Figure 1: A visual timeline showing the regnal dates of various rulers. Green indicates `Abbasid caliphs; yellow and orange indicate Tulunid governors; and red indicates al-Muwaffaq's unofficial reign.
253 - Wasif killed by rebellious Turkish troops.
258 - Ja`far (al-Mufawwad) made apangist over Egypt.
265 - Ahmad ibn Tulun leads first campaign in Syria, seeking allegiance from Syrian military governors.
266 - First Tulunid gold dinars minted at Misr (Fustat).
267 - Tulunid coins minted at al-Rafiqa.
269 - ibn Tulun leads a failed military expedition to control Mecca and Medina and a a second campaign in Syria. Ahmad ibn Tulun appeals to religious authorities. Khumarawayh named heir apparent. Tulunid mint begins producing coins in Damascus.
270 - Khumarawayh succeeds his father. Tulunid military and administrative officials defect and the `Abbasids stage a military attack against Tulunid Syria.
274 - Tulunid mint begins production of coins at Hims.
276 - Tulunid mints begin production of coins at Harran and Antakiyya.
277 - Tulunids take control over Tarsus. Tulunid mint begins production at Filastin (al-Ramla). Tulunid minting ends at Harran.
278 - al-Muwaffaq dies. Tulunid minting ends at al-Rafiqa.
282 - Khumarawayh is assassinated. He is succeeded by his son Jaysh.