353note2.doc January 21, 1997
January 21 & 23: CRISIS AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DIPLOMACY: Political
Zionism, Imperialism, and Arab Nationalism; Rise and Fall of Empires;
The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire seen as a crisis by both Arabs
and Zionist Jews.
Zionist nationalists wanted freedom from Ottoman Empire threat perception
pursue policy of settling empty lands.
But lands, in fact, not empty; thus Zionists needed assistance from both
Ottoman Empire and the Great Powers--France and Britain, to settle and
Great Powers also the colonial states.
Multiple claims for same land:
Arabs of Palestine wanted a large rectangular state.
Zionists desired unlimited immigration rights.
Colonial powers wanted access to strategic territory
Middle East in between Europe and Asia.
Middle East a land bridge between Europe and Asia;
Middle East a land bridge between Europe and Africa.
Great Powers competed over disposition of disintegrating empire and to
find a way that the Powers could achieve their minimum security and
Mandate system a method of achieving Pareto Optimal Solution
Collusion with Zionists: Open up Palestine to Jewish immigration,
as a way to block Arab state solution.
Sultan of Ottoman Empire talked about Jewish immigration but did little
about it. In 1881, Sultan analyzed a joint British-German business
proposal to construct a railroad along which Jewish immigrants would be
settled throughout the Empire, but scheme fell through. Immigrants
concentrated in Palestine not all over empire.
Sultan wanted immigrants to enter as individuals not as groups, but they
came as groups and lived as groups.
Herzl made a deal with Sultan for a homeland for Jews in exchange for cash
for the cash-short Sultan. Herzl paid, Sultan tried to keep money without
allowing the homeland, then attempted to restructure the deal so that
homeland could not be in Palestine.
Herzl began to bring more Jews into Palestine that he was allowed. Because
Sultan granted the principle that Jews could immigrate, he then could not
control where they would settle nor in what numbers.
Bargaining principle: Try to get acceptance of the right to perform some
action, then stretch the limits of the action. Herzl followed good
bargaining technique, Sultan did not, and Arab nationalists were not
serious bargaining partners.
British wanted Ottoman Empire to stay intact so that none of the other
Great Powers would be able to pick up the pieces. British had effective
control and greatest ability to manipulate outcomes for strategic
Zionists had much to gain from colluding with imperialists. Arab
nationalists had few cards to play, played them poorly, then blamed
Zionists rather than the colonial powers for not getting a large state.
Arab nationalists had the most difficult time of the bargaining partners
because Great Powers did not want to see Arab unity. Great Powers
preferred Arab disunity, and followed a divide and conquer strategy to
keep Arab world divided.
Because Zionists thought they could work with the Sultan, Zionists also
wanted to keep the Empire intact.
Stated goal of Zionists: immigration.
Implicit goal of Zionists: a state. Had a state been explicit aim, it
would have been shot down as a non-starter because not enough people for a
Political Zionists: state essential for Jewish survival, a way to escape
pogroms in Russia.
Messianic Zionists disagreed with political Zionists regarding need for a
state: Jews should await the Messiah. Immigration had to come before a
World War I and the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Palestine under the British Mandate:
Political Zionism and the Balfour Declaration. Nov. 2, 1917 Zionist
pressure wins British support for concept of national home for Jews in
McMahon Sharif Husain Correspondence of July December 1915 Arab
demands, British concessions, and the Arab revolt against the Ottoman
Empire of June 5, 1916.
Sykes Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 secret division of Arab inhabited
territories into areas administered by the French and British areas along
with internationalization of Palestine.
From the Palestine Mandate to the Arab General Strike, UNDERESTIMATION OF
HOSTILITY AND FAILURE TO DETER: World War II: consequences for the
QUESTIONS: What is the role of Great Power pledges and counter pledges in
the origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict?
Congressional Quarterly: READ pp. 9-19.
Bickerton and Klausner: READ chapters 1 and 2; SKIM Documents.