y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

Notes on V- n:ð p:r and V- n:ð s:ð .

      V- n:ð p:r and V- n:ð s:ð can be regarded as mutually opposed complementizers (ways of attaching one verb to another).  V- n:ð p:r is governed by verbs and phrases like  ut:a- haðn:a and  t:Øl:a hØAa haðn:a which express an inclination toward doing something:

1. t:Øm: Vy:aðø l:_aI krn:ð p:r ut:a- hað rhð hað,  j:i ?   Ap:n:i rah Vy:aðø n:hiø j:at:ð ?
   'Why are you so intent on picking a fight, Mister? Why don't you just keep on walking?'

   (from Chapter Twelve of  )ðm:c:nd's g:aðdan:. See context.)

2. y:h s:b: AB:i t:k K:ðt: m:ðø Vy:aðø hòø ?  Vy:a kam: kñ p:iCð s:b: j:an: dðn:ð p:r t:Øl:ð hØO hòø ?
   'Why was everyone still in the field? Were they determined to kill themselves working?'

   (from Chapter Three of  g:aðdan:. See context.)

   V-n:ð s:ð comes with verbs like kt:ran:a and m:n:a krn:a expressing disinclination or refusal:

3. unhðø fÙs:üt: km: t:að n:hiø hò. ePr B:i hm:s:ð em:l:n:ð s:ð kt:rat:ð hòø.
   'They have all the time in the world, yet they still avoid seeing us.'

4. m:hri ekt:n:i s:Øst: hað g:I hò. Aaj: b:rt:n: m:aúj:n:ð s:ð B:i m:n:a kr edy:a.
   'How lazy the maid has gotten. Today she even refused to scrub the pots.'

   A similar opposition is found between verbs like  raz:i haðn:a /  raz:i kran:a,  uks:an:a, and  m:j:b:Ür krn:a expressing persuasion, instigation and compulsion on the one hand:

5.   eks:an: Aakr YakØr kñ c:rNa p:k_kr raðn:ð l:g:t:a hò.
   b:_i m:ØeSkl: s:ð YakØr ,p:O dðn:ð p:r raz:i haðt:ð hòø.

    'A peasant bows down and, clutching the Thakur's feet, begins to weep.
     Only with great difficulty is the Thakur persuaded to lend him money.'

   (from Chapter Twenty-one of  g:aðdan:. See context.)
6. us:ð B:aúg: K:an:ð p:r us:kñ y:ar-daðst: uks:a dðt:ð haðøg:ð.
   'It's probably his buddies who put him up to taking bhang.'

versus on the other hand verbs such as raðkn:a and c:Ükn:a expressing prevention (7) or restraint (8):

7. D:en:y:a n:ð s:b:kað s:Øn:a-s:Øn:akr kh edy:a -- eks:i n:ð us:ð p:an:i B:rn:ð s:ð raðka, t:að us:ka Aaòr Ap:n:a Q:Ün: Ok kr dðg:i.
   'Dhaniya told every one of them in no uncertain terms: If anyone tried to stop her from getting water (from a certain high-caste well) she'd cut them to pieces.'

   (from Chapter Eleven of   g:aðdan:. See context.)

8. hm:n:ð s:aðc: el:y:a T:a ek j:haú t:k b:n:ðg:a v:h Aag: l:g:an:ð s:ð n: c:Ükñg:a, Aaòr AeQ:r y:hi hØAa.
   'I thought he'd stir up as much trouble (there) as he possibly could and that's exactly what happened.'

   (from section 1.21 of   c:ndrkant:a.
   Occasionally the meaning of the governing verb is determined by the complementizer choice:

9. B:ÜK: unhðø z:b:rdst:i edn: B:r kam: krn:ð p:r m:j:b:Ür krt:i hò.
   'Hunger forces them to work all day whether they want to or not.'

10. Ezz:t: ki raðXi K:an:ð s:ð dØen:y:a m:j:b:Ür kr dðt:i hò . (Delhi street vendor)
   'The world prevents us from earning a respectable living.'

   With some verbs that take V- n:ð p:r, it is possible to use V- n:ð kað or V- n:ð kñ el:y:ð instead:
11. v:h s:aT: dðn:ð / p:r / / kað / / kñ el:O / raz:i hað g:I.
   'She agreed to come along.'

V- n:ð s:ð sometimes [as in (12a)] alternates with V- n:a and ka of subject: [as in (12b)]:
12a. m:Ües:b:t:ðø us:ð Es: j:nm: m:ðø s:ÜK: )apt: krn:ð s:ð raðkt:i j:aOúg:i.
12b. m:Ües:b:t:ðø us:ka Es: j:nm: m:ðø s:ÜK: )apt: krn:a raðkt:i j:aOúg:i.
   'Misfortune will continue to prevent / him from finding / / his finding / happiness in this life.'

   In similar fashion V- n:ð p:r sometimes alternates with V- n:ð kað or with V- n:ð kñ el:O:
13a.   . . .  m:ØJ:s:ð )ðm: krt:i hò.   m:ðri haðn:ð kað raz:i hò.
13b.                                    . . .      m:ðri haðn:ð / p:r / / kñ el:y:ð / raz:i hò.
   ' . . . she loves me. She is ready and willing to be mine.'

   [(13a) from Chapter Five of   g:aðdan:. See context.]
Exercise on V- n:ð p:r and V- n:ð s:ð.
Back to index of grammatical notes.

Back to index of Mellon Project.

These notes are an adapted and augmented version of section 23A of Hindi Structures: Intermediate Level, published in 1979 by the Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan, and distributed by the University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.

Posted on 12 Jan 2001. Corrected by KJ on 15 Jan 2001. Augmented on 16 Jan 2001.