Hyperbib Tags
(4 June 1998)

Rev. dwr 4 June 98
Minor additions, pfs 29 June 98
File last modified Thursday, 06-Aug-1998 19:19:23 EDT

For other MEC files, see the  MEC Index page.


  1. AUTHOR : Optional. If there is a medieval author tagged in the stencil, then the same element is entered here at the beginning of the entry. In this position, however (as opposed to the stencil), the name gets expanded to its regular, full usage and entered in normal order (i.e., first name, last name), with no final punctuation. If the name is preceded by "?", include that within the tags as the first character in the element.

    Every AUTHOR tag requires a SORT attribute. Some of these will have been automatically supplied. If itís necessary to add or modify one, enter what makes sense for an index entry. For example: <AUTHOR>Reginald Pecock</AUTHOR> gets a SORT attribute of "Pecock, Reginald" (without the quotes). In uncertain attributions, where a "?" precedes the authorís name, drop the question mark in the SORT attribute.

    Some important points:

  2. TITLE : Required. (i) Supply a compact modern English title using no italics. Use Severs if possible, consult MED card, which often supplies one, and modify as needed to keep it short, distinctive (if possible). (ii) Use numbers if necessary to distinguish otherwise identical titles. (iii) Modernize spelling to eliminate yogh, thorn, etc.

    Multiple versions of a single work have conventionally been distinquished by parenthetical numbers, as:

    Mandeville's Travels (1)
    Mandeville's Travels (2)
    Mandeville's Travels (3)
    Mandeville's Travels (4)

    Where a single work has been divided into several stencils (because the stencil refers to a publication covering several volumes, such as Sur.Soc.42, 67, 130), we have been using "part" to distinquish the otherwise identical titles. For example:

    Memorials of Fountain Abbey, part 1
    Memorials of Fountain Abbey, part 2
    Memorials of Fountain Abbey, part 3

    For titles in a series, see the examples under the Northern Homily Cycle, the South English Legendary, and the Primer entries.

    It will be useful to examine the list of titles assigned to entries already processed. See the Hyperbib web site and browse by title, or go to an entry similar to the one youíre working on.

  3. Bibliographic references : Optional. There are four bibliographic reference elements. Do not use final punctuation within any of them.

    If there is one, supply the IMEV number (abbreviated as a BR number on the printout) within the INDEX element. Do not include "Suppl.", sometimes used by the MED, just the number (e.g., "83," "*79," or "123.5"). Save any unused BR numbers in the NOTE.

    BR numbers with asterisks indicate "headless" poems, grouped together in the original BR Index. The BR Suppl. renumbers these in their proper order, so you must look at the conversion table on p. 502 of the Suppl. to get the new number. It will still have an asterisk, which we retain.

    If there are multiple BR numbers, such as with a collection of poems, enter them all in numerical order within a single INDEX element, separated by commas (ignore, but retain, any asterisks); e.g., "65, *79, 123.5, 124, 365."

    Enter any IPMEP number, usually a simple number but sometimes a number/letter combination (e.g., "374.A").

    Enter the Severs Manual reference within the SEVERS tags (vol, section, item: "8.IV.123"). If Severs is not available, use WELLS (abbreviated "W" in print bib.). SEVERS and WELLS are mutually exclusive; only one of them can be used. Again, only numbers; no prefix such as "S" or "W." Save any unused Wells numbers in the NOTEs.

    For multiple SEVERS numbers: If you have a string of references from the same volume and chapter, enter them as full references but with no separating punctuation. For example:

    <SEVERS>9.XXIV.28 9.XXIV.29 9.XXIV.36 9.XXIV.44 9.XXIV.46 9.XXIV.48 9.XXIV.59 9.XXIV.72 9.XXIV.81 9.XXIV.90</SEVERS>

    If there is a change in the volume or chapter number, use a semi-colon to mark that change. For example:

    <SEVERS>9.XXIV.28 9.XXIV.29 9.XXIV.36 9.XXIV.44 9.XXIV.46 9.XXIV.48 9.XXIV.59 9.XXIV.72 9.XXIV.81 9.XXIV.90; 9.XXV.1 9.XXV.2 9.XXV.3; 10.XXVI.10</SEVERS>

    If you make reference to a Severs page number, include vol. number, use "p.", use no spaces, and separate from the preceding reference with a semi-colon (even if same vol.), as:

    <SEVERS>9.XXIV.28 9.XXIV.29 9.XXIV.36 9.XXIV.44 9.XXIV.46 9.XXIV.48 9.XXIV.59 9.XXIV.72 9.XXIV.120 9.XXIV.183 9.XXIV.195; 9.p.3192.</SEVERS>

    In the web display, the repeating vol. and chapter numbers will be removed, with item numbers separated by commas. Users, though, will be able to search for any item with the full Severs reference.

    The ordering of the bibliographic index elements is restricted by the DTD to INDEX, IPMEP, and then either SEVERS or WELLS. So if you enter SEVERS, youíll find that you can only enter IPMEP to its left, and so forth.

  4. MSLIST : Required. Each manuscript gets its own MS element within the MSLIST. The MS element in turn contains CITE and possibly LALME. Within the MSLIST, list all the manuscripts for this entry, including those which only appear as variants. It does not matter in what order you enter the mss in the MSLIST; they will be sorted alphabetically.

    MS has two required attributes. The value of the REF attribute will usually be the initial, alphabetic part of the ms abbreviation. It cannot contain a space. So, if the ms is Hrl 226, "Hrl" will be the REF attribute value, and 226 (the shelf mark) is entered within the CITE tags. The REF value is an IDREF and it must match an ID in the manuscript library at the top of the document.

    There are a few special values for the REF attribute:

    The other attribute for MS is the PREF attribute, used to indicate preferred manuscripts

  5. CITE is a required element within MS. Itís used for the ms shelf mark.

    In most cases, the information in MS (the REF value plus CITE) will be repeated in MSGROUP and in ABBR, both discussed below. Often this information will be identical across all three elements, but this is not always the case. In some entries, these three elements contain different information. Common name manuscripts and those with two shelf marks are the most likely manuscripts to receive different treatment. (See the document HyperBibliography Manuscript References for more information.) And there are times when ABBR consists of a modern editor (such as Brunner or C&D), not a manuscript, and this information will not be entered within MSLIST (as CITE, or as an attribute to MS), but it will be included in the MSGROUP. See "Critical Editions" under MSGROUP, and ABBR below for more information and examples.

    LALME is an optional element within MS. Keep quotations from LALME brief. Some examples of LALME element styling:

    vol. 1. 111. LP 5130. Somerset.
    vol. 1. 107. Hand B. NME.
    vol. 1. 145. "MS in one hand." LP 7170. Gloucs.
    vol. 1. 137. "Hand B, language 2, … Language from NW Suffolk." Suffolk.
    vol. 1. 113 (five entries, q.v.). NME. [from: NHom.(3) Cec.]
    vol. 1. 110 (two entries, q.v.). "Hand A. ff. 1r-8v." LP 4680. Warwicks. "Hand B. ff. 9r-22v." LP 4679. Warwicks. [from: PPl.A(1)]
    vol. 1. 126. Various entries cover some portions of this material.

     [this used in *War.Chanc.PRO ser.C 81 file 1367 no.40 [etc.]]
     [cp. similar treatment of Will in Nicholas Testamenta]

    There are two distinct, though sometimes confused, manuscript cases that need special treatment:

    1. Composite manuscripts--those that are believed to consist of distinct parts or segments, usually of different date or provenance. If the various manuscript resources we have identify a work as belonging to a "part" (or "volume") of a manuscript, we will indicate this in the MSLIST, but only there. So CITE may read: "Kk.1.5, Part 4", but the MSGROUP and ABBR will have only "Kk.1.5". For some examples, see:
      Cmb Kk.1.5 at Miracles and Prophecies of St. Thomas...
      Petyt 511 at Mannyng, The Chronicle of England
      BodeMus 116 at Mandeville's Travels (3)
      Jes-O 29 at Poema Morale
      Yk-M 16.K.12 at Marie de France, Fables
      LdMisc 108 at several South English Legendary entries
    2. Multiple copies of a work in the same manuscript. If a work appears twice in the same manuscript, the MED has used a ms abbreviation such as "Vrn(1)" and "Vrn(2)" to indicate which copy is being quoted. We will maintain this abbreviation, but only in ABBR. So, in such a case, the manuscript will be listed once only in the MSLIST (with no "(1)" or "(2)"), and it will get only one MSGROUP. In most cases, LALME information will apply to both copies of the work, but in some cases a more complex LALME entry will need to be devised. See the examples below.

      For each stencil (within a single entry) where the ABBR has a parenthetical number, add an explanatory USE note. Several USE notes per entry may be necessary. A typical note might read: "There are two copies of this work in Eg 613, distinguished in the MED as Eg 613(1) and Eg 613(2). Eg 613(1) appears on fols. 7-12." Or "There are two copies of this work in Vernon, distinguished in the MED as Vrn(1) and Vrn(2); Vrn(1) is the preferred source." The last clause of this second example will not be applicable in all cases. For some examples, and models, see:

      Metham, Prognostications Based on Christmas Day
      Northern Homily Cycle: Mary Magdalene
      Eg 613 at Poema Morale
      Rolle, Ego Dormio et... [illustrates a complex LALME entry necessitated by this problem]
      Trental of St. Gregory (1)
  6. STENCILLIST : The stencil list contains the MSGROUPs and any VARGROUPs.

  7. MSGROUP : At least one required. This element groups together all the stencils that refer to a single ms. You will need as many MSGROUPs as you have mss that have their own title stencils (in other words, mss in the variants do not get their own MSGROUP). Set up a MS group every time we know the MS, even if there is only one.

    MSGROUP heading: Immediately to the right of the opening MSGROUP tag enter the ms abbreviation and its shelf mark (e.g., Hnt 689). This will serve in the web display as a heading for the MS group. In nearly all cases it will be equivalent to the content of the ABBR element. The exceptions to this are common name manuscripts and a few cases where modern editors are in ABBR (see also CITE above, and ABBR below). Put in a known ms abbreviation even if it is not included in the print bibís stencil.

    For MSS with familiar common names (Vernon, Auchinleck, Fillingham, Thornton, etc.), retain only the common name abbreviation as the ABBR (<ABBR>Vrn</ABBR>), but in the MSGROUP heading supplement this with the Ďofficialí designation: "Vrn (Eng.poet. a.1)". See the document HyperBibliography Manuscript References for more details.

    Documents will usually not have a MSGROUP heading; donít enter any text after the MSGROUP opening tag. The exception to this is when critical editions are included as ABBR within the stencil, as with, for example, (C&D), (Marsden), or (Walbran). The MSGROUP heading in these cases will be something like "Marsden (critical edition)". See "critical editions" below, and the entries "Rolls of Parliament Pertaining to a Petition of the Folk of Mercerye," "Rolls of Parliament Pertaining to an Agreement between Shipowners and Henry VI," and "Rolls of Parliament Pertaining to a Petition by Fountains Abbey to Henry VI" for examples.

    For early print editions, see how Caxton, Fawkes, WdeW and others have been styled in entries already processed. The idea is to have the MSGROUP heading and the ABBR match exactly.

    For editors of critical editions such as Brunner, C&D, and Wagner, which turn up parenthetically in the stencil (as ABBR), use as a MSGROUP heading a string such as "Brunner (critical edition)," or "Wagner (critical edition, based on Roy 17.B.43)." The point is that the first element should match the ABBR of the stencil. For further examples, see the entries at "The Vision of Tundale," "Lamentation of a Dead Sinner," "South English Legendary: Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury," "Richard Coeur de Lion," "Rolls of Parliament Pertaining to a Petition of the Folk of Mercerye." Note that this MSGROUP will have no corresponding entry in the MSLIST.

    N.B. : When creating the MSGROUPs, remember that the order we put them in is the order which will appear, so put the preferred MS first, and then sort the others alphabetically by MS abbreviation after that. (It is possible to cut and paste these MS Groups once you have typed them.)

    MSGROUP has an attribute VAR. The default value is "no" (VAR="n"). Switching this attribute value to "yes" (VAR="y") will cause a line to be inserted in the web display that follows all the stencils in the MSGROUP and reads: "See also Variants below." Use this when the MSGROUP manuscript is also listed in the VARGROUP.

  8. STG : Required. This is stencil group. It includes the stencil and its bibliographic information. It is possible to have several STGs within one MSGROUP, usually when the MED has used different editions of one MS. You need a new STG for each stencil within the MSGROUP.
  9. STENCIL : Required. Contains only elements: DATE, WORK, and ABBR.
  10. DATE : Required. This is about as straightforward as it gets; enter the date of the stencil here, with no space between a date and one in parentheses; e.g., <DATE>?c1425(a1385)</DATE>.
  11. WORK : Required. This is the title stencil. It can contain an AUTHOR element.

    Leave the spacing in WORK as is unless there is no space between a period (.) and "in" (e.g., RedBk.in RS 10 becomes RedBk. in RS 10). Parts of the WORK that are underlined in the print bib should be surrounded with <I> tags indicating italics. Often the entire work will be within <I> tags. Any periods ending italicized strings should be put within the <I> tags.

    If the stencil begins with an asterisk (*), put this immediately after the opening <WORK> tag and before any following <I> or <AUTHOR> tags. See examples below.

  12. AUTHOR : Most stencils will not have an AUTHOR. Only medieval authors get tagged as authors. The content of the element is the name, or abbreviation of the name, exactly as it appears in the print bib. In other words, no expanding of names as we did in the AUTHOR tag above. Any punctuation following the authorís name goes within the AUTHOR tags. If the authorís name is preceded by a question mark (?), put that within the <AUTHOR> tags. If it is preceded by an asterisk (*), put that before the AUTHOR element.

    Examples:

    <AUTHOR>Lydg.</AUTHOR>
    <AUTHOR>Chaucer</AUTHOR>
    <AUTHOR>?Lydg.</AUTHOR>
    <WORK>*<AUTHOR>?Chaucer</AUTHOR>

    If there is an AUTHOR tag in the stencil, it must have a SORT attribute value, and that value should be exactly the same as the SORT attribute of the AUTHOR tag at the beginning of the entry.

  13. ABBR : Required (even if empty). This will usually be the same information included in the MS element at the top of the entry and as the MSGROUP heading: the manuscriptís alphabetic ID and shelf mark. Yet be aware that this is not always the case.

    In CITE (within the MSLIST), it is possible to have two shelf marks: a current one and an older one, or an in-house shelf mark and a catalog number. For example, Trin-C MSS will have references such as <CITE>R.3.19 (599)</CITE>. Yet in the MSGROUP and ABBR, we will only give the first number: "<MSGROUP>Trin-C R.3.19<STG>...", and "<ABBR>Trin-C R.3.19</ABBR>." In general, the MSGROUP heading and the ABBR will usually match. The exceptions to this are common name manuscripts and a few cases where modern editors are in ABBR (see below). See the document HyperBibliography Manuscript References for more complete instructions on how to handle various manuscript collections.

    If the ABBR includes a colon followed by an editor (Add 123:Halliwell), donít put a space before or after the colon. For example: <ABBR>Hrl 266:Huscher</ABBR>. In these cases, the editorís name is never included in MSGROUP or the MS attribute value.

    Some stencil ABBRs actually refer to an editor of a modern critical edition and not a manuscript: e.g., (Wagner), (Leonard), (Thiemke), (Brunner), (C&D). In these cases, there will be no corresponding entry in the MSLIST, but there will be a heading entered in MSGROUP. See "Critical Editions" under MSGROUP above for more information and examples. Early printed books quoted by the MED are treated like manuscripts (cp. Caxton, Fawkes, WdeW, etc.).

    For other examples of different treatment across CITE, MSGROUP, and ABBR, see CITE and MSGROUP above and the document HyperBibliography Manuscript References

  14. EDITION : For details on how to format various types of editions, see the Hyperbib Style Guide. If an edition appears more than once within an entry, be sure that the form is identical in all cases; they must be exactly the same, down to every spaceócopying and pasting is the easiest way to insure this. (A difference of a single space will make the same edition appear twice in the list of editions.) Do not include page numbers within this tag; see REF below. Make sure the edition information ends with a period.
  15. REF : This stands for "reference" and is where page and/or line numbers should go. Do not capitalize here; e.g., <REF>app. pp. 13-15</REF>. Always close the REF element with a period.
  16. See the Hyperbib Style Guide for complete details on styling references.

  17. USE : This is for notes included in the MED about changes in date or edition (they usually begin with "In A-E," etc.), and other bits of information. If there is an edition included within this, surround it with edition tags and then put the italics within that. Then put the page numbers after </EDITION> (with a space) since there are no <REF> tags within <USE>.

    It will look something like: <USE>In A-E this stencil refers to <EDITION>Jane Doe, <I>A Book</I> (1996).</EDITION> 15-90.</USE>

    ** The STG ends at this point. Another STG may begin within the same MSGROUP,

    ** or the MSGROUP may end (with another following or not).

  18. VARGROUP : Optional. Only one allowed. It contains one or more VARIANT elements. We use VARGROUP to list those manuscripts which may be cited in the MED but for which the MED does not have complete access; i.e., theyíre only available in footnotes or endnotes as single words or short phrases. The usual indication of the need for a VARGROUP is a string of dates and ms abbreviations preceded by "Vrr." or "Also" in the NOTE element or in the print bib.
  19. VARIANT : At least one is required if VARGROUP is used. This element groups together all the manuscripts cited in the notes to a particular edition. Each edition gets its own VARIANT. A VARIANT contains a SOURCE and a SHORTSTENCIL.
  20. SOURCE : The edition goes here. Mark it up just as you would in a STG, using EDITION, REF, and if needed, USE.
  21. SHORTSTENCIL : This includes a DATE and ABBR (style as above). In some instances there will be a note in the print bib or Add cards indicating that a date has changed for a particular manuscript. This goes in a USE note, also allowed in SHORTSTENCIL.

    Remember, if a manuscript listed here also has a MSGROUP above, you will need to switch that manuscript's MSGROUP attribute VAR to "yes" (VAR="y").

  22. NOTE : If you run into a problem with the entry, or have questions that need resolving, this is a good place to make a note of it so that we can check it when weíre proofing. This tag and its contents will not appear in the HyperBib.