y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

Es:s:ð p:hl:ð ek v:h hm:ðø dðK: l:ðt:ð . . .
  Anterior clauses, compound verbs, and mood.

          Hindi-Urdu has several constructions that mark the occurrence of one event as prior in time to another:

 1.  j:b: t:k m:ðht:a kÙC b:aðl:ðø,  v:h hv:a hað g:y:i.
      'By the time Mehta could say anything, she had disappeared.'

      (from Chapter Seven of  )ðm:c:nd's  g:aðdan:. See context.)
 2.  Aaòr Es:s:ð p:hl:ð ek v:h B:aI kñ en:Sc:y: ki b:at: y:ad krt:i us:n:ð AaúK:ðø b:nd kr l:i T:iø.
      '...and before she could remember what had been decided about her brother, she had already closed her eyes.'

        (from  rb:r b:òøR, a short story by  Aenv:t:a Abb:i.  See context.)
Notice that in each of these examples there is a clause containing an action whose time of occurrence precedes the time of occurrence of the action in the other clause. In (1) the woman's disappearance precedes Mehta's speaking; in (2) the time of the heroine's falling asleep precedes the time of her recalling what had been decided. Let us call the clause expressing the earlier event the "anterior clause".
      These biclausal constructions share features: (a) They almost always have a compound verb in the anterior clause, and (b) the posterior clause is usually in either the subjunctive or the counterfactual mood.

      (to be continued)

To exercise on  p:hl:ð.
To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Drafted and keyed in 1 Feb 2002. Posted 2 Feb 2002.