353note2.doc January 21, 1997

January 21 & 23: CRISIS AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DIPLOMACY: Political

Zionism, Imperialism, and Arab Nationalism; Rise and Fall of Empires;

The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire seen as a crisis by both Arabs

and Zionist Jews.

Zionist nationalists wanted freedom from Ottoman Empire threat perception

pursue policy of settling empty lands.

But lands, in fact, not empty; thus Zionists needed assistance from both

Ottoman Empire and the Great Powers--France and Britain, to settle and

settled land.

Great Powers also the colonial states.

Multiple claims for same land:

Arabs of Palestine wanted a large rectangular state.

Zionists desired unlimited immigration rights.

Colonial powers wanted access to strategic territory

Middle East in between Europe and Asia.

Middle East a land bridge between Europe and Asia;

Middle East a land bridge between Europe and Africa.

Great Powers competed over disposition of disintegrating empire and to

find a way that the Powers could achieve their minimum security and

economic needs.

Mandate system a method of achieving Pareto Optimal Solution

Collusion with Zionists: Open up Palestine to Jewish immigration,

as a way to block Arab state solution.

Sultan of Ottoman Empire talked about Jewish immigration but did little

about it. In 1881, Sultan analyzed a joint British-German business

proposal to construct a railroad along which Jewish immigrants would be

settled throughout the Empire, but scheme fell through. Immigrants

concentrated in Palestine not all over empire.

Sultan wanted immigrants to enter as individuals not as groups, but they

came as groups and lived as groups.

Herzl made a deal with Sultan for a homeland for Jews in exchange for cash

for the cash-short Sultan. Herzl paid, Sultan tried to keep money without

allowing the homeland, then attempted to restructure the deal so that

homeland could not be in Palestine.

Herzl began to bring more Jews into Palestine that he was allowed. Because

Sultan granted the principle that Jews could immigrate, he then could not

control where they would settle nor in what numbers.

Bargaining principle: Try to get acceptance of the right to perform some

action, then stretch the limits of the action. Herzl followed good

bargaining technique, Sultan did not, and Arab nationalists were not

serious bargaining partners.

British wanted Ottoman Empire to stay intact so that none of the other

Great Powers would be able to pick up the pieces. British had effective

control and greatest ability to manipulate outcomes for strategic

interests.

Zionists had much to gain from colluding with imperialists. Arab

nationalists had few cards to play, played them poorly, then blamed

Zionists rather than the colonial powers for not getting a large state.

Arab nationalists had the most difficult time of the bargaining partners

because Great Powers did not want to see Arab unity. Great Powers

preferred Arab disunity, and followed a divide and conquer strategy to

keep Arab world divided.

Because Zionists thought they could work with the Sultan, Zionists also

wanted to keep the Empire intact.

Stated goal of Zionists: immigration.

Implicit goal of Zionists: a state. Had a state been explicit aim, it

would have been shot down as a non-starter because not enough people for a

state.

Political Zionists: state essential for Jewish survival, a way to escape

pogroms in Russia.

Messianic Zionists disagreed with political Zionists regarding need for a

state: Jews should await the Messiah. Immigration had to come before a

state.

World War I and the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Palestine under the British Mandate:

Political Zionism and the Balfour Declaration. Nov. 2, 1917 Zionist

pressure wins British support for concept of national home for Jews in

Palestine

McMahon Sharif Husain Correspondence of July December 1915 Arab

demands, British concessions, and the Arab revolt against the Ottoman

Empire of June 5, 1916.

Sykes Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 secret division of Arab inhabited

territories into areas administered by the French and British areas along

with internationalization of Palestine.

From the Palestine Mandate to the Arab General Strike, UNDERESTIMATION OF

HOSTILITY AND FAILURE TO DETER: World War II: consequences for the

Arab-Israeli conflict.

QUESTIONS: What is the role of Great Power pledges and counter pledges in

the origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict?

Congressional Quarterly: READ pp. 9-19.

Bickerton and Klausner: READ chapters 1 and 2; SKIM Documents.