GIS Analysis of Cayhuamarca Period Fortifications in the Santa Valley, Peru
= Settlements, color graded by population size 

= Fortifications

Map Showing Distribution of Settlements and Fortifications within the Santa Valley, Cayhuamarca Period
The Cayhuamarca Period in the Santa Valley first witnessed the emergence of fortifications. In fact, out of the 54 sites surveyed, 21 (nearly 40%) were defensive sites. Compared to later phases, the Cayhuamarca Period has the highest percentage of fortifications in comparison to other site types. It could be surmised that warfare played an important role in the everday lives of the prehistoric Santa populations.

Map Showing 2-km Radius of Defense Coverage Provided by Fortifications