fillings (p<0.004). The income of the patients influenced oral hygiene techniques (p<0.0005), the restoration materials (p<0.039), however not the number of missing teeth (p<0.0769) or the probing depth (p<0.4849). The BMI influenced oral hygiene techniques; the probing depth and the number of missing teeth were not affected.
Conclusions: The present study was able to prove that the education level has the most significant effect on oral health, while household income, gender and BMI play a subsidiary role.
Keywords: Caries, Diet, Oral hygiene and Periodontal disease