Methods: Fertile eggs were incubated for 18hrs and Hanks-buffered saline solution(HBSS), ethanol(in HBSS), or retinoic acid(RA;in ethanol+HBSS) was injected directly into the yolk. Embryos were allowed to develop to either Hamburger & Hamilton stage 31(~day 7;n≥10 per condition) or HH41(~day 15;n≥12 per condition) and the heads were imaged via optical and X-ray-based tomography, respectively. 3D landmark coordinates were captured and analyzed by geometric morphometric tools(Principal Component Analysis;paired t-test,p≤0.05), and Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis(SHAPE procedure;90% confidence interval(CI)).
Results: Chick embryos exposed to ethanol showed, as expected, significant changes (90% CI) involving the maxilla but not the mandible. Significantly, many of the midfacial changes were prevented by RA supplementation.
Conclusions: Alcohol-induced craniofacial changes in the chick were prevented by low-level supplementation with RA. Identification of dietary factors that counteract the effects of teratogens on midface dysmorphism could lead to recommendations for optimal nutrition prior to and during pregnancy. (Supported by UWSOD Alumni Association)
Keywords: Diet, Embryology, Nutrition and Teratology, Craniofacial
See more of: AADR/Johnson & Johnson Oral Health Products Hatton Awards