y:Üen:v:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

Attaching verb to verb with V-n:ð ka and V-n:ð ki.

    One of the ways one verb can be attached to another in Hindi-Urdu is with the postposition  ka  (or  ki ):
1.  unhaðøn:ð hm:ðS:a j:n:t:a kñ s:aT: em:l:ð rhn:ð ki kaðeS:S: ki T:i.
      'He had always tried to remain a man of the people.'

      (from Chapter Twenty-eight of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

2.  c:aòb:is: G:NXð kñ Andr m:Ølk s:ð en:kl: j:an:ð ka hØVm: hØAa.
      'He was ordered to leave the country within twenty-four hours.'

      (from Chapter Six of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

This way of linking verb to verb is governed by verbal expressions that contain nouns.  The choice between  ka or  ki  is determined by the gender of the contained (or incorporated) noun.  In (3) the noun  Ent:z:ar is masculine, hence  b:rs:n:ð ka.  In (4) the noun  )t:ix:a is feminine, hence  en:kl:n:ð ki:

3.  eks:an: p:an:i b:rs:n:ð ka Ent:z:ar kr rhð hðø.
     'The farmers are waiting for it to rain.'

4.  XÝersX D:Üp: en:kl:n:ð ki )t:ix:a kr rhð hòø.
      'The tourists are waiting for the sun to come out.'

The verb  s:aðc:  is exceptional:  In the meaning of 'to think of (doing something)' or 'to plan on (doing something)'  s:aðc: governs  ki  even though no noun is contained:

5.  kB:i l:_kaðø kñ s:aT: rhn:ð ki s:aðc:t:ð hòø  kB:i l:K:n:U j:akr rhn:ð ki s:aðc:t:ð hòø.
     'Sometimes he thinks of staying with the children; sometimes, of going to live in Lucknow.'

      (from Chapter Twenty-six of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

    Some of the expressions governing V- n:ð ka  or V- n:ð ki  also govern  k:ð  or  ka  of experiencing agent:

6.  t:Ømhðø dv:a ep:l:an:ð ka m:rz: hò.
    'You are addicted to dispensing medicines.'

   (from Chapter Eighteen of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

7.  m:ØJ:ð dðv:i b:n:n:ð ki EcCa n:hiø hò.
    'I have no wish to become a goddess.'

   (from Chapter Seven of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

8.  J:Øen:y:a ka m:n: B:i AB:i kÙC edn: y:haú rhn:ð ka T:a.
    'Jhuniyâ too felt like staying here for a few days now.'

   (from Chapter Thirty-six of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

    While most instances of V-n:ð ka  depend on a noun there are a few that depend on an adjective:

9.  l:_ka edn:-B:r Aaúg:n: m:ðø y:a ¾ar p:r K:ðl:n:ð ka Aadi T:a.
    'The boy was accustomed to playing all day in the courtyard or by the door.'

   (from Chapter Twenty-seven of  g:aðdan:.  See context.)

An earlier version of these notes appears as § 9B of  Hindi Structures, p 75.

To cloze exercise.

To English => Hindi translation exercise.

To index of grammatical notes.

To index of  m:lhar.

Keyed in by  ev:v:ðk Ag:rv:al: mid June 2001. Posted 20-21 June 2001. Augmented 7 May 2002.