y:Ün:iv:es:ýXi Aaôf em:eS:g:n:

Attaching verb to verb:  review of complementizers.

(adapted from Chapter Three of  Hindi Structures, pp 15-7.)

      The term complementizer refers to the way in which a non-finite form verb may be attached to another verb.  In English this is usually done in one of two ways, by using the preposition to to make the "long" infinitive ('Jane wants to sing.') or by using the bare stem to make the "short" infinitive ('June can dance.')  In parallel fashion the Hindi-Urdu verb  c:ah  'want' governs (or "takes") the long infinitive (V- n:a ):
  1.  ram: g:an:a c:aht:a hò.         'Ram wants to sing.'     ( g:an:a  = V- n:a )
while  s:k  'can, be able' takes the short infinitive (V):
  2.  Sy:am: n:ac: s:kt:a hò.      'Shyam can dance.'     ( n:ac:  = V )
      Hindi-Urdu has yet other complementizers:  The verb    'let, allow' takes the oblique form of the long infinitive V- n:ð :
  3.  us:ð j:an:ð dað.                 'Let him go.'     ( j:an:ð  = V- n:ð )
while the verb  kh  governs the oblique infinitive plus  kað :
  4.  us:s:ð ,kn:ð kað khað.        'Tell him to stop.'     ( ,kn:ð kað  = V- n:ð  +  kað )
     Hindi-Urdu has in all 8 or 9 complementizers or ways of joining verb to verb, and careful attention must be paid to which way is proper for which governing verb.  Usually there are no rules for the choice.  (See, however, notes on V- n:ð p:r  and V- n:ð s:ð .)  Nor can the information be looked up in dictionaries.  It has to be learnt by heart, a few verbs at a time.  Some of these are listed here, grouped by complementizer:

Set A.   Verbs governing the long infinitive V- n:a :
 5.   c:ah  t:Øm: eks:ð l:an:a c:aht:ð hað ?  'Who do you want to bring?' 
 6.   j:an:   v:h p:`n:a j:an:t:i hò.  'She knows how to read.' 
 7.   p:_  t:Ømhðø g:ay: l:an:i p:_ðg:i.   'You'll have to bring the cow.' 
 8.   c:aehO   un:kað ,kn:a c:aehy:ð.  'They should stop.' 
 9.   S:Ø- kr  el:K:n:a S:Ø- krað.   'Start writing!' 
10.   b:nd kr   es:g:rðX p:in:a b:nd krað.  'Stop smoking.' 
11.   hað  m:ØJ:ð Ab: c:l:n:a hò.   'I have to go now.' 
12.   s:iK:   n:ac:n:a s:iK:aðg:ð ?  'Will you learn to dance?' 
13.   Aa  el:K:n:a Aat:a hò.   'I know how to write.' 
14.   Cað_   b:kn:a Cað_ dð !  'Quit your jabbering!' 

Set B.   Verbs governing the short infinitive V:

15.   s:k  t:Øm: y:hv:al:a l:ð s:kt:i hað.  'You can take this one.' 
16.   c:Øk   v:h m:ØJ:ð b:t:a c:Øka hò.  'He's already told me.' 
17.   p:a  p:Øel:s: us:ð p:k_ n:hiø p:aI.   'The police couldn't catch him.' 

Set C.   Verbs governing V- n:ð  (the long infinitive in the oblique):
18.     unhðø G:r l:aòXn:ð dað.  'Let them go back home.' 
19.   l:g:   p:an:i b:rs:n:ð l:g:a.  'It began to rain.' 

Set D.   Verbs governing V- n:ð  plus  kað :
20.   kh  didi s:ð Aan:ð kað khað.  'Tell Didi to come.' 
21.   t:òy:ar hað   c:l:n:ð kað t:òy:ar hÜú.  'I'm ready to go.' 
22.   em:l:   dðK:n:ð kað em:l:ðg:a.  'You'll get to see it.' 
23.   m:n:   c:l:n:ð kað m:n: hò ?  'Want to come along?' 


To index of grammatical notes.

To index of m:lhar.

Keyed in 16 & 18 Sept 2001. Posted 19 Sept 2001.