y:Ün:iv:es:ýXi A:ôf em:eS:g:n:

ka-expressions:  ka  of patient

        In descriptions of language a "patient" is typically the word or phrase referring to the person or entity most directly affected by the action performed by the agent.  In (1) the noun  kÙ¶:a  is the patient and the pronoun  m:òøn:ð is the agent:
1. m:òøn:ð kÙ¶:a G:r kñ s:am:n:ð s:ð B:g:a edy:a.
   'I shooed the dog from in front of the house.'

Not every patient denotes something that is directly affected by an action.  The word eb:ll:i  in (2) refers to something not at all affected by the action expressed by the verb  dðK::
2. hm:n:ð G:r kñ s:am:n:ð eb:ll:i dðK:i
   'We saw a cat in front of the house.'

But because the grammatical relations of  eb:ll:i to  dðK: and  hm: in (2) are identical to the grammatical relation of  kÙ¶:a to  B:g:a dð and  m:òø in (1),  eb:ll:i in (2) is also counted as a patient. Unlike the few English parallels (take care of X, make use of X), in Hindi-Urdu the number of verbal expressions taking  ka or  ki of patient is very large:
3. AaI0 Xi0 n:I dØen:y:a ka en:m:aüN: kr rhi hò.
   'IT is creating a new world.'

4. kar ki m:rmm:t: krn:i hò.
   'I have to fix the car.'

Nearly all of these expressions are ones in which nouns specifying some kind of action [viz,  en:m:aüN: 'creation' in (3),  m:rmm:t: 'repair' in (4)] occur with verbs like  kr 'do',  hað 'become; be done',   'give',  Aa 'come',  m:ar 'strike' and a few others.  There are also a few stative expressions such as X  ka Aadi hað 'be accustomed to X':
5. Es: vy:v:har ka v:h Aadi T:a.
   'He was used to dealing in this way.'
   (from Chapter One of  g:aðdan: )
        The full list of expressions taking  ka or  ki of patient is much too long to give here.  It may in fact be open-ended.  Among the most frequent are:

Es: vy:v:har ka v:h Aadi T:a. (to be continued)

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Drafted 24-26 May 2001. Part posted 26 May 2001.