y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

daò_a j:at:a hò:
Passive to indicate action by unspecified subjects

      In Hindi-Urdu the inability or unwillingness to specify the subject of an action may lead speakers to use the passive, even if the verb is intransitive:

  1.  p:_aðs: kñ G:r s:ð s:ØI-t:ag:a l:ðn:ð daò_a j:a rha hò.
     'People are running to get a needle and thread from the neighbors.'

     (from § 1 of  )ðm:c:nd's  Idg:ah. See context.)

Because the passive of an intransitive verb has nothing to agree with it always assumes the default masculine third person singular form in -Aa:

  2.  t:ðl:i kñ G:r B:ag:a j:at:a hò.
     'People are running to the oil-man's house.'

     (from § 1 of  )ðm:c:nd's  Idg:ah. See context.)

      This use of the passive of intransitives is not common.  For other, more common uses, see notes on  rha n:hiø j:at:a and the passive of incapacity.

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of m:lhar.

Drafted 22-23 Sep 2001. Posted 24 Sep 2001.