Lecture Materials, UP402
(as a supplement to, not a replacement for, in-class material.)

Week 1--Coordinate Systems
• Introductions; project interests.
• Website and syllabus
• Biosketches:  include background project interests.
• Latitude and Longitude
• chalkboard explanation
• link to brief explanatory material
• GIS maps
• Lab--set up website, discuss project interests.

Week 2--Coloring
• Coloring of maps;
• Choropleth maps; Color; Grayscale;  Four Color Theorem  (choosing numbers of colors)
• Given that no more than four colors are ever needed to color a map in the plane, why should a GIS have so many choices for color?
• Choropleth maps with many ranges need a variety of colors
• Ranges need to make sense so that changes in data intensity are reflected in changes in color intensity
• Grayscale and color, this parallelism about data and color intensity is critical
• Four colors are sufficient to color any map in the plane; one never needs more than four.  Thus, when choosing coloring schemes, bear this fact in mind and have a rationale for color selection based on the underlying known theorem about coloring.  One such good rationale is offered above, involving choropleth maps.

• Open research questions:  coloring issues with different forms of polygon adjacency; coloring on different surfaces (some solved earlier--extra reading:  Page 4.  Page 5. Page 6.Page 7. Six color map; link to site with movie of seven color map).  We may return to these later when we discuss map transformations of various sorts.
Lab:  websites and projects

Week 3--Applications
• Tie to lecture from last week:  Möbius strip map in the world of art:  David Barr's Four Corners Project.
• The problem:  lop four corners off a tetrahedron and use as the four corners of a tetrahedron inscribed in the Earth (with all corners on land).
• The field work
• The map
• The extended problems
• Tie to setting up projects and the acquisition of initial information:  The international scene:  Syria and Pakistan.  (From the CSF website archive.)
• Syria
• Pakistan

Week 4--Ties to previous topics

Week 5--More Ties to previous topics...
• How can you tell the inside from the outside--(the Mobius strip was a one-sided surface...)  Jordan Curve Theorem; implications for mapping.
• The Jordan Curve Theorem:
• permits correct assignment of addresses on either side of streets--suppose that the path is composed of two squares touching at a point.  When the path is separated into two squares, a consistent assignment procedure for addressing may be given.  If the squares were not split apart, then the set of addresses would be misallocated, at least in part.  One must have the Jordan Curve Theorem built into the software if geocoding is to work on matched addresses.
• permits visually appropriate coloring of polygons
• illustrates the need to split complex curves apart at nodes where the curve crosses itself in order to ensure that the two properties above will hold on maps.  This fact is important in digitizing (and elsewhere).
• Defining regions in the absence of regional information:  making something from nothing--as in the case last week with the surrogate variable of 1995 data to mimick migration patterns?  (All three cases below use ESRI software, ArcView3.2 with Spatial Analyst Extension, 3D Analyst Extension; also Animal Movement extension from the Alaska Biological Center, and Xtools from Oregon Forestry).
• Spider diagrams:  one way of defining regions in the absence of regional information.
• Thiessen polygons:  another way of defining regions in the absence of regional information
• Contours:  Partitioning the plane in various ways (level curves of a surface--but hard to find--requires knowing an equation for the volume).
Other ways, we have seen, to make maps come alive:  animation--brings temporal and spatial elements together.  Use of Adobe ImageReady.

Week 6.  Getting information into usable form.
• ArcView comes with an onboard information systems:  base maps and databases.
• Transform other situations to the one above:
• Bring in new data
• work in Excel, save the file as a .dbf, use the "join" feature in ArcView
• work in ArcView, add a field or more, use the "field calculator"
• Bring in new maps--scan them; digitize them from scanned images.  Put information in a "new theme" and remember to update the area...
• Point data
• drawing points in a new layer:  useful for updating files or adding a small amount of information--optimizes user control
• adding points as an Event Theme:  useful for creating new files from gps data or web data with large numbers of points--computer benefit optimized
• Line data
• find contours elsewhere (as in Digital Chart of the World or elsewhere)
• digitize contours:  sample.
• Areas
• finding files elsewhere (as from the U.S. Bureau of the Census)
• digitizing regions:  sample
• splitting polygons

Fall Study Break, Monday and Tuesday, Oct. 13 and 14.  I will be in my office all day for office hours (on Monday).  Class as usual on Wednesday, October 15.

Week 7.  Trouble shooting...

1.  ArcView
a.  Set working directory
b.  Convert files to shape files if they do not come as shape files
c.  Save the .apr file to the working directory
d.  Move all the files in the working directory.  The .apr file is a template that reaches for the shape files and the associated indexing and datbase files.  The .apr file saves the colors and so forth.  If you run the .apr file on a path different from the one you created it in, you will have to "locate" the .shp files and the .dbf files with the new path, as prompted when trying to load the .apr file.  (More advanced users can use Notepad to open the .apr and use search and replace to alter the path quickly.)
2.  Webpages
a.  Be sure to upload images along with pages
b.  Check pages on both networked and stand alone computers
c.  If images don't show, check path and check spelling (upper/lower case)
3.  PhotoShop
a.  transparency
b.  layers

Week 8.  No Quiz; party afterwards at Sandy's home.
Midterm Presentations:
salinay, Daniel Slosberg
hharriet, Harriet Hamilton
ppolansk, Paul Polanski
spschult, Steve Schultz
szukaiti, Scott Szukaitis
waltona, Andrew Walton
mbunce, Melanie Bunce
racheleg, Rachel Green
smichejd, Steve Michejda
ncrobins, Nicole Robinson
carowest, Carolyn Westbrooks
whiner, Stephanie Givinsky
lroumell, Loren Roumell
schwarmi, Michael Schwartz
looseg, Geoffrey Loose
ebeckett, Eric Beckett

Weeks 9 and 10.
• Map projection:  the goal is to send each point on the globe-sphere to a unique point in the plane:  a one-to-one transformation.
• Stereographic projection--trapped in Euclidean geometry.
• The One-point Compactification Theorem (blackboard demonstration): shows that the skin of a spherical globe cannot be perfectly flattened into the plane; it fails to do so by at least one point. Thus, there can be no perfect map in the plane:  the stated goal cannot be attained.
• Open questions:  geographic maps in the non-Euclidean world.
• Map projection as a transformation:  Thompson's fish--classification schemes are not unique, either.  There is an infinite number of them (Tobler, Map Transformations of Geographic Space).
• Color, extrusion, and use of GIS to move from 2D to 3D.
• check to see that both the Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst extensions are enabled
• Go to View|3DScene|Themes
• Go to Theme|3DProperties
• In the extrude section, hit the calculator button and choose "height"
• Go back to the extrude section and multiply "height"*5, to exaggerate the vertical component--or click on "vertical exaggeration" in the "properties" menu.
• Use the various buttons to move the Scene around--rotate it, zoom in and out:  left-click and drag--rotate; right-click and drag--zoom in and out;  both-click and drag--pan.
• Export to vrml and put on a website:  load Netscape plug-in to view--free from, http://www.cai.com/cosmo/html/win95nt.htm
• and also look at a website from UM College of Engineering Virtual Reality Lab to see other projects and student projects from Eng 477 (Prof. Peter Beier).
Real-world application--project making alternative scenarios for City of Ann Arbor regarding maximum height in the downtown.

Weeks 11 and 12.

Week 13.  No class, Thanksgiving recess begins at 5:00p.m.

Week 14.

Week 15.  Final Presentations
salinay, Daniel Slosberg
hharriet, Harriet Hamilton
ppolansk, Paul Polanski
spschult, Steve Schultz
szukaiti, Scott Szukaitis
waltona, Andrew Walton
mbunce, Melanie Bunce