y:Ün:iv:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

Mellonsite for Advanced Learners of Hindi and Urdu

Notes on  j:b: t:k . . . and  t:b: t:k . . .

      The proper use of  j:b: t:k and  t:b: t:k is a subtle matter for learners of Hindi-Urdu. Depending on whether the contents of the clause that is introduced by  j:b: t:k constitute an interval in time or a point,  j:b: t:k may correspond to English so long as . . . , until . . . or unless . . . , or even by the time that . . .

      A. If the  j:b: t:k clause describes a situation or action that can be viewed as a line (i.e., has duration in time), then  j:b: t:k is an equivalent of so long as . . . :
1.  m:aúb:ap: j:b: t:k l:_kaðø ki rx:a krðø,  t:b: t:k m:aúb:ap: hòø.
   'Parents are parents (only) so long as they take care of their children.'

   (from Chapter Twelve of   g:aðdan:. See context.)

2.  z:m:iødari em:X j:ay:,  b:òøkG:r XÝX j:ay:û,  l:ðekn: j:j:m:an:i Ant: t:k b:n:i rhðg:i.  j:b: t:k ehndÜj:at:i rhðg:i,  t:b: t:k b:ÒÉN: B:i rhðøg:ð Aaòr j:j:m:an:i B:i rhðg:i.
   'The landlord system may disappear, the banks may collapse, but patron-client system will remain till the end. As long as there are Hindus, there will be Brahmans. And there will be patrons and clients.'

   (from Chapter Twenty-three of   g:aðdan:. See context.)

B. If the  j:b: t:k clause expresses an action or event seen as a point in time or as something that can be thought of as defining a limit to the activity (3) or state (4) expressed by the  t:b: t:k clause, then  j:b: t:k translates as either 'until' or 'unless':

3.   . . .  j:b: t:k un:kñ haT: ka kaòr n: p:a l:ðt:i,  K:_i t:akt:i rht:i.
     '...she would (just) stand there and keep looking until she received a morsel from his hand.'

     (from Chapter Eight of   g:aðdan:. See context.)

4.  j:b: t:k kaðI eS:kar haT: n: Aa j:aO hm:ðø Aaram: krn:ð ka AeD:kar n:hiø.
     'We don't have any right to take it easy until we get our hands on some game.'

     (from Chapter Seven of   g:aðdan:. See context.)

(to be continued)

To exercise on  j:b: t:k . . . and  t:b: t:k . . .
To index of grammatical notes.

To index of Mellon Project.

First part drafted and posted 5 Feb 2001. Second part 15 Feb 2001.