Another Tale of Two Cities*
Neighborhood Watch:  from Ann Arbor to Baghdad

Sandra L. Arlinghaus
Fall, 2007

Throughout the site, move the pointer over maps and timelines to find links to nested timelines and image maps.
Ann Arbor's Tale
Neighborhood Watch:  Global Context
"The basic concept of neighbors watching out for one another is the theme that carries across the world...the difference is how do we carry it out."  ElAyoubi, November 14, 2007.
  • Link to audio file of oral history, Adele ElAyoubi, Crime Prevention Specialist and Crime Analyst, City of Ann Arbor Police Department and recent (2002-2003) Past President, International Society of Crime Prevention Practitioners.
  • Google Earth:  load the linked .kmz files into Google Earth.
    • Use maps and aerials to track crime patterns over space and time.
    • Digitized police districts coupled with the kmz file above permit regional analysis of crime patterns over time, as do overlays of neighborhood association maps.
  • Actors associated with Neighborhood Watch.

1954--Supreme Court rules on the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas.
1955--Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., is instrumental in leading the responsive bus boycott.
1957--Martin Luther King, Charles K. Steele, and Fred L. Shuttlesworth establish the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. King becomes its first president. 
1960--The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is founded at Shaw University. The SNCC grows into a more radical organization (Stokely Carmichael)
1961--Freedom riders" test new laws regarding interstate travel are attacked by angry mobs along the way.
1962--James Meredith is the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.  President Kennedy sends 5,000 federal troops to quell the ensuing violence..
1963--200,000 people join the March on Washington Martin Luther King delivers "I Have a Dream" speech.  Listen to archived material and read associated material.
1964--The 24th Amendment abolishes the poll tax that makes it difficult for poor blacks to vote. Democratic National Convention  President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964
1965--Malcolm X, black nationalist and founder of the Organization of Afro-American Unity, shot to death. Watts race riots.  President Johnson issues affirmative action order.
1966--Black Panthers founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale.
1967--Major race riots take place in Detroit (July 23 to July 30).  Major race riots in Newark (July 12 to16).
1968--Martin Luther King, at age 39, is shot.  President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing. 
1971--The Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upholds busing as a means for integration of public schools.
1988--Overriding President Reagan's veto, Congress passes the Civil Rights Restoration Act.
1991--After two years of debates, vetoes, and threatened vetoes, President Bush reverses himself and signs the Civil Rights Act of 1991.
1992--The first race riots in decades erupt in south-central Los Angeles after a jury acquits four white police officers for the videotaped beating of African American Rodney King.
2001--World Trade Center and other bombings, September 11.
2003--Bakke case, the Supreme Court  upholds the University of Michigan Law School's policy, ruling that race can be one of many factors considered in admissions..
2005--Rosa Parks dies at age 92. 2006--Coretta Scott King dies of a stroke at age 78.
2007--Emmett Till's 1955 murder case, reopened by the Department of Justice in 2004, is officially closed.  Other cases are also closed as perpetrators are ill or dead. 

Baghdad's Tale

Neighborhood Watch:  Global Context
  • Link to "Alive in Baghdad" movie, released following an event in September, 2006.
  • Google Earth:  load the linked .kmz files into Google Earth.
    • Map of Baghdad Neighborhooods overlain on Google Earth terrain
    • Map showing outline of Baghdad Neighborhoods on Google Earth terrain; follow links to associated New York Times discussions from Actors holding various positions.
  • Actors associated with Neighborhood Watch.

1972--Iraq nationalizes the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC).
1974--Iraq grants limited autonomy to Kurds. KDP rejects that autonomy
1975--Iraq and Iran sign treaty, at an OPEC meeting in Algiers, to end border disputes.
1979--Vice-President Saddam Hussein succeeds resigning President Al-Bakr
1980--Attack on Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz claimed by pro-Iranians.  Iraq considers shelling of border towns by Iran as beginning of Iran/Iraq war.
1981--Israel attacks a nuclear research center near Baghdad.
1988--Iraq may have used chemical weapons in the Kurdish town of Halabjah.  Ceasefire in Iran/Iraq war; monitored by UN Military Observer Group.
1990--Iraq invades Kuwait, is condemned by UN; Iraq announces merger of Iraq and Kuwait.
1991--Operation Desert Storm; the beginning of the Persian Gulf War.  Liberation of Kuwait.  Terms of ceasefire accepted by Iraq.
1992--No-fly zone south of 32 degrees south latitude; Iraqi planes not allowed to enter.
1993--US launches a cruise missle attack on Iraqi intelligence headquarters in Baghdad in retaliation for assassination attempt on President Bush.
1994--Saddam Hussein becomes Prime Minister of Iraq.
1995--Oil for Food Programme resumes under UNSC Resolution 986.  Referendum allows Hussein to remain President for seven years more.
1996--US extends no-fly zone to 33 degrees N, just to the south of Baghdad.  Uday, Saddam's eldest son is seriously wounded in Baghdad.
1998--Operation Desert Fox launched to destroy Iraq's biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons programs.
1999--UNSC Resolution 1284 establishes the UN Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission.  Iraq rejects the resolution.
2001--Bombing raids by U.S. and Britain in an effort to diaable the Iraqi air defense network.
2002--U.S. President Bush tells UN General Assembly session to confront the "grave and gathering danger" of Iraq--or stand aside as the U.S. acts.
2003--UN chief weapons inspector Hans Blix reports that Iraq has accelerated its cooperation but says weapons inspectors need more time to verify compliance.
2004--Hundreds reported killed in US siege of Sunni Muslim city of Falluja. LANDMARK EVENT:   Neighborhood Watch program established in Baghdad..
2005--Surge in car bombings, explosions, and shootings.  New constitution approved by voters to create an Islamic federal democracy.
2006--Bomb attack on important Shia shrine in Samarra.  Wave of violence follows.  Hussein sentenced to death and hanged.
2007--Violence continues; April 18, bombings in Baghdad are worst in recent memory.

Sandra Lach Arlinghaus, Fall 2007.
*Reference to and quotations from A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens.
Ann Arbor, 40 Years Ann Arbor, 40 Years Ann Arbor, 40 Years