Professor Raymond Tanter, email@example.com
Political Science Department
The University of Michigan (734) 763-2221 (o); (734) 764-3522 (fax)
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~rtanter Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1045
Political Science 353, firstname.lastname@example.org
Tuesday, Thursday: 1100-1200
1360 East Hall
Arab-Israeli Conflict Background Books Grading
January February March April
Arab-Israeli Conflict Homepage Conferencing on the Web
Just as the East West Cold War ended, the era of hot wars in the Arab-Israeli conflict is coming to a close. Cold peace among peoples rather than hot wars among states characterizes the region as the Millennium approaches. Wars between Israel and Arab countries over the existence of a Jewish state are giving way to disputes between Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs about the creation of a Palestinian state.
This class discusses the historical background of the Arab-Zionist dispute, interim and final status issues in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, outstanding questions in the Israel-Syria peace process, links between the Arab-Israel zone and the Arab/Persian Gulf region, the expanding role of religion in the Middle East, and the post-Cold War evolution of terrorism and proliferation.
With respect to religion, strife between Islamists (radical Muslims) and secular actors is at the core of new conflicts in the area. Similarly, disputes between zealous Jews and secular Jews divide the State of Israel. As Muslim and Jewish ideologues are increasingly at odds with secular parties in Arab entities and in Israel, these zealots are a fit subject for study.
The class ends with a discussion of the post-Cold War phenomena of "rogue actors," those that engage in international terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
Lecture notes address the political history of the conflicts from the perspective of social science theory. Discussions offer students a forum for debating the relationship between theoretical ideas and historical events.
A computer conference (ps-353-w99) provides students a forum for discussing current issues in the peace process. See COW help page on the homepage for instructions on how to subscribe and use COW. Participation in COW is a course requirement.
Core ideas include crisis as an opportunity for diplomacy; bargaining and negotiation strategies; global, regional, and domestic factors that explain conflict and cooperation; security dilemmas; deterrence failure; overestimation of threat; miscalculated escalation; loss of control as a bargaining tactic; preemption; lowest common denominator consensus decision-making; impact of war on the peace process; alliance politics; force and diplomacy; impact of anomic violence on the peace process; external threats and group cohesion; effect of religious extremism on the peace process; and cognitive screens as well as threat misperception.
Consider the Arab-Israeli conflict as a series of evolving, terminating, and interrelated disputes: European governments against both Arabs and Zionist Jews; Arabs and Zionists against each other; Arab traditionalists versus Arab nationalists; radical Arab states and non-state political actors against Israel; Islamic, non-Arab Iran versus Arab States; secular Turkey with a large Muslim population aligned with Israel against Syria and Iraq; great power competition for regional clients; great power cooperation in the peace process; secular Jews versus radical religious Jews; secular Arab nationalists versus Islamists.
This emphasis on multiplicity of disputes and variety of actors suggests that there is no singular key to peace.
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Grade weights are 35% for a midterm, 35% for a final research paper that uses traditional library and Internet resources and follows the Turabian Style Guide, 15% for COW, and 15% for participation.
The term papers should reflect the triad of theory, political history, as well as policy options and future scenarios. Students should act as if they were both scholars and policy analysts, and hence should seek to explain events and evaluate policy alternatives.
Students should explain some future event in terms of theoretical ideas discussed in class.
Participants should evaluate policy options in light of scenarios and contingencies within such stories about the future.
Papers should contain html links to sources, graphics, and endnotes.
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Bickerton, Ian and Carla
Klausner. A Concise History of the Arab- Israeli Conflict.
Englewood Cliffs New Jersey: Prentice Hall, latest edition,
Eisenberg Laura Zittrain and Neil Caplan. 1998. Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press, paperback.
Fuller, Graham and Ian Lesser. 1995. A Sense of Siege: The Geopolitics of Islam and the West Boulder: Westview Press, paperback.
Tanter, Raymond. 1999. Rogue Regimes: Terrorism and Proliferation. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999, paperback.
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A note about assignments and schedule: Text in UPPERCASE denotes theoretical concepts. Text in Title Case denotes historical illustration of these concepts.
January 7, 1999: Internet usage. Introduction to e-mail, Conferencing on the Web (COW), and World Wide Web (WWW) research.
RESEARCH & COMPUTER ASSISTANCE SITES
Arab-Israeli Conflict Research Sites
How to Create a Personal or Group Homepage
A Beginner's Guide to HTML
Searching For How-to Documentation from the Information Technology Division
Accessing your IFS directory (your home directory) on a MAC
Contacting an ITD Consultant for Help
January 12, 1999: CRISIS AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DIPLOMACY
Political Zionism, Imperialism, and Arab Nationalism; Rise and Fall of Empires; World War I and the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Political Geography: Integration and disintegration of Ottoman Empire, growth of Western imperialism, and rise of political Zionism and Arab nationalism is a story that can be seen by studying the changing political geography of the Middle East.
Lecture Notes: Note on Empires: PS353empir.txt
PERCEIVED SECURITY DILEMMAS, OVERESTIMATION OF THREAT, AND MISCALCULATED ESCALATION: World War I consequences for the Arab-Israeli conflict.
WORKING HYPOTHESIS: External powers, regional rivalry, and domestic politics are factors that help explain nationalism and likelihood of conflict and momentum in the peace process.
QUESTIONS: Who are the Arabs, Christians, and Jews? What is the role of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism in the Arab-Israeli conflict?
Humanities Text Initiative (Searchable text of the Koran and Bible)
Islamic Texts and Resources Metapage (SUNY-Buffalo)
Links to various versions of the Qur'an
Pamphlets on Islamic concepts and frequently-asked questions
Muslim history and civilization
Judaism and Jewish Resources
Extensive annotated links to Jewish Studies, Jewish Communites, and the
Includes organizations, discussion groups, museums, and libraries
Maps of Empires: Material for Review
In general: Documents Center Homepage: Maps
Kingdom of David and Solomon - 1000 BCE -
The Divided Kingdoms (Israel and Judah) - 600 BCE - 46K
The Hasmonean Kingdom - 1st Century BCE
Other Maps Relating to Islam's Historical Development
of the Umayyad Caliphate in the 2nd Half of the 9th - 2nd Half of the
Map of the Empire of Sultan Salah Al-Din (1171-1193) & Crusaders' Principalities in Syria and Palestine
Texts and Resources: MetaPage
The Koran: A Searchable Index
Maps of the Current Middle East
Middle East as of 1995
The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection
CRISIS AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DIPLOMACY: Political Zionism, Imperialism, and Arab Nationalism; Rise and Fall of Empires; World War I and the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Lecture Notes: Note #2, Note #3, Notes #5
Lexicon of Zionism : Palestine under the British Mandate
Political Zionism and the Balfour Declaration. Nov. 2, 1917. Zionist pressure wins British support for concept of national home for Jews in Palestine.
McMahon - Hussein Correspondence of July December 1915 Arab demands, British concessions, and the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire of June 5, 1916.
Sykes Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 secret division of Arab inhabited territories into areas administered by the French and British areas along with internationalization of Palestine.
From the Palestine Mandate to the Arab General Strike.
UNDERESTIMATION OF HOSTILITY AND FAILURE TO DETER.
QUESTIONS: What is the role of Great Power pledges and counter pledges in the origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict?
1. ZIONISM - An Introduction: Adapted from "Zionism" by Prof. Binyamin Neuberger, 1995
2. Note on FOURTH WAVE CRITIQUE OF DETERRENCE THEORY. World War II: consequences for the Arab-Israeli conflict.
3. Bickerton and Klausner, SKIM List of Tables, Charts, and Maps, READ Preface, Introduction, Chapters 1 & 2.
January 19: BARGAINING AND NEGOTIATION STRATEGIES
Lecture Notes: Note #8
Palestine under British Mandate (continued). World War II. The 1948 War. Creation of the State of Israel.
GETTING TO YES: Do not bargain over positions, bargain over interests, separate people from problem, search for options with mutual gain.
GETTING TO THE TABLE: Build bridges from conflict to conciliation (cease-fires as down payments on confidence); because it is rational to defect, try to establish mutual trust; develop rules of the game for the conduct and limitation of hostilities; use pre-negotiation as crisis avoidance: identify the problem, search for options, commit then agree to negotiate, set the parameters for the negotiations to follow. Use third party consultation to distinguish between incompatible differences and subjective misperceptions, try face to face interactions to break down simplified stereotypes, be aware that similarities between groups are often ignored while differences are exaggerated, use problem solving diplomacy to effect a perceptual shift.
1. Note on Fisher, Roger. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981. Note on Stein, Janice (ed.) Getting to the Table : The Processes of International Prenegotiation. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.
2. Bickerton and Klausner: chapters 3 and 4; READ Documents.
3. Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace by Laura Zittrain Eisenberg and Neil Caplan
4. Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace, Introduction: Historical Patterns
January 21: Application of Theoretical Concerns
Note 6: Bargaining Approaches
From the Arab Riots and General Strike (April 1936, 1939), World War II (September 1939), through the Birth of Israel and the 1948-49 War.
Shaw and Hope Simpson Royal Commissions, 1929 and 1930
British Domestic Politics
Recognition of irreconcilable demands of Arabs and Jews thus idea of partition:
Royal Peel Commission, 1936
Partition of Palestine
British Vacillation: London Conference, March, 1939 and the British White Paper, May 17, 1939
Renewal of Arab violence.
Split in Zionist ranks regarding British White Paper.
Zionists during World War II and the Biltmore Program.
The Holocaust and Jewish Refugees.
Anglo Zionist Diplomacy during the War.
Nazism and the Middle East.
The Rise of Jewish Extremism.
British Policy Regarding Jewish Refugees and Palestine.
Morrison Grady Plan.
London Talks, June July, 1946.
The Palestine Issue at the United Nations.
Zionism and American Politics.
Partition and the Birth of Israel.
January 26: CRISIS AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DIPLOMACY
The United Nations and Israel's Birth. The Arab countries.
Jewish Agency's Partition Plan, August 1946
UN Partition Plan, 1942
Battle for the Jerusalem Roads
1 April 1948, May 1948
Arab Attack 15 May 1948
War for Independence, 1948-1949
Frontiers of the State of Israel, 1949-1967
1. Bickerton and Klausner: READ chapters 3 and 4; SKIM Documents.
2. Review Note on Empires: PS353empir.txt -- CRISIS AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DIPLOMACY
Partition Plan, UN Resolution 181 - 29 Nov
Armistice Lines 1949-1967
Israel in Brief
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January 28: Events Leading to the 1956 War
Arab Refugees, Armistice Disputes: the 1956 War
The Sinai Campaign of 1956 (Operation Kadesh)
Arab Exodus, 1948 -Repatriation v. Resettlement
UN Conciliation Commission, 1949
UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees
Boundary Disputes, Border Incidents, and Retaliatory Raids
Egypt v. Israel
Rise of Nasser in Egypt
East/West Competition and the Arab Cold War
Arms Transfers (Czech Egypt, 1955 to counter UK Iraq)
February 2: CALCULATED
ESCALATION AND PEACE BY DESIGN: The 1956
UK and U.S. v. USSR; Iraq v Egypt
West/West differences over the 1956 War
Western Imperialism and the Suez Canal
UK and France v. Egypt
UK, Israel and France v. Egypt
Consolidation of Nasserism
United Arab Republic: Egypt and Syria, 1958
Israel's First Sinai Withdrawal
Superpower Competition: Northern Tier of Middle East
Imperialism v. Nationalism
Traditionalism v. Secularism
Arab Cold War in the Gulf: Yemen Civil War 1962-67;
Dhofar Rebellion in Oman, 1965-1975
Arab Cold War, Regional Rivalry, and the Palestine Liberation Organization, 1964
1. Bickerton and Klausner: READ chapter 5, SKIM Documents
2. Maps: The Middle East as of 1995
February 4: MISCALCULATED ESCALATION: Events Leading to the 1967 War
From War to War
Calculation and Miscalculation.
The Road to War
Raids and Reprisals
February 9: MISCALCULATED ESCALATION AND PEACE BY PROCESS: The 1967 War
History of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF): The Six Day War
From conflict over Israel's existence to territorial conflict
Territory for peace possibility
Arab regimes and armies discredited
Evacuation of the United Nations' Security Force from Egypt
Syrians attacked by Israel several times because of the Palestinians
Syrians and Egyptians created a defense pact
Egypt and Jordanians formed a defense pact
Motivated Errors and Misperception: Desires.
Israeli overestimation of threat--combined
Israeli misperception of joint Arab alignments (Egypt-Syria and Egypt-Jordan pacts) that could
result in the destruction of Israel
Israeli citizen army: lack of ability to sustain mobilization
Desire to overestimate threat leads to launching of a preemptive strike
Like World War I: Interacting mobilizations and escalation threat perceptions produced an unwanted war
Influence of pro-Arab and pro-Israeli communities
1. Bickerton and Klausner Chapter 6. Skim documents.
2. Maps: Israel's Borders On the Eve of the 1967 War
The Golan: Distances and Elevations
The Pre-1967 Borders: Distances and Elevations
3. 1967 and Afterward
4. Miscalculated Escalation: The 1967 War by Ali Ahmad
5. Maps: Cease-fire Lines Following the 1967 War
6. PS472 Note #7 -- Questions on Prospect Theory
7. PS472 Note #12 -- Explanations about Prospect Theory
8. Outcome of the 1967 War in Relation to Palestinian Refugees
9. AIPAC (American Israel Public Affairs Committee)
10. The National Association of Arab Americans
February 11: PEACE BY DESIGN AND CALCULATED ESCALATION: 1969-70 War of Attrition.
Palestinian Raids and Israel's Reprisals
From Jordan to Lebanon 1969-70
Egyptian Strategy: War for Peace
Comparison of post-1956 War with pre-1969-1970 War of Attrition: PEACE BY DESIGN
February 16: CALCULATED ESCALATION TO STIMULATE THE PEACE PROCESS. 1973 War. UNMOTIVATED BIASES, MISPERCEPTION, AND DECEPTION.
Year of Decision, 1971
Sadat Ousts the Russians from Egypt, 1972
Washington Focuses on Moscow at the Expense of Cairo: Soviet-American Détente
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, 1972
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and Treaty (SALT)
Eagles of the Palestinian Revolution Kidnap Soviet Jews in Vienna
Syrian Preparation for Israeli Reprisal Raids for Palestinian Kidnapping
Israeli Intelligence Misperceives Syrian Offensive Measures as Defensive
Egyptian Annual Maneuvers for Crossing of Suez Canal from Africa to Asia
Road to 1973 War:
Cognitive Beliefs--Unmotivated Errors--and Misperception: The Conception and Expectation.
Syria would not attack without Egypt
Egypt would not attack without air superiority
Israeli underestimation of joint Arab alignment: "lower than
low" likelihood of collective
Motivated Errors and Misperception: Yom Kippur and desire not to see trouble
Unmotivated Errors and Misperception: Ramadan and Israeli expectation not to see trouble
Desire to avoid miscalculated escalation, as was the case in 1967: lesson of 1967 became an unmotivated error for 1973
1. Bickerton and Klausner: Chapter 7 and skim documents.
2. Security Council Resolution 242
3. Tanter and Shlaim. "Decision Process, Choice, and Consequences."
4. The War of Attrition
5. Constraints on Rationality: PS472 Lecture Note #3
6. Maps: Ceasefire Lines on the Egyptian Front: Oct. 24 1973
7. PS472 Note #7 -- Questions on Prospect Theory
8. PS472 Note #12 -- Explanations about Prospect Theory
Scenario of Conflict: Egypt and Israel,
1999," Arab Israel
Conflict, Winter 1998.
February 18: Palestinian Resistance
From Arab Nationalism, through Pan Arabism, to Palestinian Resistance
Consensus-Building and Coalition Formation
Palestine Arab Nationalist Movement Under the Mandate
The Palestinian Resistance and Inter-Arab Politics
Role of the Oppositionists in the Resistance
Ahmed Jabril, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine/General Command
Abu Nidal, Fatah Revolutionary Council
Nayef Hawatmeh, Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Muhammad Abul Abbas, Palestine Liberation Front
The PLO: Structure, Ideology, and Behavior
Yasir Arafat, Fatah, Conquest
Cairo Agreement in Lebanon, 1969
Black September 1970
PLO in Lebanon
PLO as a World Player, and as "State Within a State"
Rabat Conference Resolution, October 1974
Arafat address to the U.N., November 1974
February 23: Incursion into Lebanon by Israel Defense Forces (IDF), March 14, 1978; Invasion of Lebanon by IDF, June 6, 1982
Lebanese Civil War, 1975-1976
Israel's Litani Operation, 1978
The Peace Process, 1973-1979
Camp David Accords, 1978
Israel's Invasion of Lebanon, 1982
1. Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
2. United Nations Resolutions Regarding Palestine
3. Palestinian National Charter--July 1-17, 1968
4. Revisions to Palestinian National Charter--April 24, 1996
5. Bickerton and Klausner: Chapter 8 and skim document
6. Bickerton and Klausner Chapter 9 and skim documents.
7. United Nations Security Council Resolution 425
8. Camp David Accords--September 17, 1978
9. Peace Treaty Between Israel and Egypt--March 26, 1979
10. Eisenberg and Caplan, Chapter 1, 2, 3.
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March 2 & 4: NO CLASS--Spring Break.
March 9: IMPACT OF WAR ON THE PEACE PROCESS--1980-2000
The Peace Process: From War-to-War to Step-by-Step Diplomacy
Peace Process: From the Separate Peace to a Comprehensive Peace (The Triumph of Hope over Experience)
Autonomy Talks Stalled, 1980
European Venice Declaration, June 13, 1980
Sadat Out; Mubarak In, October, 1981
Cold Peace between Egypt and Israel
Fahd Peace Plan, August 7, 1981: Bonus for AWACS?/ Fez
Summit Plan September 9, 1982
Reagan Initiative September 1, 1982: A PLO Political Bonus for the Military Minus in Lebanon
Brezhnev Plan September 10, 1982
United States in Lebanon, 1983; U.S. out, 1984
PLO-Jordan Agreement February 11, 1985
Gulf War I - Iran and Iraq War, 1980-1988
Palestine National Council accepts original U.N. partition plan (U.N. General Assembly
Resolution 181), Israel's right to exist, and U.N. Security Council resolutions 242 and 338,
and renounces terrorism. The U.S. opens dialogue with the PLO, the first formal contacts with the PLO in 13 years. PLO did not revise the charter, however, until 1998.
March 11: IMPACT OF WAR ON THE PEACE PROCESS--1990-1993: Gulf War II to Oslo Peace
August 2, 1990:
Iraq invades and occupies
Kuwait. Yasser Arafat's support for Saddam Hussein leads Persian
cut off of funds to the PLO. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians
are forced out of the Gulf
October 18, 1991:
Secretary of State Baker, at a
news conference in Jerusalem, says President Bush and
President Gorbachev are inviting Israel, the Arab states, and the Palestinians to attend a Middle East peace conference to be held beginning October 30 in Madrid. Baker says the conference is to be
followed by "direct negotiations to achieve real peace."
October 30, 1991:
Opening the Madrid conference,
President Bush says the objective is "to achieve
peace...security, diplomatic relations, economic relations, trade, investment, cultural exchange, even
tourism. We seek a Middle East, where vast resources are no longer devoted to armaments."
Outsiders can assist, he says, "but in the end, it is up to the peoples and the governments of the
Middle East to shape the future of the Middle East."
October 31, 1991:
Palestinians, in a joint
delegation with Jordan, attend the Madrid talks between Jordan,
and Lebanon. Direct bilateral talks begin among Israel and Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and participants
from the occupied territories. Multilateral negotiations begin on arms control, security, water, refugees, the environment and economic development.
September 9, 1993:
Israel and the PLO agree to recognize each other after 45 years of conflict, building on a pact already initialed on Palestinian self-rule in the Israeli-occupied Gaza Strip and in Jericho. PLO leader Yasser Arafat signs a letter recognizing Israel and renouncing violence.
September 10, 1993:
Arafat letter is hand-carried
to Israel by Norwegian Foreign Minister Johan Joergen Holst,
country brokered the PLO-Israel pact.
Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak
Rabin signs a document recognizing the PLO, and opens the way to
signing ceremony August 13 in Washington.
President Clinton calls the Oslo agreement "a bold breakthrough." "Today marks a shining moment of hope for the people of the Middle East; indeed, of the entire world," he says, pledging continued direct engagement of the United States in the peace process.
European leaders, including
French president Francois Mitterrand and British Prime
John Major give strong endorsements to the Israel-PLO mutual recognition accord, but caution that
much remains to be done.
Belgian Foreign Minister Willy
Claes, representing the European Community's (EC)
presidency, says he will immediately start consultations with his EC counterparts and the executive
European Commission to intensify the Community's contribution to the Middle East peace process. The EC is already the largest donor of aid to the Palestinians.
September 13, 1993:
A new page in the history of
the Middle East is turned at the White House, as Israeli Prime
Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat meet and watch Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon
Peres PLO Executive Council Member Abou Abbas sign the Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arrangements. President Bill Clinton, former presidents George Bush and Jimmy
Carter, and 3,000 dignitaries witness the signing--on the same desk used in the signing of the Camp
David accords 15 years earlier.
1. Wye River
2. B & K, Chapter 10.
3. E & C, Chapter 4, 5, and 6.
4. Military history: Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
5. The United States Army in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm
6. CIA Support to the US Military During the Persian Gulf War
March 16: MIDTERM EXAM.
March 18: Role of Religion in Middle Eastern Conflicts
Fourteen Centuries of Islam
The Historical and Cultural Setting
The Doctrine of Islamic Faith
Islam Today: A New Assertiveness
The Clash of Civilizations
A Sense of Siege
Europe and Asia
Islam and the Loss of Mediterranean Unity
Islam in Europe and Insecure Borderlands
The First Cold War
The Legacy of Colonialism
Recent Images: Suez, Oil, and the Iranian Revolution
Fuller and Lesser. A
Sense of Siege. Introduction and Western Perceptions of
Islamic Texts and Resources Metapage (SUNY-Buffalo)
Links to various versions of the Qur'an
Pamphlets on Islamic concepts and frequently-asked questions
Muslim history and civilization
Muslim Historical and Psychological Perception of the West
Islam as a Christian Heresy
Shrinking of Islamic Empire
Era of Imperialism
Export of Western Values
Loss of Leadership of the Islamic World
Establishment of Israel
Dilemma of Modernization
Contemporary Dilemmas Posed to the West by the Islamic World
Islam, Democracy, and Human Rights
Migration and Social Cohesion
Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict
North-South Relations: To Have and Have Not
Islamic Instability as a Threat to World Order
The Islamic Factor in European Security
Proliferation and the North-South Military Balance
Fuller and Lesser. Chapters 3 & 4, The Muslim Historical and Psychological Perception of the West; Contemporary Dilemmas Posed to the West by the Islamic World.
"Has the U.S. Blunted bin Laden?"
"Role of Religion in Middle Eastern Conflicts"
Solidarity and Coexistence
Islamic Solidarity--How Likely?
Factors Working Against Muslim Solidarity
Dealing with the Islamist Challenge
Islam as a Catalyst for Have-Not States
Potential Islamist Policies Toward the West
Areas of Confrontation
Turkey's Borders with "Christian" States in the Balkans
The Indian Subcontinent
1. Review Bickerton & Klausner, pp. 3-6.
2. The Clash of Civilizations? - Samuel P. Huntington
3. Fuller and Lesser. Chapters 7 & 8, Solidarity and Coexistence; The Geopolitical Dimension.
4. Note on Middle East States and the Approaching 21st Century
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March 30: Rogue Regimes: Terrorism and Proliferation
1. Raymond Tanter, Rogue Regimes, Chapters 2 and 3.
2. Matthew Fogarty, "US Involvement in the Gulf," Arab Israel Conflict, Winter 1998.
3. Greg Milne, "The Disintegration of Iraq and the Consequences for the Middle East," Arab Israel Conflict, Winter 1998.
April 1: Passover, Good Friday, Easter
"A Scenario for Peace: Syria and Israel," Arab-Israeli Conflict, Winter 1997.
Kate Bloomfield, "Understanding Syria," International Security Affairs, Fall 1998.
1. RT, Rogue Regimes, Chapters 4 and 5.
Rogue Regimes, Contractors, and Freelancers
From Saddam Hussein to Abu Nidal to Osama bin Laden
RT, Chapters 1 and 7
Suzanne K. Sukkar, "THE FREELANCERS: Proliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons," International Security Affairs, Fall 1998.
Aiman F. Mackie, "The Prolific Actions of a Rogue Regime: An Analysis of Iran's Chemical and Biological Weapons Development Programs" International Security Affairs, Fall 1998.
Ryan J. Clarkson, "CULPABLE COMRADES: The Proliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons by Formal Terrorist Groups," International Security Affairs, Fall 1998.
Brian Steensma, "A loose Cannon: Usama bin Laden and the Al-Qa'ida," International Security Affairs, Fall 1998.
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April 20: Last Day of Class