353note5.txt January 23, 1997
(Summary of 353note3.txt used for transparencies)
Ottoman Empire, Turkish state, dominant power in the eastern
In the Mesopotamian Valley, meanwhile, British forces from India defeated
the Turks in several battles in 1914-15.
In Arabia in June 1916, Husein ibn Ali, grand sharif of Mecca, continued
the traditional conflict between Arabs and Turks by leading, with his son
Abdullah ibn Husein, a revolt of Al Hijaz (the Hejaz, now in Saudi Arabia)
against Turkish rule.
Husein had the help of the British, who recognized him as king of Al Hijaz
in December 1916. In 1917, Under General (later Field Marshal) Sir Edmund
Allenby, British broke through Turkish lines at Beersheba (November),
compelling the evacuation of Gaza; and on December 9, Allenby's troops
In 1917, Arab troops fought under British Colonel T. E. Lawrence, Lawrence
of Arabia. He helped lead the Arab revolt against Turks. Arab troops led
by Lawrence took the Turkish-held port of Al `Aqabah in July, 1917, and
during the remainder of the year executed many forays against the
Turkish-held Al Hijaz (the Hejaz) Railway.
In September 1918, British forces broke through the Turkish lines at
Megiddo and routed the Turkish army and the German corps assisting it;
after being joined by Arab forces under Lawrence, British took Lebanon and
Arabs revolted against Turks because the British had promised them,
(1915-1916), McMahon-Husein letters, independence of their countries after
the war. Britain made other, conflicting commitments. In secret
Sykes-Picot agreement with France and Russia (1916), UK promised to divide
and rule the region with its allies. In third agreement, Balfour
Declaration of 1917, Britain promised the Jews, whose help it needed in
the war effort, a Jewish "national home" in Palestine, incorporated by
League of Nations as Palestine Mandate in 1922.