Click here for link to timeline of Tulunid numismatics.

Figure 1: A visual timeline showing the regnal dates of various rulers. Green indicates `Abbasid caliphs; yellow and orange indicate Tulunid governors; and red indicates al-Muwaffaq's unofficial reign.

251 - The Caliph al-Musta`in abdicates and goes into exile under the guard of Ahmad ibn Tulun.

252 - Reign of the Caliph al-Mu`tazz begins.

253 - Wasif killed by rebellious Turkish troops.

254 - Ahmad ibn Tulun sent as resident governor over Egypt.

255 - al-Mu`tazz is deposed and dies of ill-treatment.

256 - al-Mu`tamid summons al-Muwaffaq from Mecca to suppress the Zandj uprisings.

257 - ibn Tulun gains control over Egypt's financial administration and expands his control over Alexandria and Barka. First Tulunid coins minted at Misr (Fustat).

258 - Ja`far (al-Mufawwad) made apangist over Egypt.

259 -

260 -

261 - al-Mu`tamid announces succession arragnement in which Ja`far ibn al-Mu`tamid al-Mufawwad and al-Muwaffaq were to split the empire.

262 -

263 - ibn Tulun sends a letter to al-Muwaffaq declaring that he has no formal jurisdiction over Egypt. al-Muwaffaq orders a failed excursion against the Tulunids.

264 - Ahmad ibn Tulun is encouraged to occupy Syria and uses the context of the defense of the Byzantine frontier to justify his actions.

265 - Ahmad ibn Tulun leads first campaign in Syria, seeking allegiance from Syrian military governors.

266 - First Tulunid gold dinars minted at Misr (Fustat).

267 - Tulunid coins minted at al-Rafiqa.

268 -

269 - ibn Tulun leads a failed military expedition to control Mecca and Medina and a a second campaign in Syria. Ahmad ibn Tulun appeals to religious authorities. Khumarawayh named heir apparent. Tulunid mint begins producing coins in Damascus.

270 - Khumarawayh succeeds his father. Tulunid military and administrative officials defect and the `Abbasids stage a military attack against Tulunid Syria.

271 - Battle of the Mills (al-Tawahin) in which Khumarawayh faced off against Ahmad ibn al-Muwaffaq in southern Palestine.

272 -

273 - Treaty between Khumarawayh and al-Muwaffaq recognizes formal Tulunid control over Egypt and regions of Syria for a thirty-year period.

274 - Tulunid mint begins production of coins at Hims.

275 -

276 - Tulunid mints begin production of coins at Harran and Antakiyya.

277 - Tulunids take control over Tarsus. Tulunid mint begins production at Filastin (al-Ramla). Tulunid minting ends at Harran.

278 - al-Muwaffaq dies. Tulunid minting ends at al-Rafiqa.

279 - al-Mu`tamid dies. al-Mu`tadid succeeds to the Caliphate, confirms previous treaty with al-Muwaffaq. Tulunid minting begins at Halab, ends at Antakiyya.

280 -

281 -

282 - Khumarawayh is assassinated. He is succeeded by his son Jaysh.