y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

Review of nominal and verbal forms. Vocative. Stative  haðn:a

(adapted from Chapter One of  Hindi Structures.)

      You should be completely familiar with the use of the direct and oblique singular forms of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives:

  Singular:     Plural:  
  Direct:         km:ra,   m:òø,   y:h     km:rð,   hm:,   y:ð  
  Oblique:        km:rð,   m:ØJ:,   Es:     km:raðø,   hm:,   En:  

      In addition you should know the vocative form of nouns:

  Singular:     Plural:  
  Direct:        l:_ka,   l:_ki   l:_kñ,   l:_eky:aú
  Oblique:        l:_kñ,   l:_ki   l:_kað,   l:_eky:að

For some speakers the vocative plural ending is nasalized -Aaðø :   l:_kaðø,   l:_eky:aðø.
      The vocative is used when calling out to someone:

  1.     O b:cc:að ( b:cc:aðø ),  ED:r AaAað !                   'Hey boys, come here!'

      m:lhar presupposes a knowledge of the following tenses and moods of the verb:
  Past:   v:h khaú g:I ?     Where did she go?  
  Future:         Aap: Vy:a krðøg:ð ?     What will you do?  
  Subjunctive:   hm: kb: em:l:ðø ?     When shall we meet?  
  Imperative:         ( Aap: )   s:Øen:y:ð !     Listen!  
  ( t:Øm: )   y:h dðK:að !     See here!  
  Present habitual:   t:Øm: khaú rht:i hað ?     Where do you live?  
  Past habitual:   hm: ehndi b:aðl:t:ð T:ð.     We used to speak Hindi.  
  Present progressive:     m:òø el:K: rha hÜú.     I am writing.  
  Past progressive:   b:cc:ð g:a rhð T:ð.     The kids were singing.  
  Present perfect:     v:h Aaj: g:y:a hò.     He has gone today.  
  Past perfect:   b:s: dað b:j:ð AaI T:i.     The bus had come at two.  

      Remember that  haðn:a  can mean either 'to be' or 'to become'; 'to happen'.  As 'to be' it has no progressive forms.  Instead there are special stative forms:

  Present stative:   v:ð m:ðrð daðst: hòø.     They are my friends.  
  Past stative:     us:ka n:am: Vy:a T:a ?   What was his name?  

Stative  haðn:a  has habitual forms:

  Present habitual:   y:haú kñ l:aðg: AcCð haðt:ð hòø.     People here are nice.  
  Past habitual:     dÜD: s:st:a haðt:a T:a.   Milk used to be cheap.  

Subjects of such habitual statives are usually non-specific:

  2.     kñl:ð p:il:ð haðt:ð hòø.                             'Bananas are yellow.'
  3.     y:h kñl:a l:al: haðt:a hò.                   'This (type of) banana is red.'
  4.     y:h kñl:a hra hò.                             'This (particular) banana is green.'

In the perfect stative, the root  hað- of  haðn:a  is replaced by the root  rh- of  rhn:a:

  5.     p:hl:ð Es:ka n:am: Vy:a rha T:a ?
          'What had been the name of this before?'

  6.     us:m:ðø Aaòr m:ØJ:m:ðø hm:ðS:a b:hØt: frq rha hò.
          'There has always been a lot of difference between him and me.'


English to Hindi translation exercise.

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of m:lhar.

Keyed in and posted 5 Sept 2001.